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  • 1. Grammar Book Estefania
  • 2. Table of Contents
    • Present -ar, er-, -ir endings (Pgs: 3-4)
            • Stem Changers (Page: 5)
    • Irregular “yo” (Page: 6)
            • Saber v. Conocer (Page: 7)
    • Reflexives (Page: 8)
            • “ Se” impersonal (Page: 9)
    • Verbs like Gustar (Page:10)
            • Dipthongs with accents (Page: 11)
    • Verbs like -ger/-gir, -uir/-guir, -cer/-cir (Page: 12)
            • Hace +____+ que +___ (Page: 13)
    • Imperfecto (Page:14-16)
            • Preterite (Page: 17)
    • Car/Gsr/Zar (Page: 18)
            • Cucaracha Verbs ()
    • Snake/ Snakey ()
            • Comparatives and Superlatives ()
    • Futuro ()
  • 3. Present (ar, er, ir) Person talks about Replaces -er at the end Yo o T ú es É l/Ella/Usted e Nosotros emos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes en
    • In the present tense for verbs ending in -ar
    • 4. In the present tense for verbs ending in -er
    Person talked about Replaces -ar at the end Yo o T ú as É l/Ella/Usted a Nosotros amos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes an
  • 5. Present (ar, er, ir) CONT.
    • In the present tense for verbs ending in -ir.
    Pereson talked about Replaces -ir at the end Yo o T ú es É l/Ella/Usted e Nosotros imos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes en
  • 6. Stem Changers
    • Also called “Boot Verbs”, it changes in all but the nosotros .
    • 7. More than just the ending changes. The vowel in the stem changes.
    • 8. 3 catergories: e ei, o ue, and e i
    • 9. Common e ie verbs: Tener, Preeferir
    • 10. Common o ue verbs: Dormir, Poder, Jugar
    • 11. *Common e i verbs: Decir, Repetir, Servir.
      • *This stem change only happens in -ir verbs
  • 12. Irregular “yo”
    • Caber (to fit): yo quepo
    • 13. Caer (to fall) yo caigo
    • 14. Conducir (to drive): yo conduzco
    • 15. Conocer (to know): yo conozco
    • 16. Escoger (to choose): yo escojo
    • 17. Dirigir (to direct): yo dirijo
    • 18. Hacer (to do, to make): yo hago
    • Poner (to put, to place): yo pongo
    • 19. Saber (to know something-a fact): yo s é
    • 20. Salir (to leave): yo salgo
    • 21. Traer (to bring): yo traigo
    • 22. Valer (to be worth): yo valgo
    • 23. Ver (to see): yo veo
  • 24. Saber v. Concer
    • When using saber , it mean that you know a fact or how to do something.
    • 25. When using conocer , it means you know a person or are familiar with something.
  • 26. Reflexive
    • When referring to a person doing an action.
    Person talked about Reflexive Pronoun Yo me T ú te É l/Ella/Usted se nosotros nos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes se
  • 27. “ Se” impersonal
    • The impersonal “se” is used with a third person singular verb. (one, you, people, or they).
    • 28. Used to indicate people in general, not one person.
      • For Example:
        • ¿C ó mo se dico rjo en espa ñ ol?
        • 29. How does one say red in Spanish
  • 30. Verbs like Gustar
    • “ Gustar” is unique because it's only conjugated two ways: “Gusta” and “Gustan”. Which form of gustar used depends on whether the direct object is singular or plural
    Gustar To like Molestar To be bother Fascinar To be fascinating to Aburrir To bore Importar To be important to Interesar To be interesting to Disgustar To hate something Doler (e-ue) To be painful Encantar To “love” something Quedar To remain
  • 31. Dipthong with Accents
    • The stronger weak vowels in the word next to each other.
      • “a,e,o” are the strong vowel sounds
      • 32. “i,u,y” are the weak vowel sounds
    • Examples:
  • 40. Verbs, like –ger/-gir/-uir/-guir, -cer/-cir
    • For verbs that end in ger/gir , in the first person changes the “g” to a “j”.
    • 41. In guir verbs, in the “yo” form, the gu changes to “g”.
    • 42. In uir verbs add a “y” before “a”,”e”, and “o”.
    • 43. For cer/cir verns, in the “yo” form, change the “c” to a “z”
  • 44. Hace+___+que+___
    • The first blank is filled with an expression of time.
    • 45. While, the second blank is to be filled with a verb in eith the present or preterite form.
    • 46. Shows length of time in which the action has taken place.
      • Hace+ (time) + que +(Present tense form of verb)
  • 47. Imperfecto
    • A past tense form for events without a specific time.
      • For -er/-ir ending
    Person talked about Replaces -er/-ir at the end Yo í a T ú í as É l/Ella/Usted í a Nosotros í amos Ellos/Ellas/ustedes í an
  • 48. Imperfecto CONT.
    • For -ar endings.
    Person talked about Replaces -ar at the end Yo aba Tú abas É l/Ella/Usted aba Nosotros á bamos Ellos/Ellas/Ustedes aban
  • 49. Imperfecto CONT.
    • Trigger Words
    • 50. Irregulars
    Trigger Words Translations A meundo Often A veces Sometimes Cada d Í a Everyday Cada a ñ o Every year Siempre Always Ser Ir Ver Era iba Ve Ía Eras ibas Ve Ías Era iba Ve Ía É ramos Íbamos Ve Íamos Eran iban Ve Ían
  • 51. Preterite é amos aste ó aron í imos iste í o ieron
    • Preterite is used for actions that were completed in the past. The ending for preterite are conjugated by being affixed to the end of the infinitives.
    - ar -er/ir
      Trigger Words: Ayer
    • Anoche
    • 52. Anteayer
    • 53. La semanaa pasado
  • 54. Car/Gar/ Zar Verbs
    • Verbs ending -Car, -Gar, and -Zar have their endings replaced in the “yo” form in order to keep the diphthong.
    • 55. Examples:
    Saqu é Sacamos Sacaste Sac ó Sacaron -car becomes -qu é Pagu é Pagamos Pagaste Pag ó Pagaron Sacar (To get) Pagar (To pay) -gar becomes -gu é Cruc é Cruzamos Cruzaste Cruz ó Cruzaron Cruzar (To cross) -zar becomes -c é
  • 56. Cucarachas Verb Infinitive Andar Anduv- Estar Estuv- Poder Pud- Poner Pus- Querrer Quis- Saber Sup- Tener Tuv- Venir Vin- Conducir Conduj- Producir Produj- Traducir Traduj- Traer Traj- Decir Dij-
    • Cucaracha verbs are irrregular preterite verbs that have the infinitive changed/
    - é -imos -iste - í o -ieron