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BONILLA MAYTA YEIMI
DIAZ CARRION EDDIE
GUEVARA COTRINA CRISTHIAN
PORTILLA SUAREZ JONATHAN
VIDAURREE CARLOS CARLOS
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Alcoholism is the addiction to or dependency upon drinking excessive amounts of
alcoholic beverages. Since the late 20th century, it has been considered an addictive
disorder. It is characterized by compulsive and uncontrolled consumption of alcohol,
usually to the detriment of the drinker's health, personal relationships, and social
standing. Like other drug addictions, alcoholism is medically defined as a treatable
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Set of symptoms that can occur when a person suddenly stops drinking after been
drinking too much alcohol every day.
Alcohol withdrawal occurs more frequently in
adults but can occur in teenagers or children.
The more you drink each day is more likely to
exhibit the symptoms of alcohol withdrawal
The alcohol withdrawal symptoms usually occur within 5 to 10 hours after the last
drink, but can occur days later. Symptoms worsen in 48 to 72 hours and may continue
Common symptoms include:
• Anxiety or nervousness
• Trouble thinking clearly
• shocks or tremors
• Ups and downs in mood
Other symptoms may include:
• Clammy skin
• Pupils dilated
• Loss of appetite
• Nausea and vomiting
• Rapid heart rate
• Trembling hands and other body parts
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Exams and Tests
The doctor will perform a physical exam. This
• Abnormal eye movements
• Abnormal heart rhythms
• Insufficiency of body fluids (dehydration)
• Rapid breathing
• Rapid heart rate
• Hands trembling
You can perform blood and urine tests as a drug
Treatment goals include:
• To reduce withdrawal symptoms or withdrawal.
• Prevent complications.
• Therapy to get you to stop drinking (abstinence).
People with alcohol withdrawal symptoms from mild to severe may need hospital
treatment in a hospital or other facility that treats this type of withdrawal.
Treatment may include:
• Monitor blood pressure, body temperature, heart rate and blood levels of different
chemicals in the body.
• Liquids or medications through a vein (IV).
• Sedation using drugs called benzodiazepines until withdrawal is complete.
If you have symptoms of alcohol withdrawal may need mild to moderate outpatient
treatment in a hospital or other facility that treats this type of withdrawal. You will
need someone to commit to stay with you during this process and you can watch. They
need daily visits to a doctor until you stabilize.
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Alcoholic liver disease is damage to the liver and its function due to alcohol abuse.
Alcoholic liver disease usually occurs after years of drinking too much. The longer the
alcohol use has occurred, and the more alcohol that was consumed, the greater the
likelihood of developing liver disease.
Alcohol may cause swelling and inflammation (hepatitis) in the liver. Over time, this
can lead to scarring and then cirrhosis of the liver. Cirrhosis is the final phase of
alcoholic liver disease.
Other important factors include:
Alcoholic liver disease may be more common in some families
This disease does not occur in all heavy drinkers
You do not have to get drunk for the disease to develop
Women may be more susceptible than men
People who drink too much, too often do not get enough healthy foods and
nutrients. Poor nutrition may make liver disease worse.
Acute alcoholic hepatitis may be caused by binge drinking (five drinks for men, four
drinks for women). It may be life-threatening.
Symptoms vary based on the severity of the disease. They are usually worse after a
recent period of heavy drinking.
Symptoms may not be present until the disease is advanced.
General symptoms include:
Abdominal pain and tenderness
Dry mouth and increased thirst
Loss of appetite
Swelling or fluid buildup in the legs (edema) and in the
abdomen (ascites) when cirrhosis is present
Alcoholic liver disease
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Skin changes include:
Abnormally dark or light skin
Redness on feet or hands
Small, red spider-like blood vessels on the skin
Yellow color in the skin, mucus membranes, or eyes
Bloody, dark black, or tarry bowel movements (melena)
Nosebleeds or bleeding gums
Vomiting blood or material that looks like coffee
Brain and nervous system symptoms:
Agitation (being stirred up, excited, or irritable)
Periods of decreased alertness or awareness
Impaired short- or long-term memory
Pain, numbness, or tingling in the arms or legs
Problems paying attention or concentrating
Slow, sluggish movements
Other symptoms that can occur with this disease:
Breast development in males
Light-headedness or fainting, especially when rising to standing position
Exams and Tests
Complete blood count (CBC)
Liver function tests such as ALP
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Tests to rule out other diseases include:
Abdominal CT scan
Blood tests for other causes of liver disease
Ultrasound of the abdomen
The most important part of treatment is to stop using alcohol completely. If liver
cirrhosis has not yet occurred, the liver can heal if you stop drinking alcohol.
An alcohol rehabilitation program or counseling may be necessary to break the alcohol
addiction. Vitamins, especially B-complex and folic acid, can help reverse malnutrition.
If cirrhosis develops, you will need to manage the complications of cirrhosis. You may
need a liver transplant.
Cirrhosis is the result of damage accumulated in the liver, characterized by the
accumulation of fibrosis ("scars") in liver tissue and decreased functioning liver tissue.
These changes in liver structure and interfere with normal functioning of the liver,
causing serious complications in the circulation of blood through the liver.
There are many causes that can lead to liver cirrhosis, the main are:
• Hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C and hepatitis D.
• Excessive consumption of alcohol.
• Nonalcoholic fatty liver: A condition
common in the general population,
associated with diabetes and obesity.
• Autoimmune Diseases: Autoimmune
hepatitis and primary biliary cirrhosis.
• Prolonged bile duct obstruction, such
as sclerosing cholangitis.
• Lack of specific proteins or enzymes to
metabolize different substances in the
liver, as the deficiency of alpha 1-
• Certain diseases of the heart (heart failure).
• Severe reaction to drugs or medications.
• Prolonged exposure to toxic agents in the environment.
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SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS
The principle of cirrhosis is usually silent still very few specific symptoms. As damage
accumulates in the liver, may receive the following symptoms:
• Loss of appetite.
• Nausea and vomiting.
• Weight loss.
• Enlargement of the liver.
• Jaundice or yellowing of the skin and whites of
the eyes, due to the accumulation of blood when
the liver is not able to remove either the bile.
• Ascites or fluid buildup in the abdomen.
• Vomiting blood, broken veins (varices) in the
• Encephalopathy, or changes of consciousness,
which can be subtle (confusion) or deep (coma).
The diagnosis of cirrhosis can be unexpected. A person may present to the doctor with
symptoms of liver disease do not appear and after a physical examination and blood
tests to discover that tempt cirrhosis.
The treatment for cirrhosis depends on the person
suffering from cirrhosis, the time has gone on the
disease and has suffered permanent damage to the
liver. Sometimes the damage to the liver can be
corrected by locating the specific cause of cirrhosis and
is given appropriate treatment.
• In the case of alcoholic cirrhosis, total abstinence and a balanced diet are important
parts of treatment.
• In the case of cirrhosis secondary to viral hepatitis, drugs are used to enhance
immune systemresponse against the virus, such as interferon.
• In cases of cirrhosis caused by autoimmune hepatitis, corticosteroids alone or in
combination with azathioprine may be an effective treatment.
• In cirrhotic patients with jaundice, treatment with supplemental fat soluble vitamins
• In the case of Wilson's disease, it removes excessive amounts of copper in the body
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• In hemochromatosis, removing excess iron by phlebotomy (blood removal).
• Many types of cirrhosis requiring liver transplantation when advanced liver failure.
WHATARE THE COMPLICATIONS OF CIRRHOSIS?
Complications of cirrhosis include ascites, hepatic encephalopathy and bleeding from
ruptured esophageal varices.
• Ascites is treated by reducing salt intake plus administration of diuretics. In some
cases it is necessary to direct disposal of large amounts of fluid in the abdomen
through a catheter through the abdominal wall, also called paracentesis.
• Treatment of hepatic coma or principle of coma (hepatic encephalopathy) requires
specific drugs, reducing the intake of proteins and control of gastrointestinal bleeding.
• Treatment of bleeding from esophageal varices include endoscopic ligation or
sclerotherapy as (direct injection of a chemical that destroys the varix inside) and other
treatments such as medications that decrease the tendency to bleed, compression of a
bleeding varix through special inflatable balls and a procedure called transjugular
intrahepatic protosystem shunt (TIPS).
HOW I CAN I PREVENTCIRRHOSIS?
• Do not drink to excess. Avoid alcoholic beverages. Alcohol destroys liver cells. The
degree of regeneration of liver cells varies from person to person. Prior damage to the
liver for unknown viruses or chemicals can affect the regeneration process.
• Eat a balanced diet, maintain a healthy weight and do regular physical activity.
• Seek medical help. Keep under medical care if you develop viral hepatitis until his
recovery is assured.
The liver is large, with large functional reserve, able to continue to play its vital
functions even if it is damaged. It also has the ability to repair itself to some degree.
The cells that die can be replaced with new ones. If the cause of cirrhosis can be
eliminated or controlled, the liver's ability allows it to achieve some improvement and
may allow play a normal life.
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Korsakoff's syndrome (also called Korsakoff's
dementia, Korsakov's syndrome, Korsakoff's
psychosis, or amnesic-confabulatory syndrome), is a
neurological disorder caused by the lack of thiamine
(vitamin B1) in the brain. Its onset is linked to chronic
alcohol abuse and/or severe malnutrition. The
syndrome is named after Sergei Korsakoff, the
neuropsychiatrist who popularized the theory.
Conditions resulting in the vitamin deficiency and its effects include chronic alcoholism
and severe malnutrition. Alcoholism may be an indicator of poor nutrition, which in
addition to inflammation of the stomach lining, causes thiamine deficiency. Other
causes include dietary deficiencies, prolonged vomiting, eating disorders, or the effects
of chemotherapy. It can also occur in pregnant women who have a form of extreme
morning sickness known as hyperemesis gravidarum. Mercury poisoning can also lead
to Korsakoff's syndrome. It has also been caused by centipede (mukade) bites in Japan.
There is no specific treatment because the previous thiamine deficiency produces
irreversible damage to the medial thalamic nuclei and mammillary bodies. Mammillary
body atrophy may be visible on high-resolution MRI.
There are six major symptoms of Korsakoff's syndrome:
retrograde amnesia, severe memory loss.
confabulation, that is, invented memories which
are then taken as true due to gaps in memory sometimes
associated with blackouts.
meager content in conversation.
lack of insight.
apathy - the patients lose interest in things
quickly and generally appear indifferent to change.
These symptoms are caused by a deficiency of thiamine (vitamin B1), which is thought
to cause damage to the medial thalamus and possibly to the mammillary bodies of the
hypothalamus as well as generalized cerebral atrophy.
When Wernicke's encephalopathy accompanies Korsakoff's syndrome, the
combination is called the Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome. Korsakoff's is a continuum of
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Wernicke's encephalopathy, though a recognised episode of Wernicke's is not always
Korsakoff's involves neuronal loss, that is, damage to neurons; gliosis which is a result
of damage to supporting cells of the central nervous system; and hemorrhage or
bleeding in mammillary bodies. Damage to the dorsomedial nucleus or anterior group
of the thalamus (limbic-specific nuclei) is also associated with this disorder.
Paralysis of muscles controlling the eye.
Retrograde and anterograde amnesia.
Anosognosia - Lack of insight to or awareness of the condition.
It was once assumed that anyone suffering from Korsakoff's syndrome would
eventually need full time care. This is still often the case, but rehabilitation can help
regain some, often limited, level of independence. Treatment involves the
replacement or supplementation of thiamine by intravenous (IV) or intramuscular (IM)
injection, together with proper nutrition and hydration. However, the amnesia and
brain damage caused by the disease does not always respond to thiamine replacement
therapy. In some cases, drug therapy is recommended. If treatment is successful,
improvement will become apparent within two years although recovery is slow and
The most effective method of preventing Korsakoff's syndrome is to avoid B
vitamin/thiamine deficiency. In Western nations, the most common causes of such a
deficiency are alcoholism and weight disorders. In the U.S., government mandates to
adding thiamine to alcoholic beverages have been blocked for this reason and also by
political groups asserting that such supplementation would encourage alcohol use.