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Drug addiction






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Drug addiction Drug addiction Document Transcript

  • Drug abuse: Drug addictionTEACHER:Rosa Gonzales LlontopGROUP 6 : Agip Alarcón Walter Daniel Campos Tapia Alexander Herrera Cercado Romain Ocaña Paredes Christian Salazar Salazar Eduardo Vicente Ramírez Daniel 27/09/2011
  • Drug abuse: Drug addiction 2011 DRUG ADDICTIONDEFINITION:It is a psychological dependence, whose individual feels an urgent need for drugs or otherwise, an emotionalmeltdown when ingested and physical dependence caused by the terrible withdrawal symptoms when noteating it.Drug addiction is called the psychic and sometimes physical state caused by the interaction between a livingorganism and a drug. Characterized by behavioral and other responses,that always includes an irrepressibleurge to take the drug continuously or periodically in order to experience its psychic effects and sometimes toavoid the discomfort of its absence.CAUSES:Family problemsAdolescents living a crisis stage and trying to evade the problems, seeking an easy out or forms to forget, forexample with alcohol and drugs.Often addictions arise from problems within the family (misunderstanding, miscommunication, shock, intra-family abuse, rejection, step, abandonment, lack of economic resources, academic difficulties, absolutepoverty and indifference), to feel that they are ones at home, teens have the impression of not being heard ortaken into account.They fall into an error when trying to resolve conflicts through drugs, believing that will only eat once thesubstance, but in reality it creates a habit or addiction, this causes family problems increase. 1
  • Drug abuse: Drug addiction 2011Social InfluencesThey also use drugs when there are problems around. For example: Not being accepted by friends or acondition for joining a certain group is ingesting drugs, be like them, imitating them, make them believe that"trips" are the best, or worse, fall into social influence. Addicts can make any comments you want about theperson who is not willing to enter into drugs, teens should be aware of them and maintain their position to sayNO.Youth, who do not want to consume the substance, care, should be aware of the friendships that manifestinsistence, because his obsession can be so large that will be looking for the right time to induce, for example,can dissolve the drug in her drink or food.CuriositySometimes young people with an unhealthy curiosity to observe, that some teens their age mimic the act oftaste and feel the use of any drug. In addition some drugs such as inhalants, are easily accessible to them, areauthorized and sold at low cost in any supply, leading to consumer benefit.By accepting the body calm and relaxation effect of the drug, it causes consumption required again, but withthe same dose as insufficient, which increases the amount increasing to feel the same effects, giving way tothe addiction.Emotional problemsWhen problems arise in the lives of some adolescents (scolding, beatings, mistrust, misunderstanding,economic conflicts in the family, addicted or divorced parents, school learning difficulties, etc..) Reflect a largeemotional depression, which can be full of hatred, anger and shame at the behavior of parents, friends oracquaintances. These young people look for ways that do not seriously affect their emotional state and use away out of them with the help of an addition. 2
  • Drug abuse: Drug addiction 2011CLASSIFICATION OF DRUGS BY OMS: Group 1 (Opiates): opium and natural derivatives, semisynthetic and synthetic (morphine, heroin, methadone). Group 2 (Psicodepresores): barbiturates, benzodiazepines and the like. Group 3: ethanol. Group 4 (Psychostimulants older): cocaine, amphetamines and derivatives. Group 5: hallucinogens (LSD, mescaline, psilocybin, etc.). Group 6: cannabis derivatives (marijuana, hashish). Group 7 (Volatile): gasoline, glue, ether, nitrous oxide, etc. Group 8 (Psychostimulants under): snuff, caffeine, cola, cocoa. Group 9: drug design and synthesis.How to identify a drug addict? Noticeable drop in school performance or dropout. Withdrawal from the company of others. Loss of interest in favorite activities such as sports and hobbies. Joining a new group of age peers. Increasing conflicts and quarrels within the family. Excessive hostility towards others. Red eyes. Presence of necessary tools to drug use, suspected onset of eye drop bottles of tablets, syrups and medicine containers. Lack of motivation inability to fulfill responsibilities. Distraction, excessive laughter. Antisocial activities such as lying, stealing, skipping school, etc. 3
  • Drug abuse: Drug addiction 2011CONSEQUENCES FOR DRUG USEDrug use, legal and illegal, is a public health problem very important. The risks and harm associated withsubstance use vary for each.It is also necessary to consider personal variables such as degree of user knowledge or experience,motivation, and specific properties of each drug and the influence of the elements adulterants.What makes a harmful addiction is an addiction is that it turns against oneself and others. At first you get somegratification apparent, as with a habit.TREATMENTThe drug treatment is an arduous task that is not always crowned with success. The reality is the large numberof drug addicts who relapse and return to the same degree of initial intoxication shortly after completingtreatment for addiction.In the treatment of drug addiction, there are two distinct levels: the medical treatment of positive results in mostcases and psychological treatment, the latter more complex because it involves overcoming, by the addict, themotivations, both individual and social, which have led to drug and substance abuse.An indispensable element prior to therapy will be the explicit will of the abuser to leave the drug altogether.Therapeutic treatment cannot succeed if there is no desire to change fully aware of life without necessarilyinvolving the acceptance by the patients social circumstances that propelled him to drugs.The first phase of treatment will consist in controlling the addiction risks of "withdrawal" which, in the case ofhard drugs especially heroin, can be really dangerous. This phase has to be under the care and direction ofspecialists, as well as adequate medical facilities. 4
  • Drug abuse: Drug addiction 2011In the second phase, usually requires a psychological treatment (psychotherapy), since patients tend to havesome personality disorders and difficulties in their ability to interact without the drug. To facilitate interpersonalcontact and social dynamics are commonly used group therapy.The third phase, simultaneous with previous attempts to, integrates the individual in social life. This aimtranscends most of the time, strictly therapeutic possibilities, as it depends on economic and social factors, soother agencies should be involved. The absence of this requirement is often the factor that causes the failure inmost cases. CLINICAL CASES CLINICAL CASE N ° 1This is a 30 year old man who came to the Municipal Drug Program in June 1997, an indication of a closefriend who was previously treated in our department. He had three previous income in drug-free program in thefirst two just expelled the fall in consumption and in the third leaves, having requested a resource in a closedregime. There were also attended evangelical schools, staying short periods of time.TOXICOLOGICAL HISTORYIt begins in the alcohol and cannabis at age 15, at 17 years start using cocaine sporadically since the age of 24regularly smoked heroin.PERSONAL HISTORYHe is the youngest of a family of seven children (three boys and four girls). Parent dies, the father committedsuicide when the patient was 18 months and the mother died when he was six. The sixth sister died in anaccident before the birth of the patient. He has a brother addict.A mothers death the family was divided, passing to live with another brother by the sister and going to anothercity, until he reaches age 14, when he returned home again for the third sister, that the older sister is going out 5
  • Drug abuse: Drug addiction 2011of Spain. Two years later, goes to live with his two brothers until the elder goes to the military service and thesecond house, at which time the patient decides to go to the Paratrooper Brigade volunteer. At 19 he left theBrigade and starts living with a woman 13 years his senior, separated with two children. When you go to thedoctor, the woman he lives he has taken home. Comes quite high, it takes two weeks living on the street, hasleft work and traveled several resources (associations helps drug addicts, Project Hombre, ...), evangelicalcenters poses a confusing order pill, control, community income , psychological treatment, "something quick".We observe a strong concern "to be lying in the street" and are very shocked by the scenes he had beenseeing a result of the police cordon that was occurring in places of sale of drugs at the time. Asked what hethinks happens states that have "psychological problems". Place the beginning of these problems from thedeath of his mother, "the family is broke", "I feel guilty," "I have done much harm," "are tired of me," "I do notknow where to go" . I point out that if you want to deal with these problems can stay, think about it and givenan appointment the next day to discuss his decision. Go plant that has been talking to his friend, who hasasked for help to "Do not let him alone" and "not to take drugs to control it." He also contacted his partner,which has allowed returning to home and the family doctor who has been asked to pass a drug withdrawal.Your friend has again advised to stay in psychological treatment. During the first five monthsof leaving theconsumption of toxic substances. The withdrawal is part of joining a group led by this guy, where drug use andother actions (violent behavior, attachment to material things, wars ...) are considered "attacks Igmun" a kind of"evil force" to which they must organize to fight because this leader has received certain signals (visions,experiences ...) and wait for the moment to extend its "mission", an ideal of goodness guided by the divinepower. Hold meetings of fraternization and his speech is pluralized, including us, "that we have high "," whenwe feel weak, "" those who have been there "... Temporary relapse integrates consumption as "proof","temptations"; "Igmun attacks" have the same totalizing explanation that includes others and realize the miseryand human misery on the basis of this effect action by the forces of evil.Similarly, continues to attend interviews, where I try to point to its uniqueness and begins to unfold its ownstory, their doubts and difficulties. He reports that the death of his mother was a family break and from therewalked "from one place to another," "living many changes" and strong feelings of being "a lump", "a nuisance".Also, is developing a series of content and questions on several issues.DRUG"Arelief fromfeelings of loneliness, nostalgiaand "Drugs=the bride."memories." Why am Iso angry?"If I couldtalk about this, I forgetthe drug.""The drug is not the problem." COUPLE"That woman.""I was alwaysvery quiet." "I got intoa family.""I hate arguments." "He gave meeverything: house, children, and"Thesilentkill." work." 6
  • Drug abuse: Drug addiction 2011"I cannotname or mygirlfriendormy partneror acoward,was myfathergave me life, gave me themywife." nameof his two brothers.""I cannot leave, I dare not." Is it genetic, I was crazy?"It decidesthe drug."Is my partner? FAMILYFATHER "When my mother died I won afather (brother), I expected to take.""Isaid goodbyeand jumpedoff the balcony." "Mybrother (addict) has always been with me, I"My sisteralways said Iwas likehima fool, feel guilty, Ive stoppedlying, and I have left."acoward." Why notadopt me?"Thatreally hurtmeI can not acceptthat he wasCASE ANALYSISYou can see three distinct moments that seem especially significant to understanding the case and to see theline of intervention. The first refers to the mode of presentation could be defined as "being pulled". The patientdoes not know where to go, he has traveled many places without getting in any (a posteriori one can see thatthis has been a constant in his life, from family to family, changing places, with nowhere to go). Bringtoxicological problems, social, employment, of family, of couple, psychological. I think the effect of thisannouncement introduces a certain order and allows you to start the therapeutic process.The second stage is marked by its relationship with the friend, which in part allows you to include a kind of"brotherhood / family" to identify with the leaders speech. It is a particularly difficult time filling it totalizingexplanations that come from another and agrees not to question, which leads me to direct intervention to theirparticular; this allows the opening of its own history and organization of their own discourse.The third time is the symptomatic improvement, which would be where is now, where it is at coordinate’s familyand begins to account for the inability to manage their feelings of hostility, fear of being abandoned and thedifficulties to create your own family. At the same time, as you will bear witness to their suffering, their healthproblems are becoming intelligible, the drug loses effectiveness and the use of it is unnecessary. In this regard,I consider exemplary how this patient takes a basic value of the launch device that allows you to putthewordgame. CLINICAL CASE N ° 2Lucrecia went to the hospital emergency psychiatric referral from a general hospital with a diagnosisSubstance abuse: cannabis, cocaine.It was an attractive young woman of 24 years, young-looking, single, no children, high school educated. Heintroduced himself well groomed, conscious, oriented, hiperproséxica in constant motion during the interview,said not being able to sit still in one place. His speech was coherent but taquilálico with verbiage. The courseof the racing thoughts, ideas over-valued (for example: "Im too nice people and all I want, I want to be rock 7
  • Drug abuse: Drug addiction 2011singer and I can play any instrument I know too much music theory"). Showed affective lability with easystepfrom laughter to tears, without pause.Sensoperceptivas unaltered and partial awareness of diseaseattributed his symptoms to drug use.His relatives said that in the last 15 days had experienced insomnia, irritability, physical and verbal aggressionwith family, desire to roam continuously and psychomotor agitation.JOINED WITH THE FOLLOWING DIAGNOSTIC Substance abuse: cannabis, cocaine. Psychosis due to drugs.RELEVANT FAMILY HISTORY Father homosexual. Younger brother with a diagnosis of drug psychosis.RELEVANT PERSONAL HISTORYDrug use since age 18 and mescaline marijuana weekly in 2 occasions in a period of 3 months.First hospital 1month after the abrupt withdrawal of drug, with symptoms characterized by delusions and psychomotoragitation.Graduated with drug treatment (haloperidol VO) 4 months after he left for improvement, while drugrestarted.Second hospitalization for manic sintomalogía 20 years, after the substance use.Lucrecia that time was 2months pregnant, which ended by therapeutic abortion. She was treated with lithium carbonate for 2 years orso, in which not using drugs. Treatment and then left again went to the consumption of marijuana and cocaine.HIGHLIGHTS OF THE BIOGRAPHYLucrecia from a legal marriage is the third of 5 children. He lived with parents and siblings until the age of 3years, when the parents separated when being exposed homosexual behavior from the father. The patientknew the reason for the divorce of parents in their early teens and their development were apparently normaluntil the end of it, when started cannabis induced by friends.He established his first relationship after 20 years with a man 15 years her senior, psychopathic personalitycharacteristics, consumer of cannabis, cocaine and heroin. Soon he had his second seizure, pregnancy andtherapeutic abortion, and indicated. He maintained the relationship, intense and unstable, and drug use up to24 years.At 21 he left home Lucrecia breast and went to live with an older sister in the home of the father and hishomosexual partner. They kept a stable of several years, adopted by the patient. He said his father: "Hes a 8
  • Drug abuse: Drug addiction 2011scoundrel, an irresponsible, but I love it." "I feel good living with them, my father cares a lot." He returned to livewith the mother because the sister did not tolerate homosexuality of the father.She showed no interest in pursuing higher studies, and interrupted two technical careers because he wantedto work "to earn money and independence from the family."Unstable employment history: Worked as a "hostess" in a restaurant, a waitress in a cafe and an ice creamshop, but got bored easily. He had difficulty accepting the limits and behaves impulsively, with little tolerancefor demands and frustrations. His performance was erratic and irresponsible, frequent leaking unreal world thatgave him the drug.His emotional ties with family and friends are shallow, immature and characterized by ambivalence. A motherdescribes her as "manipulative" and maintains a symbiotic relationship with it, dependence, highly contentious. "Only you have the last word: It is" NO "when you are offered Drug" 9