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Garment engineering booklet


what u think

what u think

Published in Business , Lifestyle
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  • WQ Control mouse : zoom in and out Symmetry line Away from symmetry line u have to go back. Left arrow key is the whole thing, right arrow key clicks only one thing Reshape


  • 1.                         Introduction Fabric Identification Natural and Synthetic Pattern cutting collar Pattern cutting front, back and lining Lectra layplans Kaledo spec Construction Final piece Sizing Costing Pockets Quality assurance Time line of garment and Ratio Packs Gap intro Store report Customer profile Mood board Design ideas with fabric samples and burning test Technical drawings Pattern for final piece Evaluation and conclusion Key: Dark Blue= Critical evaluation Light Blue= personal tips 2
  • 2. This journal will be documenting my journey, making a female jacket from fabric testing to quality assurance as well as creating a capsule collection for my given brand ―Gap‖. I will reflect and critically evaluate each stage of my creation of the jacket and colour this dark blue to make it easy to stand out. I hope to be able to create half a jacket that can be used to look at as a reference in the future and good journal that can be used to help me make jackets again. I also hope to achieve a strong capsule collection that will express the brand I have been given. I hope to develop my skills in sewing and pattern cutting, so that I am able to make more complex garments in future projects. I am looking forward to learning how to create a lining as I have nether done this before. 3
  • 3. In This section I am looking at how to identify fabrics as either natural or synthetic, I practised the burn test to understand how to identify traits that can distinguish between synthetic and natural fibres. Fabrics can be split up into two categories: Natural and Synthetic this is what all fabrics are made out of, Natural are found naturally and need little interference chemically to create materials from. While Synthetic is man made and is created using chemicals and are generally based on polymers. Natural:Animal: Alpaca, Angora, Byssus (Sea Silk), Camel Hair, Cashmere, Crab, Human Hair, Llama, Mohair, Pashmina, Rabbit, Silk, Wool, Yak. Vegetable: Bamboo, Coir (coconut), Cotton, Flax (Linin), Hemp, Jute, Raffia (Palm), Ramie, Sisal (Yuka) Aspects of Natural Fibres: •Naturally Thermo regulating •Resistant to odours/stains •Antibacterial properties •Biodegradable •Recyclable •High Moisture absorbency •Naturally fire retardant •Less Pilling •Dyes easier Synthetic:Cellulose: Acetate, Triacetate, Lyocell Viscose (trade name Tencel – Wood pulp), Modal Viscose (beech Trees), Viscose (Rayon) Polymer: Acrylic, Microfiber, Nylon, Olefin (US sports wear), Polyester, Polyethylene, Spandex, Lycra ( Elastane) Aspects of Synthetic Fibres: •Heat Sensitive •Resistant to most chemicals •Resistant to insects/fungi/rot •Low moisture absorbency •Electrostatic •Flammable •Melts •Pilling These Fibres are then spun into yarns which can either be woven into fabrics to create denim or twill etc, or it can be knitted to create jersey fabrics. Woven fabrics come in a huge range of different types of weaves and techniques, they are more rigid then knitted fabrics such as jersey. This information will help me when I design garments, as each material has different strengths and weaknesses, it is important to choose the right material, as it can make or break a design. During the burning of the fabrics to identify them, I found it difficult to distinguish between the smells of some of the fabric samples. Especially when the fabric was a mix of natural and synthetic as I found that the natural burnt hair smell would over power everything else. I think if I was to use this technique when identifying fabrics, I would concentrate more on the visuals, as I found this easier to identify the different types of burnt fabric and could see if different fibres had melted or scorched. I also found that 100% cotton burns very quickly once it catches fire and so could use this also to identify cotton. I also found that some fabrics can be quite deceiving as they look and feel like natural fabrics but then turn out to be 70% polyester. This is something I will have to look out for as a fashion designer, I do not want to purchase fabric thinking its 100% natural when it is in fact not. This could affect customer satisfaction, if I had claimed it to be something its not or even using the wrong fabrics for the wrong brand (polyester in a eco-fashion brand). This would be unethical and has made me understand the value of checking fabric samples not only for weight, feel or weave but also for content and where it comes from. I will also consider this in my designs more, as I previously considered little on whether the fabric was natural or not, as I saw little benefit other then style, look or feel. Now I understand there is more to fabrics such as having resistance to fungi or high flammability. I think I will still need to practise on identifying in particular types of natural and synthetic fabrics but I feel this will come in time as I use and handle a wider range of fabrics in the future. 4
  • 4. Cut a piece of your chosen fabric: pull some fibres from it (both warp and weft). Check how it feels? Then try to burn the fabric. Does it catch fire straight away? What does the smoke smell like? (burning hair/ acrid chemical/ burnt feathers) What is the residue like? (ash/ hard lumps or a mix of both) What do you think the composition is? Handle Smell Residue Composition Rough, itchy, Thin, Stretchy Grey Plastic-y, Burnt Bulbs Plastic blob, Scorched edges Mostly polymers, Possibly a low percentage of natural fibres (polyester/elastin and cotton) Soft, thick, Textured, Black Burnt Cake Ash, Plastic blob, Little scorched 50% Synthetic 50% Natural (elastin or polymer and cotton) Rough, Thin, No stretch White/Grey Burnt Hair Ash 100% Natural Thin, strong, No stretch grey Burnt hair Ash and slightly melted High amount of natural with small amount of synthetic fibres (cotton and polyester) Rough, See through black Burnt plastic Dirty plastic blob 100% synthetic (polyester) Silky, smooth on one side Black Christmas trees Hard shiny black blob 100% synthetic (viscose) Smooth Fabric Smoke grey Plastic, musty Black, melted, hard 100% synthetic (Polyester) My Prediction Answer 100% Cotton 100% Cotton Yellow is cotton Pink is polyester Yellow is viscose Pink is Nylon Acrylic 60% Wool 40% Acrylic 20% Wool 80% 100% Polyester 100% Polyester Acrylic 90% Wool 10% Acrylic 80% Wool 20% 5
  • 5. Draw out the front jacket block, rotating the shoulder dart into the waist dart. Then open it out into a single pointed dart. (Note: 2.5cms from the bust point) Add button wrap (2cms) and mark in break point, which is the top button position, (32.5cms down from centre front neck, but this can alter depending on design.) Extend shoulder line by 2cms. 0 = Shoulder point. 0-1 = 2cms 2 = break point. Join point 2 with 1 (extend the line upwards) line 1- 2 = Break Line The extended line from break line will be the measurement of half back neck measurement. (measure pattern using the tape measure vertically) 1-3 = 8.5cm At 90 degree angle, draw a line from point 3 to the left. Creating line 3-4 (2.5cms, this can be changed depending on how flat you want the collar to sit on the shoulders. If flatter is required increase the amount). Join point 4 and point 1 with a dotted line Place pattern master on the dotted line and create a new line 5- 6 at a right angle. Point 4-5 will be the collar stand (2.5cms). Points 4-6 will be the fall of the collar (5cms, can change for design) Plan Style lines for the collar and rever. (can change based on design.) Then fold paper on break line and trace style lines to the other side of the bodice centre front. Open out the paper and join point 6 at a right angle to the outer edge of collar. (keeping lines smooth and you can adjust the centre back collar if required) Mark 8 at the point, where the rever line meets the break line. Extend point 8, at approximately 2cms and mark as point 7. Join points 5 and 7 to complete neckline (try and go as close to point 0 as possible or neckline on the front block) On the collar piece check the distance from shoulder notch to the centre back seam. It should be the same as half the back neck measurement. Adjust if necessary. This will be the under collar. Check Centre back is at right angles and smooth off curves. Adjust the length of the jacket, based on design (reduced by 4cm) A front facing is drawn parallel to the centre front and neckline at 7cm wide, including the rever. (if a back neck facing is required make sure it is the same width at the shoulder as the front facing) To make the pieces easier to identify trace around the collar piece and the rever in different colours. Add two millimetres to collar from point 6 to where it meets the rever and add 5 mill at point 5 and join to where the under collar meets the shoulder. This will be the top collar. Add 2mm to the facing from break point to where it meets collar. Bring the facing in 2mm at base and add 5cms to base. Copy off pattern pieces adding seam allowance. (under collar is two separate pieces, add seam allowance at centre back, while top collar is one piece, cut on fold.) I found creating the collar and rever, a little challenging at first, as I wasn‘t sure how the stages were creating a collar. But when the final stages were completed it made more sense. I found getting the collar point a it challenging, as the technical drawing wasn‘t my own, so I had to try and make it look as close to the drawing as possible. I think however, that this is good practise for future projects, as well, as industry work, Because I might be working to create other peoples designs. I enjoyed this task as I felt I was building on my basic skills in pattern cutting, and I can use these new skills to create more complicated garments in future. 6
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  • 7. For the front, add centre front line and mark buttons. Add 5cms to the bottom of the jacket piece for the facing. Also add two crosses for drill holes at the notches around the Rever and neckline and mark other notches. Also make sure the dart seams are similar and neat. Cut out the front jacket piece (remember to trace the outer line at the bottom and the inner rever line to allow the seam to roll inwards along the centre front and outwards at the collar so that it isn‘t on show). Cut out the back jacket piece, adding 5cms for the facing and notches. For the interfacings for the collars, front facings and front block piece use the corresponding pattern piece. (keep seam allowances to avoid your main fabric fraying and losing notches) For the back interfacings draw 3cm down from the sew line of the back pattern and draw a curved line following the curve of the shoulder and neckline (up towards neck and down as the shoulder slopes down). For the bottom back facing going 2cms up from the sew line (include facing length) and draw a straight line across. For the Jacket sleeves, draw out the outer sleeve and under sleeve block. Make sure the notches are marked and the grain line is drawn on. Add 5cms to the bottom of the sleeves for facings. For the sleeves interfacings, draw a line 2cms up from the cuff sew line (include facing length) and draw a straight line across. Do the same for the other sleeve. For the lining outer sleeve, add 0.5cms to the lower side of the sleeve and don't add a facing to the bottom. For the lining under sleeve . Add 1cm to the top of the sleeve at the middle, then curve the line into the highest point (leftside). Add 0.5cm onto the lower sleeve point and curve the top line to the point (right side). Don‘t add a facing to the bottom, just 1cm seam allowance. For the back lining, add 2cms to the centre back and curve it into the notch. Add 1cm to the bottom armhole point and curve into the notches. Don‘t have facing just 1cm seam allowance along the bottom. For the front lining, rotate the dart to the right of the bust point (this will create a small pleat). Follow the front facing line on the front draft rather then the basic neckline. Add 1cm to the bottom armhole point and curve into armhole notch. Add 0.5cm to the base of the front at the side seam and curve into notch (this just allows the fabric to have more movement and not feel stretched along the bottom.) Don‘t have facing just 1cm seam allowance along the bottom. I think the front, back patterns where easy to complete as they only needed slight changes from the blocks and we had created previous garments that needed similar techniques, such as moving darts and adding facings. I think it was a good chance to practise and improve these techniques again and help keep them in mind for future projects. However, I was very interested in learning how to do lining, as I had never done it before this project. I had not realised how many pieces go into making a jacket and it has given me an even greater respect for the jacket and the craftspeople who make them. I feel I have improved my pattern drawing skills, as I was able to create the basic pattern, quicker then when I made the shirt in the first year and I was able to add more components to the patterns, that fitted together well while constructing the garment. Things to Remember: Use a 2h Pencil Keep pencil sharpened at all times Double check lines are straight before drawing them to save needing to rub it out. Keep patterns tidy and clean table before starting one. Walk patterns round to make sure patterns are correct. 8
  • 8. First, open the Jacket pattern in Modaris, (check the access paths are to the correct folder.)Open the variant table, click ―piece articles‖ and click all the pieces and then press the full stop on the keyboard. Click back on the variant table to see all the pattern pieces on the table. Then, write in whether the item needed to be cut twice or if only one was needed. For this, type a 1 under S and a 0 under DH if it is to be a single piece, or type a 0 under S and 1 under DH if you need two pieces cut of that item. (Remember to put a 1 in one column and a 0 in the other, don‘t have a 1/0 in both columns, otherwise it won‘t work and you'll have to go back through it all later on.) I found this difficult as I couldn't tell which pieces needed to be doubled, especially the collars as I couldn‘t see them very well. I find it easier with drawn patterns as your writing the pattern as you make each piece so you know which piece will go wear. I think I will get the hang of it the more I practise. Then in the fabric row, type in the fabric it is going to be with a number, so for this instance: 1= main fabric, 2 = Lining and 3= interfacing. Modaris will then change each pattern pieces a colour to match each number so it is clear to see which pieces you have. (click ―piece article‖ and then ―sort‖ to organise them into fabric order.) Then open up Diamino, (make sure your access paths are set to your file names.) Then click ―File‖, ―New‖ and this will open a new page, make sure to name it and have no spaces. Fill in the code, which could be the days date. Add the fabric width e.g. 150 (full width if open or half if folded). Fill in the selvage value, usually 10mm. Then fill in the fabric type e.g. 1 for main fabric or 2 for lining etc. Also fill in Global spacing usually 20, so that it can be enough room to cut etc. (If its for paper use 50). Also check the square symbol to see if it matches how you will lay the plan. (Flat, Folded, Tubular or Stacked.) I found creating a variant a little tricky and it took me a couple of attempts to remember how to create a variant. However, I was persistent and managed to complete this task. I think the more I practise with the Lectra software‘s the easier I will find them. As I seem to struggle mostly with finding the commands I‘m looking for. 9
  • 9. Then enter the model name by double clicking the blank box and selecting the file that you wish to use. Then do the same for the variant box and select the correct variant and the size box selecting the correct size. Then press the tab key to automatically fill in the next boxes. Then save and close the box. Then open the new marker by clicking open and then selector and clicking the file you need. (check the chart type image looks like a lay plan to get the pattern pieces clearly on the above screen. Rather then how they look in the screenshot to the right) Then drag and drop each pattern piece down on to the lay plan section. It might take a few attempts to get a high efficiency (normally looking for above 60% where possible.) It took me quite a few attempts to get it above 55% at first but then I realised you could rotate the pieces by clicking either y or x depending on which way you wanted to rotate it. I think this helped me, a lot, as after I was able to get it above 60% quiet easily. I think I have developed my lay planning skills since using Diamino as it shows me that moving your pieces round can really save allot of space on your fabric with out needing to lose the straight of grain or getting more fabric. I then did he same with the lining, I found this easy to do after I had spent a while playing with the previous lay plan. I had found I knew how to squeeze the little pieces into place, and slot the pieces together like a puzzle. 1 0
  • 10. I then had to create a lay plan for the interfacing. To change to the other fabrics your creating a lay plan for, click ―file‖ ―modify‖. Change the name so you can re-open each plan. Then change the fabric choice, 2 for lining or 3 for interfacing. Also you can change the fabric width or other settings if necessary. I then played around with the interfacing pieces to get them to the highest efficiency. Then saved the pages on to a PDF file for later reference. Click ―File‖, ―Save‖ and then click ―Edit‖, ―Plot on Plotter‖ and then click ―configure‖ and click the PDF setting. At first I struggled to get this to work and then I realised that I wasn‘t clicking configure, I was just clicking ok. I found this frustrating, but at least I shouldn‘t make the mistake again. We then did a lay plan for the interfacing but on a different width and without rotating the pieces. I found it easy to change the width of the fabric but more difficult to get a high efficiency on the lay plan when I couldn‘t rotate the pieces, especially as the larger pieces wouldn‘t sit together. I also spent time in Modaris, playing with the tools, such as cut, pin, reshape, lengthen and adding points, curves and seam allowances. I found this really difficult, especially trying to work out how create curve points, as I just kept creating normal points, because it had been a while since I had used Modaris. As I worked through and looked at some of the help books, I got the hang of it and I think I have also developed my skill in Modaris, over the course. I think I will be quiet confident in creating my jacket design and future projects with Modaris. I then placed my lay plans into a lay plan sheet, to help present them clearly and include added details such as fabric length, fabric width and whether it will be cut on fold or flat. I created this one using Kaledo, however I didn‘t like how it made the patterns blue, so for my lay plan for my own jacket design I will place in the PDF versions of the lay plan, as I feel these are clearer to see and have added details, such as pattern names. 1 1
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  • 12. To cut out the fabrics we had to make sure that we were saving as much fabric as possible, as well as, making sure we were making the right side to our jacket. We first got the main fabric and laid out the pieces that were needed to be cut out in the main fabric, as the fabric didn‘t have a right side we didn‘t to worry about it being flipped the wrong way. However we did need to make sure it was following the grain of the fabric and that the patterns weren't overlapping or the pattern pieces were on the selvedge or over the edge. There was a couple times this happened as we were pinning but the quicker we noticed the easier it was to adjust. However I did find it very difficult to measure the pattern pieces grain lines to the selvedge as I am rather small and couldn‘t reach the pieces in the middle. To improve I will try and use an edge or corner of a table as that way I can walk around the pieces and reach everything easier. This will make the measuring more accurate as I won‘t be trying to lean over the pieces and continually nudge them as I'm trying to measure them. We did the same for the lining which was also the same both sides. However, for the interfacing we had to make sure that the gluey side of the interfacing was the right side up. This took some getting used to as normally you would cut two pieces on fold if you needed two pieces, so that you had a right and a left, but for this we had to lay are pattern pieces on the flat and it was difficult to work out which pieces would face which way to get all of my pieces on the left side of the jacket and all of Lara‘s pieces on the right side of the jacket. I found the best way to work it out was to hold the pieces up and look at it as if it was being worn. Then I could work out which way each component would sit and then which way to place the pattern. We then cut out the pieces and made sure that they were all the right way by walking them round and laying them together. Things to remember when cutting out pattern pieces: Check all your pattern pieces fit on the fabric before pinning. Use weights to stop the pattern piece moving while your pinning it down or lining up the grain line. The grain line runs parallel to the selvedge edge. Pin opposite ends of the pattern and smooth it out as you pin it to keep it from wrinkling and causing your pattern to not lay flat on the fabric. Place a weight on the pattern when cutting it out. Cut the fabric in large cuts rather then lots of little cuts to get a smoother finish. Check pieces through out and afterwards, to make sure there's no mistakes. 1 3
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  • 14. I used Kaledo to create my technical drawings for my jacket. I found this rather easy, as I have used Kaledo quiet a lot in the past, I developed my skills by creating a jacket. I also improved on adding in print or colours. I used the motif function and highlighted the print I wanted, then saved it to the kaledo palette to use in my designs. I used other functions that could increase the size of the print and rotate it. The first jacket I created, I felt didn‘t match the shape of the jacket I had constructed particularly with the neck line, so I used the reshape function. To move points and change the neckline to be longer. I felt this looked better and a closer interpretation of the garment. So it can be recreated. I then placed these designs into a working sketch sheet and added extra items, such as a ―zoomed in‖ detail, this was easy to create as it was mainly just the button but larger. I also imported the patterns from Modaris. So that it can be a checklist for the patterns inside the envelope it would be stuck on. Plus, including fabric samples so that the viewer knows which fabric they need and trims. I also created another working sketch sheet, that showed the fabrics and where on the jacket they would be used. This also gives a more interesting visualisation of the jacket. I then decided to create my own jacket design just to familiarise myself, with all the techniques in Modaris. I really enjoy using Modaris as I feel it creates a cleaner Technical drawing and you can create details such as stitching and buttons that are clearer then if you drew them. I also created my capsule collection of jackets using Modaris, for there working sketches. As I was creating jackets that used different materials I used my gained knowledge in Modaris of using the motif function, and included prints on the technical drawings to show the designs that have different fabrics. Over all, I feel I am confident in using Modaris, I have improved since I last used Modaris, as I can create working sketches quickly and create little details such as stitches or buttons. This will be very valuable to me in the future, as I will be able to create detailed, clear working sketches that will be understandable by other craftspeople to recreate the garments. Key points to remember: Start from the symmetry line and work outwards Make sure you create whole pieces, not just lines. Use reshape to alter points 1 5
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  • 19. Fuse the interfacing to the pattern pieces, making sure there on the inside of the fabric and the right way round. Stitch the darts together and then steam them towards the side seam. The top should be flat and smooth. Steam and iron the pattern piece till its flat again. (Don‘t iron using strokes as this will stretch the fabric just light presses.) Turn over and check the other side is flat and there isn't any puckering in the dart. (for the bust, use edge of table to help smooth the pattern piece flat with out getting creases.) Then sew up the side seams, centre back and shoulder seams. Make sure the garment lines up at the edges. Use notches to help line everything up. Stitch the centre back seam of the under collar. Reinforce the inner neck corners of the jacket, then snip into the corner up to, but not across the reinforce stitching. Match up the notches for the under collar, sewing to the inner neck corner, then folding the collar across to create a sharp corner. Leave the first and last 1cm seam allowance on the right and left fronts either side. Press the neck seam open, allowing the access to fold over one another to create a smooth flat corner. (Don‘t over iron otherwise you will end up with a glaze on the fabric.) Construct the sleeves on the round (sew a line of stitching round the top edge with a long stitch and pull the threads to create an even gather.) Make sure that there is no puckering. (take out the gathering stitches.) Press and steam the sleeve heads so that the seams are pointing out towards the sleeve. (Use the sleeve piece or ham to keep the shape.) Cut two lengths of shoulder roll (to fit in the sleeve head, from front notch to 1cm past back seam notch). Place the shoulder roll level with the armhole seam allowance next to the sleeve head and stitch on just inside the seam allowance line. Place each shoulder pad on the inside of the jacket shoulder and line up the straight edge of the pad with the edge of the seam allowance, matching the pad centre notch to the shoulder seam. (make sure rough side is towards skin and smooth side is towards jacket fabric.) Pin to hold in place at the shoulder edge and place the jacket on a dress stand to position correctly from the outside. Stitch through the seam allowance and tack down at each edge and the centre, (don‘t pull the centre stitch all the way through as it will cause a bump in the middle of the pad.) Place the garment on a stand to make sure the shoulder pads create a soft roll about 1cm out from the seam. Then stitch down the end of the shoulder pad closest to the neck using the seam. So that it doesn't move around. Press up the bottom hem and sleeve hems, then machine in place at the seam allowance (side seams and centre back). To keep the hem from moving or falling down. 2 0
  • 20. Another way to hold up the hem is a cross style stitch, which involves stitching across the hems but not in a running stitch as this would fall apart easily if the thread snaps. We were told to stitch left to right, but I found this very difficult as I am left handed. I found that working from right to left was easier. Stitch the front facings to the front linings (stitch the tuck in place in the lining.) press the seams together towards the linings. (use a piece of cardboard to stop the seam allowance creating a crease on the lining and don‘t press the pleat into a fold). Stitch the centre back seam and stitch the centre back neck pleat for approx 2.5cm only (use centre back notch, for guidance.) press the pleat in place down the centre back. Stitch the shoulder seams and press together towards the back. Stitch the side seams and press open: (snip if curved.) Stitch the top collar to the facings and lining with the same method as the under collar on the main jacket. Construct the sleeve linings, but I had to make sure I left a gap, to pull the jacket through to turn it the right way out. I put the gap in the smaller sleeve seam. (make sure to check the seams are the right way round. Right sides same side.) Gather the head of the sleeve, the same as the outer jacket, and then fit into place avoiding getting any large pleats. Then press the sleeve head linings towards the sleeve. I found the construction of the jacket very interesting and I feel I have learnt a wide range of skills, from constructing linings to sewing in shoulder pads. I struggled with the hem stitching at first, as I was trying to do it with my left hand going left to right, which just made it awkward and difficult to do. I think I have improved a lot on my ironing and steaming skills, as I struggled with this a lot last year. However, I feel I need to carry on practising it, as some awkward parts like the lining to facing seam were still difficult for me to do, as I keep getting ripples and small creases. I want to continue using linings in future garments, so that I can gain knowledge and confidence in using linings. I feel they are a really good finish to a garment. 2 1
  • 21. The most difficult part of creating my Jacket, was the lining, as I had never created a lining before. However, I feel I have learned a valuable skill that I can include in future designs to create a better finish for my garments. 2 2
  • 22. I am very pleased with the outcome of my jacket. However, I would have liked to of created a complete jacket. As I feel this would of given me a better idea of how it would look overall at the end. My strengths were in the construction, as I feel I kept all the seam allowances the same width throughout and didn‘t get any tucks in the stitching. I need to improve on my pattern cutting, as I noticed I had forgotten one or two notches when I was drawing out my final pattern pieces, however, after looking back at the pattern drafts. I was able to rectify my work. 2 3
  • 23. The Size specification sheet is completed after creating the garment, the information required is gathered by measuring the garment on the flat with a tape measure. You then in-put the data in to a table and add or take away a set amount of measurements to create a new size. E.g. Add 2cms to the bust to go up a size. Over all, I think the specification sheet is valuable as it allows you to work out what sizes your larger or smaller garments should be, as well as helps you keep track of the sizing of the garments you create. I found the sizing of the garments straight forward. However, I found it difficult to measure parts like rever from point to point, because we only had half a jacket and so had to just double/ estimate the measurements which stops the work from being accurate. 2 4
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  • 25. Costing sheets, help you work out how much your garment will cost, or how much you will sell it for. It is more likely that the costing sheet will be made before creating a garment, so that the items can be ordered and work to a budget. Everything will need to be in the costing sheet. Yarn or Fabric – price by meter for fabric and by the kilo for yarn. Always add in 10% for wastage. Trims and Accesories – Zips, studs, buttons, pads and interfacing etc. All come in bulk. CMT – Cut, make and trim includng sample development and pattern cutting Freight Cost – Freight on Board (Price is negotiated so the goods are delivered to the port of exit only, then have to add on shipping costs) or Landed (price is negotiated to include shipping costs, goods get delivered straight to warehouse) Cost of items are generally in dollars. So an division of 1.6 for the exchange rate to get it into British pounds. I did my jacket costing sheet in pounds throughout, as it was made in England. (the prices of items are also estimations.) Firstly, I listed the items I needed and then worked out how much of each I needed. I then worked out how much that might cost for the items. I then added 10% for the fabric. I added up the totals for each section. Materials, came to £70.26. Trims came to £1.00 and labour at £6.00. Adding these up gave me my total cost at £77.26 I then marked it up by 3.5 (times by 3.5) to allow for profit. I then had to round it up to a suitable price that would be seen in a retail store, which means I chose 275.00 as it is a whole number and 271 is not often found on a price tag. Overall, I found the costing sheet easy to do once I understood what each section was and needed. I think I will defiantly use this in future work and industry, as it is a useful tool to budget my designs. While in industry it is a necessary tool to gain profit and not lose money. We also looked at ratio packs and how a store such as Primark, might order a ratio pack of 40 garments having 10 size 10‘s. 10 size 12‘s, 5 size 8‘s, 5 size 14‘s, 4 size 6‘s, 4 size 16‘s And 2 size 18‘s This is a ratio pack as the pack is split into different sizes based on a ratio, of which sizes are bought the most down to the other sizes that are available in the store. These packs might also be bought in twos, one for the shop floor and one to store in warehouse, ready to restock. I found this information really interesting and didn‘t realise this is how they order sizes. I think gaining knowledge of the industry is very valuable as it gives us a better idea of the practises in retail as well as, giving us more information that could help us if we were to set up our own business. Which, I feel is a possibility for myself. 2 6
  • 26. Jacket Technical Drawing Costing Sheet Date: 27/11/2013 Garment: Jacket Cost Inc. Materials: Meter/Kilo Amount 10% Fabric (meter) £40.00 1.50 £66.00 Threads £0.05 1.00 £0.06 Linning £3.00 1.00 £3.30 Interfacing £1.50 0.50 £0.90 Total £70.26 Trims: QuantityAmount Cost Buttons £0.60 2 £0.10 Pads (pair) £3.00 1 £0.50 Labels £10.00 2 £0.02 Shoulder Roll £1.50 0.25 £0.38 Total £1.00 Labour: Cutting Sewing Total Back Cost £2.50 £3.50 £6.00 Total Cost £77.26 Total Mark Up (3.5) £270.41 Final Retail Price £275.00 Materials and Trim Samples and Details: 2 7
  • 27. Mark wrong side of garment using pencil or chalk. (mark with the dots for the pocket opening.) Press on the interfacing on the wrong side over dots. Draw on the stitch lines and cutting lines, connecting the dots. Stitch around the outside of the opening. Press on interfacing on wrong side of fabric on the pocket piece. Bag out the sides (stitch) and press. Stitch along raw top edge Leave pin in right sides Place right side of welt to lower edge of pocket mouth. (matching dots a each side) stitch. Place right side of lower pocket bag on top of welt. Stitch along existing row. (making sure to finish at dots, hand turn needle to be most accurate) Place right side of top pocket above lower pocket bag with raw edges meeting stitch from dot to dot. (this will be shorter then lower pocket row. Press seam allowances open at the mouth. Turn to wrong side of garment. Cut through starting at centre then to each cornet. (Be careful not to cut anything else.) Pull lower pocket through opening Pull top pocket bag through and match up pocket and arrange triangular pieces to side and press. Stitch around pocket bag, being careful to keep welt back when stitching over triangular pieces. Over lock to finish and top stitch welt. I have learnt how to create a pocket, which was a little challenging for me as I have not created a pocket before, so it was a whole new technique. I found that the little triangles at the edge of the opening were difficult to stitch down as they kept wanting to move back through. I found the Welt pocket was harder then Jetted pocket as I couldn‘t quiet get the corners to lay flat in the opening of the pocket. 2 8
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  • 29. Pocket bags and bindings (jets) are cut all in one Mark pocket position using template on the garment piece and pocket bag Reinforce pocket opening by pressing on interfacing onto the wrong side of the fabric. Reinforce pocket bag jets with interfacing on wrong side of fabric. For accuracy using chalk or pencil draw stitch and cutting line through dots. Place pocket piece on garment , right side to right side matching pocket position. Use pins to transfer dots to right side of garment. The upper section needs to be longer than the bottom one to match. The size depends on the bound pocket. Stitch along the rectangle from dot to dot accurately and check that both sides are the same measurement. Cut along centre line to dots, then carefully cut a ―V‖ into the corners. Turn through and press corners. Fold the pocket to form pleats that meet in the centre of the opening and press Lift pocket bag and stitch just next to the original stitch line on seam allowance side from dot to dot. Stitching through bottom pocket bag. Do the same for top pocket bag. I really liked the Jetted pocket as it had a nicer finish and used one whole pattern piece to create the pocket pouch rather then two. Although I do feel that it needed a little more time to complete as lining up the opening of the pocket took some time. However, it creates a nice clean effect with no top stitching. I mistakenly put the pocket on the wrong way up in the first stages, but I just unpicked it and started again. I think I will used the jetted and welt pocket in future designs as this gives the garment a function, decoration and makes the garments seem more professional. . 3 0
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  • 31. Quality Assurance and Quality control are essential for brands to keep standards in there products, as well as keeping products safe for customers. Many faults should be found before they are sent out and purchased by customers. However, a lot of items are still set back for poor quality and get past the quality checks. I decided to look at my own garments to see if I could find a few of these common faults. A Quality Assurance employer would check the factories, to make sure they are treating the staff correctly, that the equipment isn‘t faulty and safe to use. They would check the garments, making sure they were being made to the right standard. As well, as working with designers, to make sure that the products being designed can be made at the right cost with high quality components, for example: making sure zips are over seams or making sure there's not to many beads on something that needs to be £10. Common faults:Pilling – When tiny bobbles appear on the surface of the fabric. It is common in knitwear and any other knitted constructions like jersey. 100% wools, cashmeres, merino‘s shed and pill but will ultimately settle. Cheaper yarns can have anti pill processes applied 100% acrylics etc like cashmillion Pilling can be cut down by using De-Fuzzers that cut of the excess fluff. Embellishment Loss – Common cause is use of a running stitch that once broken, continues to come apart. Fashion dictates the amount of embellishment on garments and the demand for new embellishments at continuous cheap prices, lowers the quality available to customers. Embellishments are often hand stitched and is very labour intensive. To keep it cheap it is often done in country's like India and by children, in sweat shops. Every 3cm it the stitched should be tied off to avoid all the embellishments coming of if part of the stitching is snapped. Broken Zips/ Buttons -One of the most common faults, which is why a lot of garments are sold with spare buttons. Broken Zips cause a lot of problems, so most companies will now only use the market leaders YKK zips. Zips breaking on dresses and tops as they pass a seam is due to bad construction and design. Spirality - Spirality is a common occurrence in knitted fabrics like t-shirts, especially after the first wash. Where the garment body completely twist, so the seams move from the side to the middle of the body. This is caused by thin single jersey and cheap knitted fabric which is unstable from the beginning. Usually the garment is made on a circular knitted machine and then the pattern pieces are cut out of it and re-sewn together. This will not occur if fabric is knitted on flat bed knitting machines or the structure is changed to full needle or 1x1 rib. Misalignment – This is where stripe fabrics are stitched or over locked together too quickly and the stripes do not match up at the seams. The fault is not often bought back by consumers, possibly because people don‘t know its a fault and also because its not always noticeable. Glazing – Glazing is a term used to describe the sheen, seen when an item is ironed for too long or using a very hot iron. It is common on both natural and manmade fabrics, as well as knitted and woven fabrics. Very common in tailoring were pressing is an important part of the construction. Colour Transfer and Fading – Mainly an issue with natural fabrics like cotton and cotton rich mixes. Man made fabrics are dyed in liquid state so the colour, while natural fibres are died in solid form, only dying the surface. A big issue with dark denims Colour transferring can also occur with black and dark based cotton fabrics as well. Colour fading can happen when bright trend colours are in fashion. I found this really interesting, as I hadn‘t realised that some of these problems were a quality control issue. I also found it interesting how important quality control is at the beginning of a products life, rather then just checking if the garment is good enough to sell after its been 3 2
  • 32. A garment goes through many stages before it reaches the customers home. This takes a certain amount of time, which for fast fashion in particular is very important to be as quick, as possible and on target. First, The product is designed and the designs are sent to factories, this takes 2 – 3 weeks. It involves trend analysis, shopping around the world to see what's popular and attending trade shows to see what's new. Creating a In house Trend book, which is the first development of styles for selection and discussion by design and buying teams. Second, Fabric get booked, yarn get spun and trims are purchased. This takes 2 – 3 weeks. It involves Fabric sourcing, colour lab dips and trims. Creating 1st View collections and creating a range, factory negotiations and booking production. Third, Cut, Make and Trim. This take 3 to 4 weeks. Quality control checking and sales analysis, working out which stores it will sell best at, which stores should have the most stock. Fourth, Shipping. 4 weeks from China. Then being sent to individual stores. From design to shop floor it can take up to 14 weeks from china to deliver into the warehouse. Roughly 3.5 months before it is in store. As I have been creating the jacket, I have undergone a similar timeline for my garment. I have designed jackets, I have created patterns, lay plans and looked at the selection of fabrics using the burn test as well as constructing the garment and measuring it for size specification. I think this has helped me understand how much work actually goes into the finished product other then the cutting and sewing. As well as improving my own skill in a lot of these sections, especially quality control, as I know what to look out for and why quality control is so important, which I had not understood so much before. 33
  • 33. I went to the Turnbull and Asser Shirt Factory. Turnbull and Asser create high quality ready to wear and custom made shirts. They also make the shirts for many high profile celebrities including The Prince of Wales, Sir Winston Churchill and Sean Connery. Turnbull and Asser has been running since 1885, with a flagship store in Jermyn street in London and two stores in America. I found it very interesting to see how a real industry factory worked. I was particularly interested in the machinery they used and the manufacturing process. I was happily surprised it was very similar to that, which we have in university, with the Lectra Digitiser and sewing machines. I noticed they had a very high quality control, as they were constantly checking there work and fabric for any minor issues. This makes sure that the final pieces are always perfect and worth the Turnbull and Asser label. We got to see all the stages of the construction of these shirts, and so I have created a timeline of a Turnbull and Asser shirt. This is very similar to the stages I went through on my jacket, but on a much larger scale. 3 4
  • 34. Fabric is chosen and ordered in Fabric is layered and lined up with patterns Sent to the factory to be sewn together Stitching is to a high quality Any faults are marked with a fault sticker and sent back to be fixed Patterns are made from customer measurements Patterns are checked and cut out. Along with trimmings Trims are also put on such as buttons. Collar is pressed in a machine Patterns are put into Modaris and edited Can also be cut out using metal pattern pieces and saw Each sewing machine has a different part of construction to do Pattern Pieces are printed out and checked Fabrics are stacked They work through there packs of garments The quality of the garment is checked Checking the product meets customers requirements Whole shirt is pressed and buttoned up. Shirt is then packaged ready to be shipped. 3 5
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  • 36. I have been given the brand Gap to research and create a capsule collection for. I looked into the history of gap, local Gap store compared to neighbouring stores, and the online store. I also looked into there target market. Gap was created by Donold And Doris Fisher, they opened there first store in San Francisco, California in 1969. Since then it has expanded into a 6 Brands and over 3400 stores across the world, including Banana Republic, Old Navy and Atheleta. Gap was created after he noticed the younger generation where wearing genes, rather then being a work uniform for builders they had also become a staple fashion piece to teenagers. He decided to open gap after he couldn't find a pair of jeans in his size and he realised that jeans are more popular then the shops could keep up with. Along, with his wife he opened a small shop, which sold Levi‘s jeans and records. He sold the records in hope that it would attract jean buyers but this didn‘t work, so he started to advertise the jeans at low prices and soon picked up business. He then opened ―The Gap‖ which was named after the generation gap, which was a term used at the time to state the differences between the youth and the older generations. His stores held a wide selection of jeans and low prices and this attracted alot of customers around the age of 14 to 25. The original stores where often small and brightly painted and often playing rock and roll music. Over the years however gap has grown and changed. It slowly broke out of the jeans niche market and were adding there own brands of clothing, because Levi Strauss jeans were being shipped to other customers and there original customers were now older, more conserved and wealthier. Millard Drexler was hired as president in 1983. He quickly changed Gap from a bright orange shop aimed at teenagers to a shop full of neutral colours and shelf's, aimed at the middle aged, who wished to look and feel young, with classic informal wear. Including shirts, skirts, blouses, and sweaters in assorted colours and fabrics. Gap also bought and created new brands to grow there customer base. Banana republic being the first, its origins started when Mel Ziegler‘s wanted to replace his old military surplus jacket. He found a British Burma jacket and got his wife to alter it, to downplay the military look of it. It was loved by those who saw it and so he was encouraged to open his own store. ―Banana Republic Travel and Safari Clothing Company‖ in San Francisco. The store wasn‘t just about selling the clothes but also an idea, it had its own unique style. Particularly being known for khaki. Gap purchased Banana Republic in 1983, however 3 years later banana republic‘s khaki and travel style had started to become unpopular. This called for a complete new identity, its clothes slowly became more suitable for office then for trips and safaris. It is now stated on the website it is ―Modern, covetable workplace style for professional men and women. Banana Republic is dedicated to helping customers achieve professionally and personally, and offers versatile work wear that can be styled for any occasion — from desk to dinner. Collections include clothing, handbags, jewellery and eyewear designs at accessible prices.‖ It also includes brands such as Old Navy which is aimed at all the family, classic styles to fashion styles mixed with quality at reasonable price. Atheleta is a sportswear brand aimed specifically at women. INTERMIX being gaps newest purchase in December 2013, is a multi-brand fashion retailer selling trends from up and coming designers as well as established designers. It mixes latest's trends with exclusive designer products. 3 7
  • 37. For this report, I am going to analyse Gap and what I believe are its two competitors in the UK, H+M and Marks and Spencers. The reason I believe these are its main competitors in the UK is because they claim to offer quality and fashion at the best prices to the women aged between 30-40. The all offer a range of tops, jackets, trousers and shirts. They are also all based in Castlepoint: Gap – Unit L, West Mall, Castle Lane, Bournemouth, M+S – Castlepoint, Yeomans Way, Bournemouth, H+M – West Mall, Castle lane, Bournemouth, Gap is an American brand that prides itself in classic informal clothing such as t-shirts, jeans, skirts, coats and blouses at a high quality. Its store is full of everyday basics in classic styles and different colours mostly blues, white, black and grey. The shop I looked at in Castlepoint had a very poor window display. The left hand side was covered in discount adverts and it covered an entire mannequin and rail of garments that I'm not sure were meant to be there. The top window consists of a fashion photo, that shows a well dressed man wearing gap clothing, although none of the garments he was wearing are on the mannequins below. I also think the models have been squished together, although they are wearing ready to wear outfits that look nice and appealing to there audience. I think it could of done with another photo at the bottom, which I then realised it had but it was being blocked by the reduction adds. The right hand window display was more themed around children clothing, and while it had a large sale sign it wasn‘t blocking the garments on display as the sign was above the height of the children mannequins. This made the window look less cluttered. However I noticed the mannequins were contortioned into strange shapes, I think this makes the window less appealing and seem rushed. I liked the pictures that were displayed with children in gap clothing but again I didn‘t see the clothing on the mannequin. I also don‘t think the paper cut out tree was very appealing as it was blocking the background imagery and just seemed to be used to fill up the middle space. I think what they should of done is move children mannequins back a bit, rather then sitting right on top of the window. However, as I was taking pictures I did notice a lady moving around in the background and so I think it may have been mid transition to a new display. As I entered the store I there was a few mannequins in front of me wearing bright coloured jeans and jackets which had been pinned back to make them look more fitted then they actually are. Which I‘m not sure was a good idea, as it doesn't portray the clothing correctly to the customer. However I did really like these mannequins as there clothing looked interesting the outfits were wearable in a informal instance but also they looked smart. There was some trends such as bold colours, denim jackets and layering but for the most part it is just classic casual wear, your basic jeans, tops, jumpers, shirts. However, none of the garments were easy to find, they weren't all on a shelve near the mannequins and were mostly scattered in all the different sections of the shop. 3 8
  • 38. However, the shop was easy to navigate, as it had a clear section for jeans, office, jackets, t-shirts, and children's-wear. The sale section was clearly signed and it was off to one side of the shop so it didn‘t take over the store and make it look rundown. While the females clothing took up most of the centre and left side of the shop, with a separate jeans section to the men‗s, the men's section was on the right behind the women's coats. Its colour lay out was slightly darker then then the rest of the store. I think this is to attract men, but I felt it was too dark and gloomy and not appealing to any one. The children‘s section however was very bright and colourful and very enticing at the back of the store. It stocked bright clothing for children and the lights were allot brighter in that area. The fixtures and fittings were a soft grey metal and lots of wood. This gives the shop a sort of natural feel, the lighting was soft and so some areas felt rather dark compared to shops such as Topshop which keeps everything white and bright. However it is similar to its competitor H+M, as they also follow a low lighting and wooden shelf's theme as well. However I think Marks and Spencer's plays up more on the greys and metal then the wood theme. The store clearly showed the items, allot of half mannequins wearing shirts and neatly folded items on shelf's. However I did find allot of them weren't in size order which made it difficult to work out there size range and even to find a size in garments I liked. After looking online, I found that there size ranges from XXS-XXL (UK Size 2 to 24). Although I think the sides are more available online as it was difficult to find anything below size 8 and above size 16 in store. The colours for the garments were mostly blues, browns, greys, blacks and whites. However the trousers at the front of the store were bright yellow, red and blue and the linings of allot of the jackets were bright greens and reds. This added a splash of colour to the store and made them stand out on the shelf's and racks. While Marks and Spencer's tries to follow more of the on trend colours, they also keep the basic blacks and whites. I think the personnel in the store were ok, they smiled at me if they caught my eye but never offered any help or said anything. I think this could of been improved even with a hello or a welcome. The finish on the Gap garments was of high quality, if the garments weren‘t lined the seams all had binding on the raw edges and from the garments I looked at there was no noticeable mistakes such as wobbly stitch lines. The fabric choice although its not pure natural fabrics, were on the most part high quality, one of there point of selling was the fact that the fabric came from Italy, although there was also allot of viscose, cotton and polyester . While H+M really ranged in its use of fabrics, some items being 100% cotton, while others had no natural fabric in it what so ever. I think GAP is trying to show quality using natural fabrics but I think for the price they sell there garments at I would like to see more natural fabric than synthetic. As H+M can sell a 50% woollen jacket for the £40.00 while GAP are selling a jacket with only 65% for around £99.00. I think this is a very large price gap and could show why gap is struggling in its current state. I believe they haven't changed with the current financial state, people want quality but they want it at price they can afford. If they can find it cheaper some where else they are more likely to go else where as more and more people watch there money.
  • 39. I believe GAP also have competition from stores such as Matalan and George, while they don‘t offer the same quality as gap they are considerably cheaper and I know that a working 30-40 year old mother is more likely to purchase something more affordable and look after it to keep it longer, then to spend a lot of money on a coat that may last, but at that moment is a lot of money to spend on one item. I believe GAP need to start being more competitive price wise to gain more customers. The online store is a bright simple website, with clear sections to easily navigate through. The colour scheme matches the main colours of gaps logo and clothing, blue, black, white and grey. I think this keeps a continuity between the store and the online store. Which will reassure customers that they are on the correct site. The interface is simple with the words being the link to what they are advertising E.g. Petite links to all the clothes designed for petite sized people. There are also miniature adverts that show what gap have to offer which also offer links to what there advertising. There is also a banner at the top that links to the other brands that Gap owns like ―Banana Republic‖ and ―Atheleta‖. The layout is similar to most shops with an thumbnail gallery of the items that you can click to look at more information on the item along with a larger image. There are click options to add the item to your ―basket‖ and a checkout option when you finish choosing your items. The images are of models wearing the outfits in quiet a casual stance with a plain white background to allow the garment to show through easily. The models are always smiling and well styled much like the models in the shop windows. I think the models however are mid 20‘s to 30‘s which is the lower half of there customer profile, I think this is to make the clothes feel young and make the buyer feel as if they are young to. This will also encourage the buyers to purchase the item. As they feel that they can be just like the person in the image and create that look. Overall I like the website, it is simple and bright, which I think should be replicated better in store with brighter lighting as this allows the garments colours to stand out and not look so dull and dark. I like there visual merchandising as it matches the visual merchandising in store and it draws the customers in. However I feel that they might risk losing there core customer if they try to use to models that are to young to there customers. I think that people who are aged between 20 and 30 are more likely to want more fast fashion from stores such as Topshop and New Look then Casual basics from Gap. In conclusion, I believe that GAP is mostly aiming at its customer profile of 30 – 40 year olds with casual informal wear that looks smart and is ready to wear. I believe there shop does appeal to there customer, but I believe they could improve on there fabric choices or lower there prices to meet the demands of the current financial climate. This could introduce more customers or keep there current customers loyal. I also believe that they need to improve on there window displays, by making them clearer and less cluttered by window stickers and large rails of clothing.
  • 40. Age 25-30 Years Old Mainly Female But also men‘s clothes available to Clothing size (online): XXS-XXL (UK size 2-24) Marital Status: Single/ Married (possibly a family) Shopping/Fashion Needs: Wants high quality clothing that will last. The clothing has to be able to look smart but still be able to be worn casually. High End shopper, Doesn't mind spending over 100 pound on a garment. Wants to be able to get all her casual clothes in one store. Doesn't need overly bright or fast fashion. Mid - High Salary earner. Occupation: full time office/city worker, has time to go to the gym and relax Interests and Hobbies: Enjoys watching soaps, documentary's and dramas. Romantic comedies, chick flicks and horror films Enjoys going out on sunny holidays, shopping, out for meals and evenings out with friends or family, If has children enjoys spending time with them, reading to them and taking them to the park. Also enjoys day trips to museums and manor houses. Reads Novels and possibly celebrity magazines and newspapers. Probably spends some time on social networking sites such as Facebook to keep up with friends and family, Likes to keep fit and cares about the things she purchases, she wants things that will last and not go out of fashion to quickly. The shop also contains male garments which would fit a similar customer profile as the female, he will want to purchase clothes that are smart and casual. He is probably also an office working living in an urban environment. He cares about the garments he is purchasing. He wants them to be high quality and worth what he pays for them, which can be around the between £30 - £100. He probably enjoys going out with his work friends in the evening for casual meetings at a bar or restaurant. He likes going on holiday to sunny places and having a good time. He enjoys spending time with his family and just sitting down watching T.v. which would include programs such as Topgear and the Football.
  • 41. I would like to create jackets for gap, that are more decorative, then Gaps current collections. I found that Gaps jackets where simple in design, mainly sticking with the classic cut and classic collar shapes. The garments are designed with high quality and classic style in mind. However I think Gap needs to improve on its garment selection, as it is specialised in casual wear while its competitors also sell work wear, evening and formal wear. I would like to create a collection for Gap that bring them a new chance of bringing in customers and keeping up with there competitors. I have chosen to create a selection of jackets that can be worn at special occasions, using print, and colour. While still keeping the Gap style of classic cut with high quality in mind, as I want to keep the collection retail friendly which means the structure needs to be easy to manufacture and easy to wear. I have chosen a colour scheme of blues and pink and orange, as Gap are known for there blue garments but usually keep everything very dark colours. Which make the brand look a bit dull and plain, I want to brighten it up a bit by adding orange and pink inspired by aquatic creatures, this also gives me interesting patterns to work from such as the ripple effect of water, scales and bubbles. The aquatic theme also links with Gaps want to be made of natural fabrics, while they don‘t achieve this completely, they could improve on it, (A lot of items, I found they had synthetic materials as well.) 4 2
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  • 47. Front Costing Sheet Date: 27/11/2013 Garment: Jacket Cost Inc. Meter/Kilo Amount 10% Materials: Fabric (meter) £2.69 1.00 2.96 Printed Fabric £15.99 1.00 17.59 Fabric (meter) £2.69 1.50 4.30 Threads £0.05 1.00 0.06 Linning £3.00 1.00 3.30 Interfacing £1.50 0.50 0.90 Total Trims: Quantity Pads (pair) 29.11 Amount Cost £3.00 £0.50 £10.00 2 £0.02 £1.50 Labels 1 0.25 £0.38 Shoulder Roll Total Labour: Back £0.90 Cost Cutting £2.50 Sewing £3.50 Total Total Cost £6.00 £36.01 Total Mark Up (3.5) £126.02 Final Retail Price £130.00 Materials and Trim Samples and Details: 4 8
  • 48. Name: Charna Cole Size specification Measurements (taken Flat in Centimetres) Project: Jacket 8 10 12 14 16 Length from side neck point to hem 56.5 56.5 56.5 56.5 56.5 Bust - 2.5cm below armhole 52.6 54.6 56.6 58.6 60.6 waist- 39cm below side neck poin 41.6 43.6 45.6 47.6 49.6 hem width 49.6 51.6 53.6 55.6 57.6 across front - 15cm from snp 42.2 43.4 44.6 45.8 47 across back - 15cm from snp 31 32 33 34 35 11.5 12 12.5 13 13 22 23 24 25 26 15.2 16.2 17.2 18.2 19.2 61 61 61 61 61 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 back neck drop from imag. Line to seam 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 front neck drop from imag. Line to seam 37 37.5 38 38.5 39 shoulder seam length Armhole - straight bicep - 2.5cm from underarm overarm - from crown to end cuff under arm collar depth at cb rever from point to point back neck width - inside edges 4 9
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  • 51. Costing Sheet Front Date: 27/11/2013 Garment: Jacket Cost Inc. Meter/KiloAmount 10% Materials: Fabric (meter) £2.69 1.50 4.30 Fabric (meter) £2.69 1.50 4.30 Threads £0.05 1.00 0.06 Linning £3.00 1.00 3.30 Interfacing £1.50 0.50 0.90 Total Trims: Quantity 12.86 Amount Cost Buttons £0.60 2 £0.10 Pads (pair) £3.00 1 £0.50 £10.00 £1.50 2 0.25 £0.02 £0.38 Labels Shoulder Roll Total Labour: Back £1.00 Cost Cutting £2.50 Sewing £3.50 Total £6.00 Total Cost £19.86 Total Mark Up (3.5) £69.52 Final Retail Price £75.00 Materials and Trim Samples and Details: 5 2
  • 52. Name: Charna Cole Size specification Measurements (taken Flat in Centimetres) Project: Jacket 8 10 12 14 16 Length from side neck point to hem 65.5 65.5 65.5 65.5 65.5 Bust - 2.5cm below armhole 52.6 54.6 56.6 58.6 60.6 waist- 39cm below side neck poin 41.6 43.6 45.6 47.6 49.6 hem width 49.6 51.6 53.6 55.6 57.6 across front - 15cm from snp 42.2 43.4 44.6 45.8 47 across back - 15cm from snp 31 32 33 34 35 11.5 12 12.5 13 13 22 23 24 25 26 15.2 16.2 17.2 18.2 19.2 61 61 61 61 61 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 37 37.5 38 38.5 39 shoulder seam length Armhole - straight bicep - 2.5cm from underarm overarm - from crown to end cuff under arm collar depth at cb rever from point to point back neck width - inside edges back neck drop from imag. Line to seam front neck drop from imag. Line to seam 5 3
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  • 55. Front Costing Sheet Date: 27/11/2013 Garment: Jacket Materials: Meter/Kilo Amount Cost Inc. 10% Fabric (meter) £2.69 1.00 2.96 Printed Fabric £15.99 1.00 17.59 Fabric (meter) £2.69 1.50 4.30 Threads £0.05 1.00 0.06 Linning £3.00 1.00 3.30 Interfacing £1.50 0.50 0.90 Total Trims: Quantity 29.11 Amount Cost Buttons £0.60 2 £0.10 Pads (pair) £3.00 1 £0.50 £10.00 2 £0.02 £1.50 0.25 £0.38 Labels Shoulder Roll Total Labour: Back £1.00 Cost Cutting £2.50 Sewing £3.50 Total Total Cost £6.00 £36.11 Total Mark Up (3.5) £126.37 Final Retail Price £130.00 Materials and Trim Samples and Details: 5 6
  • 56. Name: Charna Cole Size specification Measurements (taken Flat in Centimetres) Project: Jacket 8 10 12 14 16 Length from side neck point to hem 70.5 70.5 70.5 70.5 70.5 Bust - 2.5cm below armhole 52.6 54.6 56.6 58.6 60.6 waist- 39cm below side neck poin 41.6 43.6 45.6 47.6 49.6 hem width 49.6 51.6 53.6 55.6 57.6 across front - 15cm from snp 42.2 43.4 44.6 45.8 47 across back - 15cm from snp 31 32 33 34 35 11.5 12 12.5 13 13 22 23 24 25 26 15.2 16.2 17.2 18.2 19.2 61 61 61 61 61 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 37 37.5 38 38.5 39 shoulder seam length Armhole - straight bicep - 2.5cm from underarm overarm - from crown to end cuff under arm collar depth at cb rever from point to point back neck width - inside edges back neck drop from imag. Line to seam front neck drop from imag. Line to seam 5 7
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  • 59. Front Costing Sheet Date: 27/11/2013 Garment: Jacket Cost Inc. Meter/Kilo Amount 10% Materials: Printed Fabric £15.99 1.50 25.58 Fabric (meter) £2.69 1.50 4.30 Threads £0.05 1.00 0.06 Linning £3.00 1.00 3.30 Interfacing £1.50 0.50 0.90 Total Trims: Quantity 34.14 Amount Cost Buttons £0.60 2 £0.10 Pads (pair) £3.00 1 £0.50 £10.00 2 £0.02 £1.50 0.25 £0.38 Labels Shoulder Roll Total Labour: Back £1.00 Cost Cutting £2.50 Sewing £3.50 Total Total Cost £6.00 £41.14 Total Mark Up (3.5) £144.00 Final Retail Price £150.00 Materials, Trims, Samples and Details 6 0
  • 60. Name: Charna Cole Size specification Measurements (taken Flat in Centimetres) Project: Jacket 8 10 12 14 16 Length from side neck point to hem 52.5 52.5 52.5 52.5 52.5 Bust - 2.5cm below armhole 52.6 54.6 56.6 58.6 60.6 waist- 39cm below side neck poin 41.6 43.6 45.6 47.6 49.6 hem width 49.6 51.6 53.6 55.6 57.6 across front - 15cm from snp 42.2 43.4 44.6 45.8 47 across back - 15cm from snp 31 32 33 34 35 11.5 12 12.5 13 13 22 23 24 25 26 15.2 16.2 17.2 18.2 19.2 61 61 61 61 61 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 32.2 32.2 32.2 32.2 32.2 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 37 37.5 38 38.5 39 shoulder seam length Armhole - straight bicep - 2.5cm from underarm overarm - from crown to end cuff under arm collar depth at cb rever from point to point back neck width - inside edges back neck drop from imag. Line to seam front neck drop from imag. Line to seam 6 1
  • 61. 6 2
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  • 63. Costing Sheet Front Date: 27/11/2013 Garment: Jacket Cost Inc. Meter/KiloAmount 10% Materials: Fabric (meter) £2.69 1.00 2.96 Fabric (meter) £2.69 1.50 4.30 Threads £0.05 1.00 0.06 Linning £3.00 1.00 3.30 Interfacing £1.50 0.50 0.90 Total Trims: Quantity 11.52 Amount Cost Buttons £0.60 2 £0.10 Pads (pair) £3.00 1 £0.50 £10.00 2 £0.02 £1.50 0.25 £0.38 Labels Shoulder Roll Total Labour: Back £1.00 Cost Cutting £2.50 Sewing £3.50 Total £6.00 Total Cost £18.52 Total Mark Up (3.5) £64.81 Final Retail Price £70.00 Materials and Trim Samples and Details: 6 4
  • 64. Name: Charna Cole Size specification Measurements (taken Flat in Centimetres) Project: Jacket 8 10 12 14 16 Length from side neck point to hem 70.5 70.5 70.5 70.5 70.5 Bust - 2.5cm below armhole 52.6 54.6 56.6 58.6 60.6 waist- 39cm below side neck poin 41.6 43.6 45.6 47.6 49.6 hem width 49.6 51.6 53.6 55.6 57.6 across front - 15cm from snp 42.2 43.4 44.6 45.8 47 across back - 15cm from snp 31 32 33 34 35 11.5 12 12.5 13 13 22 23 24 25 26 15.2 16.2 17.2 18.2 19.2 61 61 61 61 61 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 34.2 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 37 37.5 38 38.5 39 shoulder seam length Armhole - straight bicep - 2.5cm from underarm overarm - from crown to end cuff under arm collar depth at cb rever from point to point back neck width - inside edges back neck drop from imag. Line to seam front neck drop from imag. Line to seam 6 5
  • 65. 6 6
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  • 67. Costing Sheet Front Date: 27/11/2013 Garment: Jacket Cost Inc. Meter/Kilo Amount 10% Materials: Printed Fabric £15.99 1.50 25.58 Fabric (meter) £2.69 1.50 4.30 Threads £0.05 1.00 0.06 Linning £3.00 1.00 3.30 Interfacing £1.50 0.50 0.90 Total Trims: Quantity Pads (pair) 34.14 Amount Cost £3.00 £0.50 £10.00 2 £0.02 £1.50 Labels 1 0.25 £0.38 Shoulder Roll Total Labour: Back £0.90 Cost Cutting £2.50 Sewing £3.50 Total Total Cost £6.00 £41.04 Total Mark Up (3.5) £143.65 Final Retail Price £145.00 Materials and Trim Samples and Details: 6 8
  • 68. Name: Charna Cole Size specification Measurements (taken Flat in Centimetres) Project: Jacket 8 10 12 14 16 Length from side neck point to hem 57.5 57.5 57.5 57.5 57.5 Bust - 2.5cm below armhole 52.6 54.6 56.6 58.6 60.6 waist- 39cm below side neck poin 41.6 43.6 45.6 47.6 49.6 hem width 49.6 51.6 53.6 55.6 57.6 across front - 15cm from snp 42.2 43.4 44.6 45.8 47 across back - 15cm from snp 31 32 33 34 35 11.5 12 12.5 13 13 22 23 24 25 26 15.2 16.2 17.2 18.2 19.2 61 61 61 61 61 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 44.3 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 7.5 32.2 32.2 32.2 32.2 32.2 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 37 37.5 38 38.5 39 shoulder seam length Armhole - straight bicep - 2.5cm from underarm overarm - from crown to end cuff under arm collar depth at cb rever from point to point back neck width - inside edges back neck drop from imag. Line to seam front neck drop from imag. Line to seam 6 9
  • 69. I feel my collection strongly conveys the Gap style, I based my designs around a classic jacket shape, to fit in with Gaps classic styling, but I changed the visual details of the jacket slightly to make them more stylised and create jackets that could be worn for special occasions, as they are decorative. At first, my designs were a little to couture for a mass market retail store, so I had to concentrate on simple decorations. Rather then complicated structures and large amounts of embroidery. This was at first a little difficult but then I concentrated on looking at a classic jackets shape in Kaledo and manipulating it to create new shapes and designs. I also made sure my collection had a range, from slight colour to heavy prints, so that the jackets will appeal to all Gaps customers, including those who don‘t like heavy prints. I decided to use prints and block colours because when I went into the gap store I found, that it used lots of prints in the linings and bright colours, under the collars of the jackets. Which I found were then hidden when the jacket was worn. I felt that this colour should be on display a bit more to liven up the overall look of the jacket. I also took inspiration from fish, particularly there fins, and incorporated these shapes into the jackets, this is different to normal Gap clothing which is often straight cut and simple. I think this add a diversity to my collection from normal Gap clothing that could help introduce new customers. To keep the jackets, a cohesive collection, I made sure the jackets had similar details mixing them together so each jacket was different but similar. For example, two jackets have godets, two jackets have single underarm colour and two jackets have unbuttoned fronts. I have enjoyed creating this collection, and feel I have learned a lot about designing for a brand, it requires knowing who your brand are, there customers and building on what they already sell. However, I feel if I had more time I would have created water imagery myself by taking pictures of water and shining light through it to create the interesting ripple effect, similar to the images I had used, I think my technical drawing skills have improved since last years project, as I can now create a range of technical drawings a lot faster and use Kaledo functions with out struggling to find them, however, I do feel I could of added more top stitching to my designs, so that I could use the stitch line in my technical drawings. I used colour in my main technical drawing, as there were different fabrics being used in the garment, and I felt this would make it clearer. However, I also created a plain black and white technical drawing so that it is easy to see where the stitch lines would be. However, In the future, I might look at making the colours and prints on the technical drawing faded. So that the sewing lines stand out more then the colours. I created a costing sheet for each of my garments. I wanted the costing to suit the prices found in Gap stores. As they have a pricing architecture, ranging from £60.00 to £168.00, so I made sure that my jackets fitted inside this architecture ( My cheapest being £70 and the most expensive being £150.) This allows customers with different budgets, to get the style jacket, but with a different amount of detail and prints. However, my costing sheets are only an estimate of what it might cost, as it I am not sure what it would cost to purchase digital printed fabrics on industry scale. To improve on my costing sheets in future, I will research into a wide range of fabrics and keep notes of there cost, so I have a better idea of the price of fabrics for costing sheets. I think costing sheets are really useful, especially for future projects. As this way I can make sure I am creating items without going over budget and if I was work on commissions this would be how I would keep track of profits and spending. I also tried to create a size specification for each outfit I had designed. Although I found this was very difficult as I didn‘t have the finished product to measure from or a jacket similar to what I had designed. However, I used the size specification I had created from my previous jacket and changed it according to my new jackets. However, as I had designed my jackets to have a similar fit to the jacket I had created. I found I didn‘t need to change a lot of the measurements (e.g. The bust, width, arm lengths.) The only measurements I found I needed to change were the lengths and collar revers, but these were also estimates. However, if I was to make these jackets, I would refill out these size sheets, to hold the correct sizes. 70
  • 70. Name: Charna Cole Date: 30/11/2013 Project Title: Garment Engineering Garment Type: Jacket Interfacing Width (cms) 150cm Length (cms) 141cms Folded/Single Lay: Single Length (cms) 141cms Folded/Single Lay: Single Black Fabric Width (cms) 150cm 7 1
  • 71. Name: Charna Cole Date: 30/11/2013 Project Title: Garment Engineering Garment Type: Jacket Patterned Fabric Width (cms) 150cm Length (cms) 141cms Folded/Single Lay: Single Length (cms) 141cms Folded/Single Lay: Single Lining Width (cms) 150cm 7 2
  • 72. I created my own jacket pattern, by adapting the original jacket. I added a godet across the back of the jacket, as well as adding two more to create a layered look. This meant I had to cut out the back of the jacket to allow the godet to be stitched in, I measured a jacket on the stand and marked where I want the I the godet to be, I then measured these lengths and made the lines in the Modaris pattern the same. I also made sure the godet edges matched the same length and used the marry function to check they would fit, as well as, adding notches to line up the other godets layers. I also changed the front of the jacket, so that the front was longer and more pointed so that it would hang down when being worn. I also made the front panels of the jacket a different fabric to the main part of the jacket, so I split the front panels in half using the cut tool. Finally I changed the collar and rever so that they wouldn‘t have a point, and just curved together instead. However, I wanted it two different fabrics so I left it separated. I then changed the linings and interfacings to fit with these changes. I then transferred my modaris patterns into diamino to make the lay plans, I found this easy after I had done the first lay plan. Although I did struggle at opening a new variant. This was a bit more complicated then before as I had a lot more pattern pieces to work with and 4 different fabric types that I needed the fabrics to be cut out off. I found this a little difficult at first, as I knew what I wanted to do but I couldn‘t find the right function on Modaris. Especially things like the grain lines and cut, because I knew there was a function for it, but I couldn‘t find in on the list and this took a lot of time to complete pattern pieces. I also had a problem, with the front darts, as I couldn't seem to move them. I wanted them to be French darts and I used the move dart function but I found that because the dart was a diamond dart, it had lost some of the fit. So I decided the best thing to do, to keep the fit was to leave the dart and work around it. In future I want to improve on moving darts and creating darts in Lectra. I will do this by using Lectra more throughout this year. As well as practising my dart manipulation on fabrics, as well as the computer. 7 3
  • 73. During this project, I have been creating a Jacket, from concept to construction. My outcomes included a booklet showing my development and work through these stages and my capsule collection, half a jacket and a pack of patterns for a Jacket. Overall, I have found this project very interesting and challenging. I have learnt a lot of new skills and developed on existing skills. Such as, developing my knowledge of the Modaris and learning about how to create a costing sheet and size specification. I particularly found I have improved on my sewing skills from last year, as I feel my Jacket is a lot neater then what I produced last year, and I feel I had better control when sewing. I have a lot more to learn about Modaris and Diamino, as I still struggle with finding functions, but I feel I have improved since last year. As I was able to create my own pattern using Modaris and create a variant for it for Diamino. However, I feel I struggled with my layout. If I had another chance at this, I would improve my the overall look of my booklet as I still don‘t feel happy with it. I will improve this in future, by looking at the layout earlier on in the project and research graphic layouts in magazines and publications, to inspire me to create interesting and visually appealing work. I will take to my next project, my new knowledge in quality control and quality assurance to keep the garments I make, high quality and tidy. This will improve the final presentation of the work. As high quality control improves the look of the garment, as well as quality. I will also use costing and size specifications in my next project, as I found these very useful and display details of the garment clearly, this will also help me improve them over time. In conclusion, I feel my work has been a thorough investigation of the timeline of a garment from concept to construction. I have looked into all the stages of creating a garment. I have improved on a lot of my skills particularly in Modaris and sewing. Although I need to improve on my layouts, whether that will be in sketchbooks, reports or research booklets. I have really enjoyed this unit, as I learnt a lot about the industry, as well as, getting the chance to visit a shirt factory, to see what we‘ve been learning in action. 7 4
  • 74.      Gap Online -, Gap 2013 Water image - - Craig Barhost 2013 Water image - , Alexandre G 2013 Water image Sweet Rose‘s 2013, Sweet roses 2013, ottom_FocusFixer5.jpg Water image – Martin Klaseens 2013.  Handouts – Pat Grice. Anya Pearson – 2013   Fighter fish image – Betta Splendens 2013, 7 5