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    Ingles 2 Ingles 2 Document Transcript

    • MEDICAL ENGLISH 2011-I MEDICAL ENGLISH TYPES OF DRUGS DR. ROSA GONZALES LLONTOP UNPRG FACULTAD MEDICINA HUMANAUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO 2011-I 1 Página
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH INTEGRANTES: CALLIRGOS LOZADA CLAUDIA CAROLINA CARRANZA TORRES YESSICA HUAMAN SEMINARIO YASMINA DEL PILAR PALACIOS APAESTEGUI ALBERTO PEREZ PEREZ SANDRA GUISSELY ZAMORA TALAVERANO EVA MARIAUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 2
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH MARIJUANA1. CONCEPT AND ORIGINMarijuana is a psychoactive substance obtained from the cannabis sativa,a wild bush that grows in temperate and tropical zones, extracting its resinhashish, and marijuana leaves. His most important psychoactivecomponent is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta-9-THC), containing morethan sixty plant related components.2. TYPES2.1. RAW: This is the type most widely consumed, with 3-22% THC2.2. PROCESSED FORMS:QUIFA: The Quifa is a powder that can be sieved from the leaves andflowers of cannabis plants. It is consumed either as a powder orcompressed form to prepare cakes of hashish.Hashish, a concentrated resin is produced from the flowers of the cannabis.It can be eaten or chewed.Hash oil: This oil is a blend of essential oils and resins extracted from maturecannabis flowers through the use of different solvents. It has a high ratio ofcannabinoids, between 40-90%, and is used in a variety of foods fromcannabis.Resin Waste: Waste collected in a pipe. The build has some psychoactiveproperties, but it is difficult to use because it causes irritation to the throatand lungs.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 3
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHOne suggestion from harm reduction, waste is not to consume anysubstance combustion, by the accumulation of carcinogens andmutagens.3. MODES OF ADMINISTRATIONCannabis is consumed in many different ways, most of which involveinhaling smoke from small pipes, bongs (portable version of the hookah withwater chamber), wrapped in paper or wrapped in leaf snuff dull. Cannabishas also been used as an active ingredient in tablets, extracts, tinctures andmedicines were formulated compound that professional, manufacturedand sold to doctors and hospitals.4. MECHANISM OF ACTIONThe initial metabolism of cannabinoids in marijuana smoke occurs in thelungs, while oral cannabinoids are metabolized in the gastrointestinal tractand liver. More than 30 metabolites of THC and 20 each of cannabinol andcannabidiol. Many of these metabolites are also psychoactive. One of themain psychoactive metabolite is 9-carboxy-THC, which crosses the bloodbrain barrier more easily than other THC, and therefore may be more activein the THC, thus the neural level action.5. TABLE ADDICTIVEThe long-term use of marijuana can lead toaddiction, ie search and compulsive drug usedespite knowing its harmful effects on socialfunctioning in the family, school, work andrecreation. People who have consumedmarijuana for a long time report irritability,difficulty sleeping, decreased appetite, anxietyUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 4
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHand cravings, all of which makes it difficult to stop using it. These withdrawalsymptoms begin about the day after initiating abstinence, reaching a peakafter two or three days, and dim one or two weeks after having used thedrug last. COCAINE1. CONCEPT AND ORIGINCocaine is an alkaloid derived from the coca plant. Its a nervous systemstimulant and hunger suppressant, was used in medicine as an anesthetic,even in children, specifically in eye and nose surgery but is currentlyprohibited. A central nervous system, specifically acting as an inhibitor ofthe reuptake of serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine, increasing the effectof these neurotransmitters, causing different actions at the systemic level.In most countries, cocaine is a prohibited drug.2. STYLESThere are basically two chemical forms of cocaine salts and crystals ofcocaine (as freebase or crack). Hydrochloride, the most common form ofpowder cocaine, dissolves in water, and when abused, can be usedintravenously (into a vein) or intranasally (nose). The free base refers to acompound that has not been neutralized by acid to produce thecorresponding salt. This form of cocaine can be smoked, and does notdecompose as it does the hydrochloride.3. EFFECTS AND MEDICAL PURPOSESCocaine increases the risk of thrombosis, stroke and myocardial infarction,accelerates atherosclerosis and causes transient paranoia in most addicts.Continued use by nasal aspiration of cocaine (snorting) can cause nasalUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 5
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHcongestion, ulceration of the mucous membrane, to even perforation ofthe nasal septum. While cocaine produces increased sexual arousal canalso cause sexual impotence or erectile dysfunction. Cocaine can causecardiovascular complications in the arteries of the heart and brain, whichcan cause heart attack.Cocaine is the best known local anesthetic. Due to the high danger ofaddiction and marked toxicity is not used more. Cocaine serves as asubstance for many local anesthetics such as lidocaine, benzocaine andescandicaína.When using the intranasal route the onset of action is within two minutes(five to ten minutes when using the IV) and the maximum effect occursbetween fifteen and twenty minutes up to an hour. When administration isoral absorption rate is low and the duration of action is prolonged.4. ADDICTIONCocaine is a very potent drug for the brain, people who use it becomeaddicted.Some of the most serious common problems caused by large doses and /or constant consumption are:• Heart problems, including heart• Respiratory effects, including respiratory failure• nervous system problems, including stroke• Digestive problems including constipationWithdrawal Syndrome: Caused by the cessation of drug use and has threephases:UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 6
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHCrash: severe depression, agitation, anxiety, sleep, hyperphagia andrestless sleep for three or four nights.Abstinence: anergy, anhedonia, intense need to take drugs, improvedbetween 16 and 18 weeks.Extinction: in acutely (suddenly, leaving the drug is abruptly) are seizures,heart arrhythmia, tremors, irritability, hallucinations, palpitations,hypertension, sweating, and hyperreflexia. ALCOHOL AS A DRUGIt is a drug because it can generate at least one of these threephenomena: dependence, tolerance and / or withdrawal symptoms.UNIT: The desire of the consumer to "continue consuming a drug" becausehe feels pleasure or to reduce tension or avoid an upset.GRACE: When you need increasing amounts of the drug to feel the sameeffect as the previous times. Thats why when one is not accustomed todrinking alcohol is drunk faster and with less.Withdrawal: Occurs when drinking stops abruptly and is manifested clinicallyby tremor, sweating, tachycardia and anxiety.EFFECTS OF ALCOHOL  Physical Effects Alcohol is not exposed to any process of digestion so that most of the small intestine first passes and then be absorbed by the bloodstream. Only a small portion goes directly into the bloodstream through the stomach walls. In the blood alcohol is metabolizedUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 7
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH (broken down to be removed or used by the body) through the process of oxidation. That is, it merges with oxygen and breaks down so that its basic elements leave the body as carbon dioxide and water. The first oxidation is the liver, which breaks down approximately 50% of alcohol consumed in one hour. The rest remains in the bloodstream to be removed slowly.  Psychological Effects Alcohol first affects the central nervous system and excessive and prolonged interference can cause brain damage. It is popularly believed that alcohol increases arousal, but many actually depresses brain centers. The feeling of excitement precisely because the depressed some brain centers reduce tensions and inhibitions and the person experiences feelings of sociability expanded or euphoria. Therefore it is said that alcohol "anesthesia, internal auditing." However, if the alcohol concentration exceeds certain levels in the blood interferes with higher mental processes so that visual perception is distorted, motor coordination, balance, speech and vision also suffer heavy damage. Heavy amounts of alcohol reduce body aches and pains and induce sleep. But continuous use irritates the stomach lining even to develop ulcers.Additionally tends to accumulate fat in the liver, interfering with its operation. In chronic alcoholics are raised serious brain disorders, liver (cirrhosis) and cardiovascular (increased blood pressure and thus the risk of a heart attack). Even, there is evidence that alcohol increases the level of triglycerides (saturated fat or vegetable in the arteries) and with it the risk of a heart attack. Finally, as is well known, alcohol causes physical addiction and psychological dependence.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 8
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH What harm caused by alcohol in the body?At any given time depend on its concentration in the blood which in turn isdetermined by the following factors: amount ingested over a period oftime, presence or absence of food in the stomach to retain the alcohol andreduce its absorption rate, weight body, liver and efficiency of the personwho eatsHEALTH HAZARDSToxic amounts of alcohol has different effects in the body, most of themnegative, because the only thing positive is that it helps to lower bloodcholesterol.A nervous system: In the acute consumption, depending on the amountand type of person are altered progressively higher functions, especially thepractice and attention, which is why it is advisable not to drive whileintoxicated, other are alterations in language and memory. In the chronicconsumption: it has been shown that in addition to some alterations inhigher functions already described, there is damage to nerve cells, andmany of them die, this demonstrated that the brain of an alcoholic formany years weighing less than a non-alcoholic.In the digestive system: the most affected organ is the liver, about 20% ofalcoholic cirrhosis ends. The liver also can suffer steatosis or alcoholichepatitis. Drinkers patients who have hepatitis B, have more risk to lead tocirrhosis than those who do not drink alcohol and have had a history ofhepatitis B.It is more likely that smoking next to the cancer occurs in the mouth.The acute consumption is one of the causes of erosive gastritis, which canresult in gastrointestinal bleeding is an emergency, it is also why a personUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 9
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHwith acid peptic disease (gastritis or peptic ulcer) is prohibited from drinkingalcohol completely.The pancreas also can be affected, alcohol is the main cause of bothacute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis.In the immune system, are described as an alcoholic has diminisheddefenses and is easier to get sick.In the cardiovascular system have been described cardiomyopathies as aresult of alcohol consumption, and increases in blood pressure after acuteingestion. Wine consumption (2 glasses per day at most helps to lowerblood cholesterol), knowledgeable about addiction doctors do notrecommend that, until you have exhausted other possibilities to lowercholesterol and have ruled out any possibility of addiction to alcohol .In the skeletal system: It is said that favors the development of osteoporosis.In the endocrine system: Alcohol promotes the secretion of prolactin, whichis why long time in alcohol, the test, we sometimes find little lactea secretionfrom the nipples. Gynecomastia is described in some of them.In the reproductive system: In heavy drinkers have found cases ofimpotence in men and infertility in women.In the pregnant woman: fetal alcohol syndrome, which in a severe form oftheir presentation, the newborn presented low weight and craniofacialmalformations. And in a mild form of the fetal alcohol sndrome, can beperceptible and manifest later with minor learning disorders. So it isabsolutely forbidden to drink alcohol during pregnancy.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 10
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH SNUFFThe snuff is a plant product obtained from the leaves of various plants of thegenus Nicotiana, Nicotiana tabacum in particular). Is consumed in variousforms, the main drag. His particular nicotine content makes it addictive.Lawfully marketed worldwide but has many restrictions to smoke in manycountries because it has adverse effects on public health.Its composition is formed by the alkaloid nicotine, which is found in theleaves in variable proportions (from less than 1% to 12%). The rest is calledtar, a dark, resinous substance made up of various chemicals, many ofwhich are generated as a result of combustion (hydrogen cyanide, carbonmonoxide, carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxide, ammonia, etc.)EFFECTS OF SNUFFThe snuff is a central nervous system stimulant that, however, producesrelaxation addicts. Smoking increases the tolerance (it holds more), so thatacute effects (dizziness, vomiting, sweating), becoming less noticeable.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 11
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHPsychologically, nicotine facilitates concentration, memory and active tosome extent, controlling weight gain by increasing energy expenditure,reduce the sense of smell and taste, and keep busy in the smoker smokinginstead of eating. Each person also has its special considerations regardingthe snuff feelings attached to them.On a physical level, nicotine increases heart rate, respiratory rate, bloodpressure and coronary flow. During the combustion of snuff, some of itselements are transformed into carbon monoxide, poisonous emissionscontributing to the emergence of heart disease. When carbon monoxideenters the bloodstream, tends to replace the oxygen in red blood cellsforming carboxyhemoglobin. In smokers, up to 10% of the total hemoglobincan be carboxyhemoglobin, which is to say that their tissues are 10% lessoxygen.HEALTH HAZARDSSmoking increases 10 times the chance of developing a myocardialinfarction. 85% of deaths from lung cancer is directly related to smoking.The consumption of snuff is the leading cause of preventable disease andpreventable mortality in developed countries. Children of smokers are 70%more likely to be hospitalized for respiratory diseases. Finally, the weight ofnewborns whose mothers smoked less compared with those children ofnonsmokers.It is also the snuff causing 80% mortality from chronic lung processes.In the snuff found multiple substances that are largely unhealthy. Theseinclude their adverse effects:Tars (benzopyrene and nitrosamine) accounted for 30% of all cancers(bladder, kidney, pancreas, stomach, etc.) and 90% of lung cancer.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 12
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHCarbon monoxide, which is responsible for more than 15% of cardiovasculardisease.Nicotine produces physical dependence. Some of the diseases producedare:  Cardiovascular Disease:Smoking has an effect on the arteries of medium and small size areresponsible for distributing blood throughout the body, so that the conditionof this system (cardiovascular tree) affects all organs of the body noble, soarise following cardiovascular disease:Infarction or angina pectoris: Increased constriction of the arteries (spasms)and platelet aggregation (accumulation of cells that favor clot formation)predispose to these problems in the circulation of the coronary arteries. Therelease of substances that speed up the heart and pressure in the contextof a diseased heart predisposes to sudden death. For this reason it is notpossible to make a reliable prognosis of those patients who smoke, even iftheir laboratory or instrumental tests are normal.  Cerebrovascular Disease:It is due to a lack of blood coming temporarily or permanently a portion ofthe brain that causes mass known pictures of hemiplegia, stroke,paraplegia, paresis, and so on. The cause of these conditions isatherosclerosis, stenosis and thrombosis of arteries supplying the brain,which undergo the same process described occlusion in the coronaryarteries.  Sleep DisordersPeople who smoke have more sleep problems than nonsmokers. In general,besides more sleep difficulties also experience more changes during it,which leads them to sleep worse and less sleep. This causes many smokersUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 13
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHare drowsy, irritable and tired during the day. To counter this, just moresmoke, which creates a vicious circle that is very difficult to leave if youcontinue to smoke.The origin of these sleep disorders can be diseases or disorders caused bysnuff. But in the very act of smoking, combining multiple factors includingthe stimulant effects of nicotine cravings that occurs during sleep, highblood pressure and pulse rate (typical of the smoker) and as its tendency totake stimulants such as coffee.While only one in five non-smokers snore, almost half of those who smokeregularly do something that keeps going to leave the snuff.Improved sleep evidently obtained after cutting to snuff, although duringthe first days as a result of withdrawal (which disappears soon afterquitting), it is common for these disorders are even more pronouncedduring a short time.  Peripheral vascular diseaseSmoking is closely related to the condition known as intermittentclaudication or "glass disease" characterized by pain in one or two of thelegs when walking, forcing you to stop and hide looking glass. The extremedegree of this disease involves lesions of the foot and limb gangrenerequiring amputation. This disease is mediated by the atherosclerotic lesion(occlusion by fat and blood clots) of the arteries of the limbs. The regressionresults in cessation of symptoms and improvement of the disease when it isnot terminal. The outcome of palliative surgery for this disease is muchbetter if accompanied by the cessation of snuff.  Pulmonary Disease:Smoking has a direct relation with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease -COPD (is reported in 80-90% of patients who suffer from this condition),UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 14
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHwhich in advanced stages have high mortality from respiratory failure. Alsothe smoker is exposed more to chronic bronchitis by the irritant effect ofsnuff components in contact with the bronchial cells. This predisposes toinfection by bacterial and of course, cancer (see later). Also exposed togreater inflammatory nasal, throat and other respiratory infections.  Hormonal Problems:Women who smoke enter menopause about 5 years earlier thannonsmokers. Smoking and nicotine may alter the amount of hormonesrelated to reproductive function. Male smokers have reduced the mobilityof their sperm. Women are at higher risk for osteoporosis  Cancer:The annual mortality from cancer due to smoking is 30% (of the total of alldeaths from this disease). Lung cancer has increased 250% from 1950 to1992. There is a causal relationship between smoking and lung cancer. Thisrelationship was also found for cancer of the mouth, larynx, esophagus,bladder, kidney, stomach, pancreas, cervix, and blood. Cigarette smoke isa complex mixture of more than 4000 components, many mutagenic andcarcinogenic.  Hypertension and Smoking:Epidemiological studies show that the average blood pressure in smokers ishigher than in non-smokers. It has likewise shown a sharp increase in bloodpressure after smoking a cigarette.  Impotence and snuff:Smoking is one of the oldest inhabited implicated as responsible for erectiledysfunction (difficulty with erection). The effect of nicotine on erectile tissueconstrictor (the arteries close), both corporal smooth muscle withconsequent difficulty to relax during the phase of tumescence, and at theUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 15
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHlevel with decreased vascular dilation of the arteries, necessary to increaseblood flow into the corpus cavernosum (muscle of the penis). Studies usingcolor Doppler evidence allowed the reduction of the caliber of thecavernous arteries.Smoking more than 7 cigarettes per day produces vasoconstrictive effectson the penile arteries, as well as promote atherosclerosis. The impotencesmoking patient has 50% more than non-smokers and 70% of impotent menare smokers.the condition of This system (cardiovascular tree) Affects all Organs of thebody noble, so Arise Following cardiovascular disease:Infarction or angina pectoris: increased constriction of the arteries (Spasms)and platelet aggregation (Accumulation of cells for clot formation That)predispose to These Problems in the circulation of the coronary arteries. Therelease of Substance That speed up the heart and pressure in the context ofa diseased heart predisposed to sudden death. For This reason it is notpossible to make a reliable prognosis of Those Patients Who Smoke, Even IfTheir laboratory or instrumental tests are normal.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 16
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH ECSTASYEcstasy is a psychoactive drug with stimulant properties and empathogensbitter taste. today is known XTC, MDMA is also sold under the followingnames: In the United States: E, Euphoria or Adam, in Mexico: Cross, in Spain:Dolphin Pasti, Pajarito, sun, tulip, Star . MDMA is particularized by a sense ofemotional openness and affective identification with the other. Thisproperty would be mediated by increased levels of the neurotransmitterserotonin in neuronal synapses and other neurotransmitters, especiallynorepinephrine and to a lesser extent, dopamine. Serotonin activity isfunctionally related to mood and mood. A.)ORIGIN OF ECSTASYIn 1912 the company accidentally isolated Merck MDMA (3,4-metilendioximetanfeta-mine), not finding a specific medical application,abandoned their research labs. Between 1953 and 1954 the U.S. militarytook over the investigation. was not until the 80s, when the likes of theAmerican chemist Alexander Shulguin, he found his MDMA terapéuticos.Elsignificant benefits achieved great popularity among Californiaunderground culture and nightclubs. The sellers, in a marketing action,renamed it the ecstasy. In 1985, the U.S. government declared this illegalsubstance even though many scientists argue over their properties to bringout thoughts and repressed memories. B.) INTAKE FORMSThe most common way of ingesting it orally.When presented in the form of pills, absorption isfaster and more complete if it is placed underthe tongue, in the case of capsules, regularlyUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 17
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHdissolve in water or fruit juices. An alternative way of taking is throughaspiration, in which case it produces a more immediate effect but itsduration is reduced. The effects becoming apparent between 20 and 60minutes after ingestion, its peak action occurs between one and two hourslater, after which it gradually decreases until it disappears within four to sixhours. On reaching the brain, MDMA causes the release of dopamine andnorepinephrine. It stimulates the central nervous system causing changes inthe emotional sphere. C.)THERAPEUTIC USESBeing classified as a entactogens (intersubjective contact generator atdeep levels), several psychologists and psychiatrists included in theirtherapy reported excellent results to uncover repressed memories, helpspeople to get in touch with feelings not usually available. Dr. Ingrici,Cambridge professor who used the drug with more than 500 patients, foundvery useful to cure fears, increase self-esteem and facilitatescommunication, so that one of his best courses of action is in the pairs whowant to know themselves to develop their personalities. D) EFFECTS OF ECSTASY o Physical:Energy, high sensitivity and reduced anxiety to physical contact, greatertolerance to fatigue, tachycardia, arrhythmia and hypertension, loss ofappetite, dry mouth, sweating, dehydration, hyperthermia, increasedalertness, insomnia. At high doses it produces nausea, vomiting, tremors,motor hyperactivity, chills and severe dehydration or heart problems mayexperience acute renal failure, which could lead to death.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 18
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH o Psychological:Anxiety, irritability, feelings of euphoria, pleasure state, a feeling of empathywith others, talkativeness, omnipotence. High doses can produce anxiety,panic, confusion, insomnia, psychosis and severe visual or auditoryhallucinations.When these sensations fade, comes exhaustion, fatigue, anxiety anddepression, conditions which can last several days. Given the large numberof people who are supposed to have used ecstasy in the last decades, thisdrug can lead to abuse and dependence. E.)HEALTH HAZARDSHigh doses can cause agitation, seizures, dehydration, vomiting andhallucinations. Ecstasy affects thedomestic production of theneurotransmitter serotonin, one of themechanisms through which regulatesbody temperature, so when the effectsof ecstasy are combined with physicalactivity like dancing, you mayexperience a loss of control bodytemperature and suffer what is knownby the name of "heat stroke" anddehydrated.In order to combat dehydration and re-hydrate the body, people need toregulate the amount of liquids they consume. However, it is estimated thatecstasy also has the ability to distort the brains ability to know when aperson has taken enough fluids. This is why excessive consumption of watercan also cause a distortion in the cellular structure with subsequent cellUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 19
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHdeath in some cases. Many vital organs like the liver, heart, lungs and brainare particularly susceptible to this distortion of cell structure.Ecstasy can in some cases able to produce a "hangover effect" the dayafter having used it. Symptoms may include:* Muscle aches.* Loss of appetite.* Insomnia.* Loss of concentration.* DepressionEcstasy does not produce physical dependence. However, this does notpreclude its use can become problematic for the life of those who take itregularly and systematically. HEROINHeroin is a highly addictive drug and illegal inmost countries. It belongs to opiates, which isthe most abused and most rapidly actingand is classified, like them, within thesubstances central nervous systemdepressants. Heroin is made from morphine,which is found naturally in the Papaversomniferum, where leave is taken and latex (opium). Usually sold as white orbrownish powder or as a sticky black substance known on the streets as"glue" or "black tar".UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 20
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHIn 1883, Heinrich Dreser (chemical), isolated a new opiate morphineclorhidrato thanks, getting diacetylmorphine, which is the scientific name ofthe heroine. was initially thought of heroin as a substitute for morphine,which produced great addition, and for that reason his name was chosen.Soon it was shown that this compound addiction was stronger comparedwith morphineSome are natural opiates (morphine, opium and codeine) and others aresynthetic (made in the laboratory from the poppy) Demerol, methadone,heroin is an opiate etc.La semi - synthetic: it is produced from morphinethrough a chemical process and is about 3 times stronger than this. A.)EFFECTS OF HEROINThe short-term effects of heroin abuse appear soon after the first dose anddisappear in a few hours. After an injection of the drug, the user says hefeels an outbreak of euphoria ("rush") accompanied by a warm flushing ofthe skin, dry mouth and heavy extremities. After this initial euphoria, the useris "flying" ("on the nod"), a state in wakefulness alternating with drowsinessand mental faculties are disturbed due to the central nervous systemdepression.Heroin causes the following effects: sedation, euphoria, analgesia,respiratory depression (major cause of death by overdose of this substanceusers), suppression of cough fulminant (Bayer advertising in the 20 highlightsthis fact), miosis Nausea and vomiting, gastrointestinal effects,cardiovascular, kidney, urinary.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 21
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH B.)HEALTH HAZARDSHeroin addiction can have serious health consequences, including fataloverdose, spontaneous abortion, collapsed veins, and infectious diseases,including HIV / AIDS and hepatitis.The effects of long-term heroin appear after the drug has been usedrepeatedly for some period of time. The chronic user may suffer collapsedveins, infection of the endocardium and heart valves, abscesses, cellulitis,and liver disease. There may be pulmonary complications, including varioustypes of pneumonia as a result of poor state of health of the abuser, as wellas the heroins depressing effects on respiration. In addition to the effects ofthe drug, heroin sold on the street may have additives that do not dissolveeasily and clog the blood vessels to the lungs, liver, kidneys or brain. This cancause infection or even death of small patches of cells in these vital organs. C.) TOLERANCE, ADDICTION AND WITHDRAWALThe regular heroin use produces tolerance to the drug, which means theabuser must use more to get the same intensity or effect. This use of higherdoses leads, over time, physical dependence, in which the body, havingadapted to the presence of the drug, withdrawal symptoms may occur ifreduced or abandoned their use.Abstinence, as in the regular addict can occur as early as several hoursafter the last administration of heroin, causes a desire to use the drug,restlessness, muscle aches and bone pain, insomnia, diarrhea and vomiting,cold flashes with goose bumps ("cold turkey"), in the form of kickingmovements ("kicking the habit") and other symptoms. Among these, themain peak by 48 hours to 72 hours after the last dose and subside after aweek or so. The sudden withdrawal users who rely heavily on drugs and areUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 22
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHin poor health sometimes fatal, although it is believed that the suppressionof heroin is much less dangerous than alcohol and barbiturates.D.) HOW TO TREAT HEROIN ADDICTION?. Addiction to opiates (drugs related to opium) are brain diseases anddisorders that they can be effectively treated. The first doctors stronglyrecommend greater access to maintenance treatment programs on thebasis of painkiller called methadone to people who are addicted to heroinand other opiate drugs, and second the elimination of federal and statelaws and other barriers, that impede access to these programs. He alsostressed the importance of providing psychological counseling substanceabuse, psychosocial treatment and other services to give support to thepatient, that encourage the continuation and success of treatmentprograms for methadone maintenance. LSDLysergic acid diethylamide, LSD or LSD-25 is a semisynthetic psychedelicdrug of the ergoline family. It is one of most psychedelicsubstances known and powerful. Induce altered states ofconsciousness, sometimes compared with those ofschizophrenia or mysticalexperience. Colloquially, itisknown as acid, tripod or gut(English trip, journey).Under the influence of hallucinogens, people see images, hear soundsand feel sensations that seem real but are not. Some hallucinogens alsoproduce rapid, intense emotional swings. Among the chemicals thatalter mood, LSD is one of the most powerful. Discovered in 1938, isUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 23
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHmanufactured from lysergic acid, found in ergot, a fungus that grows onrye and other cereals.The drug was used by scientists and psychiatrists to his experimentswithschizophrenic patients, but soon, in the 50, the drug rapidly into thepublic domain.There were three reasons for this success: first, its high activity,as outlined, the second is the ease of concealing a colorless, odorless andtasteless, like LSDpreparations, being able to place a few drops on sugarcubes, water, blotting paper, or other media anodyne going unrecognized,the third reason is the relative ease of clandestine synthesis, from lysergicacid in pharmaceutical laboratories.It is currently one of the psychoactive chemical with the greatestpotential to alterconsciousness. Hallucinogenic drug is par excellence. INHALANTSWHAT ARE INHALANTS? Inhalants are substances that are used to "get well" among the most common are the queues, glues, paints.... They release chemicals, altering te mporarily, but reversible cerebral performan ce.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 24
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH They are substances of domestic and industrial use, gasoline, glues, cleaning fluids, aerosols, gas lighters, etc.... They encourage their consumption of readily available, are sold indiscriminatelyin many shops:  Low cost  Sale authorized  A rapid and intense effect, immediate inhalation is absorbed through the lungs.WHAT ARE THE MOTIVES AND FORMS OF USE OF INHALANTS? Curiosity among teenagers and reality. Integration group, be part of a group.Peer pressure and pleasure-seeking. Consumption alternatives are usually:  Soak a cloth or handkerchief with gasoline or solvent and inhale deeply.  Place glue on a plastic bag and inhale through the mouth or nose.  Sprays directly through the nose or mouth.WHAT ARE THE EFFECTS OF INHALANTS? Similar to drunkenness, feel good, slurred speech, blurred vision, disorientation, mental dullness, drowsiness.... Like alcohol, inhalants are central nervous system depressants, general depression that can lead to sleep, stupor or coma.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 25
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH Irritation. Conjunctivitis of theeyes and upperrespiratorytract, lacrimation, cough, gastritis, inhibition of appetite and headache.WHAT ARE THE RISKS AND HARM ASSOCIATED WITH INHALANT ABUSE? Gastrointestinal disorders (nausea, vomiting, kidney and liver disorders) Arrhythmias. Disordered breathing (chronic bronchitis, pulmonary edema). Chronic conjunctivitis. Sudden death fromheartfailure, deathfrom aspiration of vomit, death from ventricular arrhythmia. On a psychological level appearance of visual hallucinations. Irritability,decreased concentration, impaired school performance, truancy.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 26
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH CRACKThe crack is a drug derived from cocaine.It is made in clandestine laboratories macerating coca leaves withkerosene. Is added sodium bicarbonate to increase volume and decreaseits cost, and make more manageable the substance. It has a high degreeof impurities, so its usage is pulmonary.MECHANISM OF ACTIONBecause crack is smoked, enter the bloodstream quickly, producing theindividual:  To be smoked, the alkaloid reaches the brain faster, in larger quantities and has a synergistic effect with other chemicals that have been used for processing.  Produces a feeling of euphoria, central nervous system stimulation almost immediately.  Generates panic attacks, insomnia  A few minutes later the euphoria is replaced by anxiety, fear, depression or apathy considerable. These psychological effects unpleasant (dysphoric) can be combated by smoking more.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 27
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH  If the individual continues to smoke, can have hallucinations, delusional perceptions, ideas frankly paranoid or psychotic behavior Due to the speed of effects, almost immediate, the crack became verypopular in the early 1980s. Another reason for its popularity is that it iseconomic.EFFECTS  considerable euphoria  causes numbness,  dry mouth,  burning sensation in eyes,  palpitations,  headache, muscle twitching,  increase in reflexes and dilated pupils.  Chronic use produces  insomnia, weight loss, hypertension, cardiac arrhythmia, tremors, sexual indifference, access chronic cough, paranoia, delusions of parasitosis, miniaturized visual perceptions and lung infections.  The biggest problem with this is cocaine derivative that is highly addictive, although leading to addiction is not physical, but psychological and strong.  An overdose can cause cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest caused by vasoconstriction, so that any suspicion should be considered a medical emergency. Meanwhile it is kept clear airway and apply artificial respiration if necessary.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 28
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH COCAINE BASE PASTE OR PACOIts not a drug, it is worse than that: it is the waste of a drug. Arises as wastefrom kitchens or laboratories where cocaine is produced, emerges as aresult of an industry that seeks ways to bring to market their waste.CONSUMPTIONIt performs home through pipes where the product is mixed with metalshavings and snuff cigarette ash.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 29
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHEFFECTS OF PACOThe stages through which a consumer passes when paco consume three. 1. Stage of euphoria  Euphoria.  sensation of pleasure.  Ecstasy.  Enhancing the mood.  hyperexcitability.  Feeling very competent and capable. 2. Dysphoria Stage  Feeling of anxiety, depression and insecurity.  urge to continue smoking.  sadness, apathy.  sexual indifference. 3. BingeStage in which the person begins to consume continuously when it still hasthe blood dose to avoid dysphoria. 4. Psychosis and hallucinations StagePBC consumption can cause psychosis or loss of contact with reality.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 30
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHHEALTH HAZARDS  The sulfuric acid in the compound produces emphysema and lung cancer in the medium term.  The kerosene dissolves myelin coating the axons, preventing the transmission of electrical impulses in neurons.  The combustion of kerosene produces carbon monoxide, which replaces oxygen in red blood cells from the blood.  Their consumption during pregnancy causes severe mutations in the fetus.  Progressive degradation of the skin and muscles.  Accelerated Reduction of body weight  Reluctance and insomnia.  Nausea and vomiting.  hypertension, tachycardia. AMPHETAMINES Amphetamines are substances derived from the "Beta- phenyl-isopropyl amine." Drug are drugs, addictive (Moderate-High) and neurotoxic. The most common are: Benzedrine, Dexedrine and methylamphetamine. They are a strong stimulant and inappropriateUNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 31
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHrelationship with all sports to reduce fatigue. One of its most commonapplication is to aid in weight reduction.Amphetamines are a type of drug that stimulatesthe central nervous system. They come in tablets orcapsules of different shape and color. May be legalif they are consumed under strict medicalsupervision, however, the abuse occurs when thesame are bought and used unlawfully.How Theyre Used: Amphetamines are swallowed,inhaled or injected.EFFECTS OF AMPHETAMINES:  Physical symptoms include:  Increases alertness.  Aggressive and violent behavior.  Increased energy and motor activity.  Feeling of wellbeing.  Increased security and confidence.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 32
    • MEDICAL ENGLISH  Decreased sleep and fatigue  Increase the speed of thought and language.  It suppresses the appetite.  Increased blood pressure and body temperature  Increased heart rate.  Stimulation of the cerebral cortex.  Electro desynchronization in the electroencephalogram (EEG)  Behavioral changes occur in:  Psychomotor agitation,  Feelings of grandeur  Alertness, fights  Impairment of thought processes.In normal doses, its effects vary by individual and intake conditions. Theycan produce pleasurable effects, hyperactivity and overwhelming sense ofenergy, but also cause tremor, anxiety, irritability, anger and suddenunmotivated, amnesic disorders and incoherence. In the last phasedescribed depression, paranoid pictures paranoid delusions, hallucinationsand behavioral disorders. Amphetamine use can lead to aggressiveactions, like barbiturates and alcohol, for their great euphoric effect,coupled with a lack of control in the inhibitory instincts.Such situations occur when the doses given, usually intravenously over 2 gr.It has been shown greater potential than amphetamines cocaine, both inits height and the duration of the effects.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 33
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHHOW AMPHETAMINE ACTS IN THE BODY?Amphetamine is a direct agonist of presynapticreceptors for noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine(DA) to central nervous system.THERAPEUTIC USES: Amphetamine stimulates the central nervous system to improve wakefulness and increasing levels of alertness and ability to concentrate. Promotes higher cognitive functions such as attention and memory (particularly working memory) and shows its effects on executive functions. Reinforcing effects produced by associating specific behaviors with pleasurable emotions (reward). A behavioral level, reinforces the systems involved in the regulation of responses to specific emotions, reduces levels of impulsivity (self), in the case of obesity, it has been used due to its action on the hypothalamic centers that regulate appetite. Finally, an agent activating the sympathetic nervous system, peripheral adrenergic effects, resulting in an increase in the level of motor activity, resistance to fatigue, cardio-respiratory activity, particularly in the thermogenic metabolic processes of the body, leading to greater fat burning.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 34
    • MEDICAL ENGLISHRISK OF ADDICTION:The risk of dependence and addiction is as high as that of cocaine, as theirtolerance levels are low, requiring increasingly higher doses to achieve thesame effect. Having started with therapeutic doses of 10 to 30 mg, afterthree or four weeks regular users may need up to 500 mg to experience thesame effects, which seriously affects many people without habit. Although itdoes not cause physical dependence in the strict sense, the potential forpsychological dependence is high. Withdrawal can last a few weeks. It ismanifested by anxiety, fatigue, sleep disturbance, irritability, intense hunger,and severe depression, symptoms that can last up to a month.UNIVERSIDAD NACIONAL PEDRO RUIZ GALLO Página 35