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  • Antibiotics

    1. 1. ANTIBIOTICS E. Aguilera 1
    2. 2. <ul><li>What are the antibiotics? </li></ul><ul><li>Who discovered them? </li></ul><ul><li>Antibiotics nowadays </li></ul><ul><li>3.1. Resistance </li></ul><ul><li>3.2. High prices </li></ul><ul><li>3.3. Generic drugs </li></ul><ul><li>4. Summary </li></ul>ANTIBIOTICS 2
    3. 3. <ul><li>an antibiotic is a substance or compound that kills or inhibits the growth of bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>It can be a substance produced by a microorganism or synthesized </li></ul><ul><li>are relatively small molecules, such as penicillin </li></ul>1. What are the antibiotics? 3
    4. 4. 2. Who discovered them? <ul><li>Over 2,500 years ago, Chinese medicine used plants with antibiotics properties </li></ul><ul><li>Many other cultures, including Egyptians , Greeks and medieval Arabs used moulds and plants to treat infections </li></ul>4
    5. 5. Infection by Plasmodium organisms is known as malaria Quinine , most famously used for treatment of malaria 5
    6. 6. 2. Who discovered them? <ul><li>In 19 th scientists observed that a bacillus could inhibit the growth of another </li></ul>The Scot, Alexander Fleming 's discovery of Penicillin in 1928 Paul Ehrlich , a German medical scientist in the late 1880s descovered Salvarsan 6
    7. 7. Marked the birth of the antibiotic revolution Paul Ehrlich Discovered a man-made antibiotic, Salvarsan, which were called magic bullets and cured the Syphilis 7
    8. 8. Alexander Fleming was awarded with the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 1945, shared with another two scientists Alexander Fleming Penicillin has antibacterial activity against a wide range of bacteria Can be taken without causing adverse effects 8
    9. 9. 3. Antibiotics nowadays 3.1. Resistance 3.2. High prices 3.3. Generic drugs 9
    10. 10. 3.1. Resistance 10
    11. 11. Antibiotic resistance The ability to survive having the power not to be affected by antibiotics Antibiotics are now less effective because bacteria have become more resistant Acquired resistance results from a mutation in the bacterial chromosome It is an evolutionary process that is based on selection 12
    12. 12. Common forms of antibiotic misuse Inappropriate antibiotic treatment by self-prescribing 13
    13. 13. Common forms of antibiotic misuse Non-therapeutic use of antibiotics as growth promoters in agriculture 14
    14. 14. 3.2. High prices With the worldwide growth of resistance, new antibiotics are increasingly needed Research and development (R&D) is expensive, particularly for clinical trials involving people Product development can be a lengthy process Both are unattractive features for most investors, who tend to be risk-averse 15
    15. 15. 3.2. High prices Patent is an offcial right to be the only company to sell a drug High drug prices have been the incentive for R&D investment High prices mean many people cannot afford them in poor countries 16
    16. 16. 3.2. High prices Even in industrialised countries, there are strategies to limit access, such as limited insurance coverage The World Health Assembly considers it is necessary to deal with &quot;the linkage of the cost of R&D and the price of medicines.&quot; 17
    17. 17. 3.3. Generic drugs A generic drug is a drug which is produced and distributed without patent protection 18
    18. 18. 3.3. Generic drugs When generic products become available, the market competition often leads to lower prices 19
    19. 19. Antibiotics have improved our quality of life But there are countries without resources to get them. The richest countries should make a bigger effort to provide public health there. It is necessary to encourage pharmaceutical industry to invest in innovation rather than giving longer patent protection 4. Summary 20
    20. 20. Public sector and donor investments in antibiotics are important, and are in the form of push mechanisms, such as grants to non-profit drug development. Doha Declaration : It is an international agreement adopted by (WTO) World Trade Organization. It reaffirmed flexibility of states in avoiding patent rights for better access to essential medicines. 4. Summary 21
    21. 21. SOME QUESTIONS (I) How have bacteria become resistant? How can we let down the bacteria adaptation? Do you know any misuse of antibiotics? What is a pharmaceutical patent? What are the patent´s desadvantages? Which would be the consecuences if there were not patents?
    22. 22. SOME QUESTIONS (II) When can a company sell generic drugs? How long is the life of a patent in US? Are generic drugs accesible to everybody? How could the WHO help better to the poorest countries? What is the importance of Doha declaration?