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  • 1. A Primer of English Grammar Part One By Ali Abdel Aziz Ismael Mohamed Abdel Aatty Revised by M.M. Enani ١١٣ English Grammar Part ١ (١)
  • 2. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Revised Edition Copyrights ١٩٩٨, ٢٠٠٥. ٢ __________________________________________________________________
  • 3. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Table of Contents OUTLINE OF THE COURSE ........................................................................................... ٥ GENERAL AIMS OF THE COURSE ................................................................................ ٧ HOW TO STUDY .......................................................................................................... ٨ THE ASSESSMENT GUIDE .........................................................................................١٠ UNIT (١) PARTS OF SPEECH AND WORD ORDER . ١١ ١. Parts of Speech: ........................................................................ ١١ ٣. Prerequisites of the constituents of a simple sentence: ........... ١٣ A) The Subject: ........................................................................................................... ١٤ B) The Verb:................................................................................................................ ١٥ C) The Complement:................................................................................................... ١٥ Exercises: ...................................................................................... ٢٤ UNIT (٢) THE TENSES .....................................................٢٩ MAJOR TENSES IN ENGLISH .....................................................................................٢٩ ١. Simple Tenses.......................................................................... ٣٠ Present Simple .............................................................................................................. ٣٠ Past Simple ................................................................................................................... ٣٤ Future Simple................................................................................................................ ٣٥ ٢. Continuous or progressive...................................................... ٣٨ Present Continuous ....................................................................................................... ٣٨ Past Continuous ............................................................................................................ ٤١ Future Continuous......................................................................................................... ٤١ ٣. Perfect Tenses. ........................................................................ ٤٢ Present Perfect .............................................................................................................. ٤٢ Past Perfect ................................................................................................................... ٤٣ Future Perfect................................................................................................................ ٤٤ ٤. Perfect Continuous Tenses. .................................................... ٤٥ Present Perfect Continuous ........................................................................................... ٤٥ Past Perfect Continuous ................................................................................................ ٤٦ Future Perfect Continuous ............................................................................................ ٤٦ Exercises: ...................................................................................... ٤٧ UNIT (٣) THE PASSIVE VOICE......................................٨٧ __________________________________________________________________ ٣
  • 4. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Guide to forming the passive:....................................................... ٨٩ Passive of Modal Verb Phrases:................................................... ٩٠ Passive of Infinitives and Gerunds: ............................................. ٩٠ Transitive vs Intransitive .............................................................. ٩١ Exercises: ...................................................................................... ٩٢ UNIT (٤) SENTENCE STRUCTURE............................ ١٠٥ ١. Simple Sentences: .................................................................. ١٠٦ ٢. Compound Sentences: ........................................................... ١٠٧ ٣. Complex Sentences: ............................................................... ١١٠ Noun Clauses .............................................................................. ١١٢ Adjectival Clauses ....................................................................... ١١٣ Adverbial Clauses........................................................................ ١١٧ Connectors: ................................................................................. ١١٨ Clause linkers.............................................................................. ١٢٨ Sentence linkers .......................................................................... ١٣٣ Exercises: .................................................................................... ١٣٥ APPENDICES ...........................................................................................................١٤٨ (A) BRIEF NOTES ON ERRORS IN COMPLEX SENTENCES ........................................١٤٨ (B) GENERAL CHECKLIST OF LANGUAGE ERRORS COVERED THIS TERM (C)……... ١٥١ IRREGULAR VERB ...........................................................................................١٥٢ ٤ __________________________________________________________________
  • 5. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Outline of the Course To the Learner: This book is designed in such a way as to give you courage and confidence in your first exposure to language at the beginning of your career as a would-be translator. This aim is achieved through the simplicity of the content, organization of material and the minimization of the learn-off by heart tasks that you have to carry out. __________________________________________________________________ ٥
  • 6. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ The book includes four units. The first is devoted to parts of speech and word order. The second deals with the tenses. The third tackles the passive voice. Unit Four takes up sentence structure dealing with the simple, the compound and the complex together with all the connectors that are involved in all types of sentences, clauses and phrases, in addition to their semantic and syntactic differences. Only major problems are introduced, others are left to the next term. The exercises begin by the easiest and move to the more difficult, again to encourage you proceed with your answering them confidently. ٦ __________________________________________________________________
  • 7. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar General Aims of the Course ١. This book introduces you to the basic problems of the structures of the different types of sentences, essential to being able to read, write and accordingly to translate them correctly. ٢. It aims to make you comfortable and confident in dealing with the English language grammar by setting most of the rules in clear, wellplanned tables at the end of each sub-module. ٣. It uses everyday, simple, examples to make rules easily remembered and to make the book suitable for its being a reference. ٤. It presents comprehensive exercises to cover all points and check your understanding of the rules and your ability to avoid making mistakes in applying the rule to your writing or translation. __________________________________________________________________ ٧
  • 8. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ How to Study Dear learner In order to help you make the best of your study, we advise you to do the following: Follow the explanation and examples and make sure that you understand the meaning of the written material. Use the video tape for more explanations and exercises. At the end some sub-division, you will find a table that sums up the grammatical rule with the most important details. Make sure that you are well acquainted with the information. Wherever is required you have also to do some learn-off by heart tasks that are minimized in this book. Do not simply read the chapters and pencil in some answerers, but rather copy out whole sentences. It is the complete sentences that make up the language not the single words, however many, or memorizing the rules. ٨ __________________________________________________________________
  • 9. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar __________________________________________________________________ ٩
  • 10. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ The Assessment Guide This guide helps you measure your progress. Check your answers: If you are able to answer ٧٥٪ of the exercises correctly, you have successfully grasped this point —> Good effort. *** From ٧٥٪ to ٥٠٪: maybe you lost some of the points and you need to quickly revise them to see what is wrong. ** From ٥٠٪ to below: Perhaps you were tired or you are confused about many points. The best thing is that you start working tomorrow and begin by viewing the video again. I am sure the results will be better. * Good Luck ١٠ __________________________________________________________________
  • 11. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Unit (١) Parts of Speech and Word Order Contents Objectives of this Unit: It includes three major parts that you have to grasp in full: Parts of speech. Word order: in simple sentences. Prerequisites of Subject, Verb, and Complement. ١. Parts of Speech: If you know the part of speech of the word you are using, you can use it correctly and if you do not know the part of speech of your word, look this up in a dictionary. The parts of speech in English are: Nouns: boy, girl, happiness, reading, ..... Verbs: play, go, ..... Pronouns: he, she,..... [There are many types that will be dealt with later] this, which, someone. _________________________________________________________________ ١١
  • 12. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Adjectives: happy, nice..... Adverbs: tomorrow, quickly..... Prepositions: in, at, on..... Articles: the, a (definite and indefinite) Conjunctions: (Joining words or connectors of all types) and,but, although, ..... ٢. Word Order: Word order in English, unlike some other languages, is relatively fixed and the first step of mastering the English language is to know the word order and the parts of speech. The following is the word order in simple sentences: First place ١ Subject (The doer of the verb) Second place ٢ Verb Third place ٣ Complement (The rest of the sentence) He plays in the garden. The boy buys books. ١٢ _________________________________________________________________
  • 13. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar View the video-tape: o o Follow the programme for reinforcing and explaining this point. Do not begin answering the exercises before you make sure that you fully understand the points and that you are able to answer the question: What are the major constituents of the simple sentence? ٣. Prerequisites of the constituents of a simple sentence: Subject Verb The war Tourism Conditions Restoration The Chinese space ship stopped. has flourished. have changed. continues. landed. Or Subject Verb Object Washington The Chairman of the Board The Iraqis seeks will address demand world support. the first session. sovereignty. _________________________________________________________________ ١٣
  • 14. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Or Subject Verb Complement The Parliament Speaker Corruption The Palestinians travelled Is Fight for abroad. a major problem. self-determination. A) The Subject: The subject is a noun, a pronoun or a noun phrase: Nouns: boy, girl, garden, Washington, corruption, etc. Pronouns: I, you, he, she, it, we, they {Subject Case}. Noun phrases: a little boy, the Iraqis, the Parliament Speaker, etc. The noun phrase is a group of words (two or more) with a noun as its head, e.g.: article intensifier adjective Noun A A A very Good Good boy boy boy In all these examples, all words serve to modify, or describe, the noun. The noun is the most important element, and so we call it the head of the noun phrase. The modifier can also occur after the noun, e.g.: article Noun prepositional phrase The boy with a big nose ١٤ _________________________________________________________________
  • 15. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar [preposition + noun phrase] B) The Verb: It comes in the ٢nd place of the sentence. It changes according to time focus and its form changes to show the time of the sentence. This form is called tense. He I (always) I The little girl Verb Works Take have written Hid in a bank. sugar in my tea. seven essays so far. her books yesterday. C) The Complement: This item includes many elements that can complete the sentence. (You can choose one or more of these elements to complete the meaning of your sentence). ١. Objects: (obligatory with transitive verbs only; [explained later]) They can be nouns, pronouns or noun phrases. My friends bought books. Sarah also bought a book. I’ve got an extremely good book. I thanked him. case]} {noun} {noun phrase} {noun phrase} {pronoun [object To know the personal pronouns in the object case, compare: _________________________________________________________________ ١٥
  • 16. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Subject Object I He She It We You They Me Him Her It Us You Them With the transitive verbs that take two objects there are two kinds of objects: direct & indirect. indirect O. direct O. I gave my friend a book. Note: There is another way to write this sentence with the use of “to”: {direct object indirect object} I gave the book to my friend. ٢. Adverbs and adverbial phrases You can complete your sentence with one or more of the following adverbials: ١. of time: yesterday, at ٦ o'clock, in the morning. ٢. of place: in the garden, here, there, at home. ١٦ _________________________________________________________________
  • 17. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٣. of manner: [adjective + ly] quickly, slowly [irregular : well, hard, fast] ٤. of purpose : to lose weight, to get more money. ٥. of direction : to the house, from the library. ٦. of frequency : every morning, every Tuesday. Order of adverbs • There are three positions of the place of adverb in the simple sentence : ١. Initial position. ٢. Mid position. ٣. Final position. However, you cannot place all the adverbs in the three positions but there is a preferable position for each king of adverb. ١. Adverbs of place usually take the end position: Correct: Ali is sitting outside. Incorrect: Outside Ali is sitting. Other common adverbs of place include: inside, here, there. ٢. Adverbs of definite time usually take the beginning or end position. Correct: I went to my aerobics class yesterday. Incorrect: I yesterday went to my aerobics class. (Other common adverbs of definite time include: today, tomorrow, now) ٣. Adverbs of indefinite time can take the initial, middle, or end position. _________________________________________________________________ ١٧
  • 18. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Correct: Recently I've become interested in karate. Correct: I've recently become interested in karate. Correct: I've become interested in karate recently. Other adverbs of indefinite time include lately. ٤. Adverbs used to evaluate usually take the end position: Correct : Hesham did that cleaning job well. Incorrect : Hesham did well that cleaning job. (other common adverbs used to evaluate include badly, poorly) ٥. Adverbs of manner usually take the middle or end position but can not take the initial position: Correct : Noha quietly opened the door to the baby's room. Correct : Noha opened the door to the baby quietly. Incorrect : Quietly, Noha opened the baby's room. Other common adverbs of manner include quickly, carelessly, softly. ٦. Adverbs of frequency follow very specific rules regarding their position in the sentence: Common adverbs of frequency include always, frequently, occasionally, seldom, continually, hardly, ever, often, sometimes, ever, never, rarely, usually. a. With the verb to be – after the verb ١٨ _________________________________________________________________
  • 19. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Correct: Sheriff is never at home when I call him. Correct : Ali is continually busy. b. With the verb to be + not - after not Correct: James is not always nice to his little sister. Correct: It is not usually so hot here during the summer. c. With other verbs – before the verb Correct: Jane always skates on the boardwalk. Correct: I never ride my bicycle to class d. In a verb phrase – after the first auxiliary verb Correct: John can always hit the target. Correct: I have never seen a comet. e. In a verb phrase with not – after not Correct: She does not always type her paper. Correct: He does not usually have time to read the newspaper. ٣. Adjectives. The function of the adjective is to describe a noun and in English, it comes before the noun. Adjectives are of various kinds and you can use more than one before the noun. The adjective can describe the size, colour, shape, material or an opinion about noun: big, small, large, green, red, yellow, round, square, rectangular, wooden, metallic, _________________________________________________________________ ١٩
  • 20. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ good, bad, wonderful Types and order of modifiers in front of a noun: The modifier refers to all words that relate in their function to the noun. This includes: A. Articles: Definite article: the + (singular and plural nouns) Indefinite article: a, an + (singular) no indefinite article with plural nouns e.g. a book books B. Determiners: Positive quantifiers: A great deal of + un countable nouns Much + uncountable nouns Many + uncountable nouns A great many + countable A lot of + countable and uncountable nouns Lots of Plenty of + both types Most All Negative quantifiers: none no not any not all few + countable little + uncountable hardly any + both countable and un countable scarcely any + both ٢٠ _________________________________________________________________
  • 21. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar not many + countable not much + uncountable C. demonstrative pronouns : this + (singular) / these + (plural) that + (singular) / those + (plural) D. possessive personal pronouns: my his her their our your E. possessive nouns: e.g. Mary's book The Chairman's office • The order of modifiers in front of a noun : ١. determiner ٢. sequence ٣. number ٤. quality or character ٥. size ٦. shape ٧. age ٨. temperature ٩. shape (it can either be no.٦ or ٩ in the order) ١٠. colour ١١. origin ١٢. location _________________________________________________________________ ٢١
  • 22. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ١٣. noun ١٤. noun head (the described noun) The above list is a full list. However, it is not common that we have more than tree adjectives in front of a single noun or else it would be difficult to understand them. However, the adjectives can stand alone without a noun and come after the verb only with "verb to be", and similar verbs like: seem prove look These verbs are called linking verbs, smell i.e., they do not involve any action. appear feel taste I He Am looks seems appears feels adj. happy. sad. Except with such verbs, you cannot end your sentence with an adjective but with an adverb: ٢٢ _________________________________________________________________
  • 23. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar He writes quick quickly. He draws beautiful beautifully. • You can describe an adjective with an adverb. adv. I feel extremely adv. He was completely adj. happy. adj. sad. Here the adverb does not modify the verb but it modifies the adjective. _________________________________________________________________ ٢٣
  • 24. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Exercises: A) Make sentences by using is or are and an adjective from the list: bright cold flat funny hard hot important large / big round sharp small / little soft square sweet sour ١. Fire _____________________ . ٢. Balls and oranges _____________________________ . ٣. A box ________________________________ . ٤. A lemon ________________________________ . ٥. Ice and snow _______________________________ . ٦. Sugar __________________________________ . ٧. Rocks and metals ________________________________ . ٨. A pillow ___________________________________ . ٩. A joke ______________________________________ . ١٠. Razor blades _______________________________ . ١١. The sun __________________________________ . ١٢. Good health ______________________________ . ٢٤ _________________________________________________________________
  • 25. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ١٣. A dime _____________ small, round, and ___________. ١٤. An elephant ____________ , but a mouse ____________. B) Put a circle around the word that doesn’t belong and mention the reason. your his her their may this their that these those bank hospital restaurant library books fifty forty ninety nineteen thirty she he your we it C) Rearrange the following words to make sentences: ١. always -- They -- at six o’clock-- wake up. ٢. writing -- We -- sentences -- right now -- are. ٣. are -- Where -- from -- you ? ٤. round -- are -- Balls -- oranges -- and. ٥. friend-- coffee -- drinks -- rarely -- without sugar -- My. _________________________________________________________________ ٢٥
  • 26. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ D) Fill in the gaps using a word (a pronoun) of the following: he we her I them me you him us she they it ١. Ahmed has a Toyota. ________ bought __________ last week. ٢. Mary is a good nurse. _________ works at the National Hospital. ٣. Mary was in the clinic this morning. I saw ___________ there at ٩:٣٠. ٤. Where's Michael? Will you please call ______________ ? ٥. We will write to you, so please write to _____________ . ٦. Have you met Ahmed and Khalid? I have not met ______ . ٧. Sam and Bill are good students. _________ study Arabic at our centre. ٨. Did you give your books to John? Yes, I did. I gave __________ to _______. ٩. Your friend Ibrahim works abroad. Did you write to _________? ٢٦ _________________________________________________________________
  • 27. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ١٠. I like American films. _________ also like French films. ١١. I’m sure I gave you the check. _________ gave __________ to _______? ١٢. Mary is an accountant. _______ works for Banque du Caire. I know ________ well. ١٣. Sayyed and Mohammed are my friends. ________ work for our bank too. You know ______________ well. ١٤. I’ll type this report for you. Can you send this fax for___? E) Choose the right word (adj./adv ) : ١. Angela is (amazing/ amazingly) good with animals. ٢. As soon as I saw him I was (sure / surely) he had been drinking. ٣. Do you think that’s a (real/ really) diamond in her ring? ٤. He was wearing a (true truly) astonishing tie. ٥. I felt her arm (gentle/ gently) to see if any hones were broken. ٦. I read an (amazing/ amazingly) thing in the newspaper this morning. ٧. John was (wonderful / wonderfully) kind to me when I came to this country. _________________________________________________________________ ٢٧
  • 28. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٨. Keith seemed (gentle / gently), but there was something cruel underneath. ٩. One leg of the chair was (slight/ slightly) damaged. ١٠. Sarah drives a (real /really) beautifully restored ١٩١٤ sports car. ١١. She looked at mc (kind / kindly), but didn’t say anything. ١٢. The door was (had/ badly) painted. ١٣. The food was (wonderful / wonderfully), but the service was (awful / awfully). ١٤. The room is (clever / cleverly) organised so three of us can work there. ١٥. The job was (surprising/ surprisingly) easy. ١٦. He’s acted (unbelievable/ unbelievably) stupidly in the past year. ٢٨ _________________________________________________________________
  • 29. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Unit (٢) The Tenses Objectives: After studying this unit you should be able to: ١. identify the different verb tenses: ٢. form different verb tenses. ٣. understand and use forms of tenses in English. Major Tenses in English There are three major groups of tenses in English: ١. Simple Tenses. ٢. Continuous or progressive. ٣. Perfect Tenses. Simple tenses reflect one level of time. Thus present simple gives the meaning of an action that simply is repeated in the present time and past simple is an action that happened in the past and future simple is an action that will happen in the future. Continuous tenses reflect a sense of continuation either in the present, past or future. Perfect tenses always include the tenses that reflect two points in time. Present perfect relates past and present. Past perfect denotes the fact that there were two actions in the past, one _________________________________________________________________ ٢٩
  • 30. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ happened before the other. The earlier should be in the past perfect and the more recent should be in the past simple. The Future perfect shows that there will be a point in the future and there is an action that will be completed before this definite time. E.g. By the end of July, I will have finished my studies. To understand the above more fully, you are going to be introduced to the major tenses and examples to clarify their usage. Remember The tense means a certain form to reflect a certain usage or meaning in time. Thus, make sure, for each tense that you understand: ١. The form of the verb. ٢. The meaning of this tense or its usage. ٣. The key words in the sentence or passage that MIGHT indicate which tense you should use. ١. Simple Tenses. Present Simple (I do.) ١. ٢. ٣. ٤. ٥. ٦. ٣٠ I live in Cairo. I don't smoke. He lives on the top floor. James walks to work. I sleep with my windows open. Alex is a bus driver. ________________________________________________________________
  • 31. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٧. He drives a bus. {But: he is not driving a bus right now; he is sleeping.} Facts ١. The earth goes round the sun. ٢. Nurses look after patients in hospitals. ٣. In Britain, most of the shops close at ٥:٣٠ p. m. ٤. I work in a bank. Barry works in a bank. ٥. Excuse me, do you speak English? ٦. “Would you like a cigarette?” - “No, thanks, I don’t smoke.” ٧. What does this word mean? - It means............. ٨. Rice doesn’t grow in Britain. Habits ١. I get up at ٦:٣٠ every morning. ٢. How often do you go to the dentist? ٣. Ann doesn’t often drink tea. ٤. In summer Tom usually plays tennis twice a week. Notice the difference: Where do you come from? (Nationality?) Where are you from? (Nationality?) He comes from Japan. (Nationality) Where are you coming from? (Right now? Which part of the city for example?) What do you do? (Your Job) What are you doing? (Right now, for example “eating, sitting, listening etc.) Note the conjugations: I do. You do He does. (do + s) {٣rd person singular “s”} _________________________________________________________________ ٣١
  • 32. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ She does. It does. (Mary goes; John writes; Ahmed eats; the cat plays; life continues; what you say makes sense; it works; who knows; etc) We do. They do. I he, she, it you, they, we Am Is Are I he, she, it you, they, we Have Has Have Key words: The present simple tense can occur with the following adverbials. (However, consider meaning first.): Every (morning, day, week, …) ١٠٠٪ always ↑ often  usually  sometimes {Frequency Adverbs}  seldom  rarely ↓ hardly ٠٪ never Example: I always eat breakfast. ٣٢ OR He never eats breakfast. ________________________________________________________________
  • 33. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Exercise: Use a suitable subject and make the verb agree with it: drink coffee in the morning drink tea in the afternoon [he] drink orange juice in the evening drink tomato juice with my meals drink milk in the morning [my son] put sugar in his coffee have a sandwich for lunch eat dinner around six o'clock come to class late [Mary] get to class on time walk to the park take a bus to work [Mr. Martin] take a taxi to school [ my friends] drive to Jeddah ride a bike in the morning [this little boy] watch TV in the evening study at the library do my homework What are some things you .................................... always do every day? usually do every day? often do? sometimes do? seldom do? rarely do? never do? Now answer the same question about your friend/ brother/ classmate etc. _________________________________________________________________ ٣٣
  • 34. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Past Simple Use: Any action that happened in the past and has no relation to the present. Form: The second conjugation of the verb with all persons, singular and plural: Regular: { play, played, played) I he, she, it Played you, they, we Irregular: {write, wrote, written} I he, she, it Wrote you, they, we • Study the list of the irregular verbs in appendix (C). Key words: Any word that refers to the past, or any definite date in the past: Yesterday, Last (week, month, year, etc.) In ١٩٥٦, …. In ancient times, ….. When I was young, …. ٣٤ ________________________________________________________________
  • 35. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Use the past tense form of the verbs in brackets: Yesterday [be] _________ a very bad day for me. I [begin] _________ the day with an accident. I [cut] __________ my hand with a razor blade. I [forget] ______________ about an important meeting. Then I [tear] ______ my new suit. A thief stole my wallet. Fortunately the police [catch] ______the thief. Later I [fall] _______ on some slippery steps and [hurt] _______ myself. Then a little boy [throw] __________ a ball and [hit] _______ me accidentally. Next an angry dog [bite] _________ me and [rip] ___________ the leg of my pants. After that I [slip] _______________ again and [break] ________ my new watch. As a climax, I [find] _______ a ten dollar parking ticket on my car! Future Simple Use: Any action that is expected to happen in the future either: planned or unplanned Form: I am going to write a letter tomorrow afternoon. I’m going to give you a test in ten minutes. Sam is going to go downtown after class. Mary’s going to cook our dinner. We are going to write a full report. am going to is going to are going to _________________________________________________________________ ٣٥
  • 36. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ We’re going to have our house painted soon. I’m not going to read this book. He isn’t going to sell his car. We aren’t going to eat pizza this evening. am not going to is not going to are not going to Are you going to come to class early next time? Is Jim going to be at the meeting tomorrow? What are you going to do? Where are you going to go? When are you going to leave? be + subject + going to What is he going to eat? Use the following phrases into sentences expressing the future: ١. buy a pair of shoes ٢. see a doctor ٣. go to bed early ٤. call my friend on the phone ٥. play soccer ٦. call my landlord ٧. call the police ٨. get something to eat ٩. go to the beach ١٠. ٣٦ go to the grocery store ________________________________________________________________
  • 37. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Using WILL ١. I will arrive around six o’clock. [ I’ll arrive etc. ] ٢. You will arrive in London ١٥ minutes after midnight. [You’ll arrive.] ٣. He will arrive .. [ He’ll arrive ..] ٤. She will arrive ..[ She’ll arrive ..] ٥. The plane will arrive. [ It’ll arrive.] ٦. We will leave at ten sharp. [ We’ll leave ....] ٧. They will join us later. [ They’ll join us ...] Negative I will not go. I won’t go. Questions: Will you come? When will he come? Key words: Future words: tomorrow, next (week, month, year, etc.) or when the meaning shows a future event or intention. _________________________________________________________________ ٣٧
  • 38. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٢. Continuous or progressive. Present Continuous (I am doing.) ١. I am speaking now. ٢. You are listening now. ٣. He is driving a big car at this moment. ٤. She is cooking right now. ٥. It is running. ٦. We are working ٧. You are sitting down. ٨. They are watching the match. Use the present continuous tense: ١. [try] Please be quiet. I_______________ to concentrate. ٢. [rain] Look! It ________________________. ٣. [you / look] Why ______________________ at me like that? Have I said something wrong? ٤. [make] You ______ a lot of noise. Can you be a bit quieter? ٣٨ ________________________________________________________________
  • 39. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٥. [look] Excuse me, I ____________________ for a phone box. Is there one near here? ٦. [you / enjoy] It’s a good film, isn’t it? _____________ it? ٧. [shout] Listen! Can you hear those people next door? They _________________ at each other again. ٨. [you / wear] Why ____________________ your coat today? It’s very warm. ٩. [not / eat] I want to lose weight. I ___________________ anything today. ١٠. [increase] The number of people without jobs ___________ at the moment. ١١. [get] He is still ill but he __________________ better slowly. ١٢. [become] These days food ____________________ more and more expensive. ١٣. [change] The world ______________. Things never stay the same. ١٤. [rise] The cost of living __________________. Every year things are dearer. ١٥. [improve] George has gone to work in Spain. When he arrived, his Spanish wasn’t very good but now it _______ Present Continuous Drill Use the following verbs to express an action that is happening right now: Use “I”, “He”, “They” etc. drink eat drive read sleep _________________________________________________________________ ٣٩
  • 40. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ write walk run cry stand in the back fly Smile laugh wave smoke clap kick count push sit on the floor touch pull pray hold shake hands with run cut leave draw dream cry live study watch wash fix pepair talk speak listen say smile Wear catch erase deposit withdraw rain step break throw hit declare sign ride Make questions like: a) Is he standing in the back of the room? b) Why is he standing there? Answers: Yes, he is. No, he isn't. He is standing there because he is waiting for you. Note: Verbs expressing a state, such as: is, have, see, hear, understand, taste, smell, want, love, hate, like, dislike, prefer, appreciate, seem, own, contain, belong, weigh, cost, etc., cannot be continuous. I see you right now. Now I have a Ford. Now I understand what you say. ٤٠ ________________________________________________________________
  • 41. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Compare: The soup tastes delicious. The cook is tasting the soup. {different meaning + action involved} Past Continuous (I was doing.) I was speaking on the phone when she screamed. You were listening at that time. He was driving while I was reading. At ٩:٠٠ last night, I was studying in my room. I was working all day yesterday. I was cooking when he arrive. ~~~~~~~~~~~~ | Continuous Simple • A long action continued for some time and short action interrupted it. The long action is in the progressive past while the short one is in the simple past. I was reading when the doorbell rang. ~~~~~~~~~~~~ | Future Continuous (I will be doing.) Use: _________________________________________________________________ ٤١
  • 42. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ To emphasise that an action will continue for some time in the future. Examples: ١. I will be writing letters for the next three hours. ٢. Even though I will be studying when you call, I do not mind. ٣. Ahmed will be working on this essay for the next week. Key words: Future words + any reference that shows that the speaker or writer wants emphasise the duration of the action. ٣. Perfect Tenses. The always express a complex relation between two points of time. Present Perfect (I have done) Use : To emphasise a relation between past time and present time. This tense is used in the following cases: A) An action that began in the past and continues in the present: • I have known him since he first came to Cairo. • I have answered all the questions. B) An action that happened in the past but has an effect in the present: ٤٢ ________________________________________________________________
  • 43. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar • I have read this book and I want to discuss it with you. • I have cleaned my shoes. (They are clean now.) (Compare: I cleaned my shoes yesterday. They are not clean today.) • I have eaten. (I’m not hungry now.) C) An action that happened very recently just before the time of speaking: • I have just seen him. Key words: Words referring to a period of time between past and present: for + a period of time: for a month, for a three days, etc since + a definite date: since ١٩٧٨, since Monday, since his birthday, since I came here, etc. just, recently, lately, yet, so far, already, Note that it is the meaning of the sentence that matters not the word alone. Thus: I saw him this morning. {the morning is finished; we’re in the evening.} Have you seen him this morning? {We are still in the morning.} Past Perfect (I had done) Use: ١. When the speaker wants to emphasise that one action happened before the other in the past, the first action is in the past perfect and the following is in the past simple. • Remember that this tense only emphasises the _________________________________________________________________ ٤٣
  • 44. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ sequence and you can express the same sentence with only past tense. The use of past perfect is only for showing that one happened before the other. e.g.: I had visited my uncle before I came to you yesterday. (Correct) or I visited my uncle before I came to you yesterday. (Correct) Key words : I. Words that show sequence + past references. e.g.: before, after, when prior to + a definite date ٢. Indirect speech: If the saying is in the past and the verbs inside the inverted commas are in the past, after you delete the commas, change the past into past perfect: e.g.: He said, "I visited them three times". He said that he had visited them three times. Future Perfect (I will have done) Use: When an action will be completed before a definite date in the future, use the future perfect. e.g.: By the end of June, I will have finished my studies. Key words : ٤٤ ________________________________________________________________
  • 45. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar by + definite date + future reference in + a period of time + future reference e.g. • By the end of July, my husband will have returned to settle in Cairo. • In two months time, they will have finished changing the system. ٤. Perfect Continuous Tenses. Use : Used when you want to use perfect tenses emphasizing continuation of the event. Present Perfect Continuous (I have been doing) Use: The present perfect should be used when you want to emphasize that the action continued over a certain period of time. e.g.: • I have been studying English for ١٠ years. [Here you want to express the relation between past and present while emphasizing continuation. You want to say that _________________________________________________________________ ٤٥
  • 46. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ you have started studying in the past and you are still studying until now and this action is a continuous one.] Key words : Present perfect key words + indications that the action is continuous. Past Perfect Continuous (I had been doing) Use : To emphasize the duration of an action that was completed before another action in the past. • I had been writing for him for an hour before he finally arrived. Key words : Past perfect key words + indication that this action continued for some time. Future Perfect Continuous (I will have been doing) Use: To indicate that an action will continue for some time in the future before another definite point in the future. e.g.: • By this time next year, I will have been living here for two years. Key words: + future references + any indication that the action By will continue for some time In ٤٦ ________________________________________________________________
  • 47. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar _________________________________________________________________ ٤٧
  • 48. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Exercises: A) Put the verbs in the correct forms: ١. This office [open] ................... at ٩:٠٠ and [close] ................ at ١٨:٣٠ every day. ٢. I have a car but I [not/use] ...................................... very often. ٣. How many cups of coffee [you/drink] ............................ every day? ٤. Where [your friend/come] ......................................... from? ٥. He [come] ................................................ from Scotland. ٦. What [you/do] ......................................... ? - “I’m an electrical engineer.” ٧. If you need money, why [you/not/get] ...................... a job? ٨. I [swim] .................. , but I [not/dive] ................................ . ٩. I don’t understand the word “deceive”. What [it/mean]... ? ١٠. Mice [not/catch] ................................... cats. It is the other way round. B) Make sentences by using is or are and an adjective from the list: bright hot small / little cold important soft flat large / big square funny round sweet hard sharp sour ٤٨ ________________________________________________________________
  • 49. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Example: ١. Fire is hot. ٢. Balls and oranges _____________________________ . ٣. A box ________________________________ . ٤. A lemon ________________________________ . ٥. Ice and snow _______________________________ . ٦. Sugar __________________________________ . ٧. Rocks and metals _______________________________ . ٨. A pillow ___________________________________ . ٩. A joke ______________________________________ . ١٠. Razor blades _______________________________ . ١١. The sun __________________________________ . ١٢. Good health ______________________________ . ١٣. A dime _____________ small, round, and ____________ . ١٤. An elephant ________ , but a mouse ________________ . C) (Drill) Read the following sentences aloud. [You can also copy them out]: I. Present Continuous: ١. Where's Tom? - He is answering the telephone. [He's doing that right now.] ٢. Sam is cleaning the window. ٣. Bob is washing his car. ٤. Sam's writing a letter to his uncle. ٥. He's fixing his car. ٦. I'm speaking to you. ٧. Nora’s cooking a big meal. _________________________________________________________________ ٤٩
  • 50. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٨. She's taking care of the baby. ٩. Who's knocking at the door? ١٠. It's raining now. ١١. We are learning English. We're sentences and making other sentences. reading ١٢. He isn't running. ١٣. We aren't playing. ١٤. I am not sleeping. ١٥. George isn't listening to our conversation. ١٦. You aren't paying attention. ١٧. They are waiting for us. ١٨. Ahmed's carrying the basket. ١٩. I'm doing a crossword puzzle. ٢٠. He's taking the children to school. II. Present Simple & Continuous: ١. I usually drink coffee, but now I'm drinking tea. ٢. I often read books in the afternoon, but now I'm working. ٣. They usually go to work by car, but today they are walking. ٤. He doesn't usually make mistakes, but this evening he's making a lot of them. ٥. You drive a German car. Now I see that you're driving a Lincoln. Is it yours? ٥٠ ________________________________________________________________
  • 51. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٦. We usually have lunch in a Japanese restaurant. However, today we're trying an Italian Restaurant. ٧. Ahmed usually wears a suit, but today he's wearing a military uniform. ٨. They usually sit at the back of the class. Today, they are sitting in the front. ٩. I am having a cup of tea right now. Now I have a Small Chevrolet. ١٠. Now I'm looking at you. Now I see you. I hear you. I'm listening. D) Put the verbs in the correct forms (Present Continuous): ١. [try] Please be quiet. I _____________ to concentrate. ٢. [rain] Look! It _________________________ . ٣. [you / look] Why ______________________ at me like that? Have I said something wrong? ٤. [make] You _____________________ a lot of noise. Can you be a bit quieter? ٥. [look] Excuse me, I ____________________ for a phone box. Is there one near here? ٦. [you / enjoy] It’s a good film, isn’t it? ___________ it ٧. [shout] Listen! Can you hear those people next door? They _________________ at each other again. ٨. [you / wear] Why _______________________ your coat today? It’s very warm. ٩. [not / eat] I want to lose weight. I ____anything today. _________________________________________________________________ ٥١
  • 52. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ١٠. [increase] The number of people without jobs __________ at the moment. ١١. [get] He is still ill but he ___________________ better slowly. ١٢. [become] These days food ____________________ more and more expensive. ١٣. [change] The world ________________ . Things never stay the same. ١٤. [rise] The cost of living __________________ . Every year things are dearer. ١٥. [improve] George has gone to work in Spain. When he arrived, his Spanish wasn’t very good but now it ____________________. E) Put the verbs in the correct forms: [Present Simple & Present Progressive] ١. The wind (be) _______________ sometimes strong. ٢. Cats (be) _____________________________ animals. ٣. He never family. (think) _____________________ about his ٤. I (hear) ________________ the little boys; they (sing) _________________. ٥. (you, understand) ____________________________ why I am here? ٦. The students (be) ________ thirsty. They (want) ___________ a drink of water. ٥٢ ________________________________________________________________
  • 53. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٧. Right now, the boys (be, not) _______________ at work. ٨. At the moment, the students (talk) _______________ with the teacher. ٩. Their father (be, not) _______________ at home. ١٠. (you, study) _________________ English this morning? ١١. (they, play) __________________ football right now? ١٢. My neighbour sometimes (write) ________________ essays. ١٣. (the man, be) ______________ outside? ١٤. A: (you, speak) __________________ English? B: Yes, I ______________ . ١٥. A: (your brother, work) ____________________ in Jeddah? B: No, he _______________ . ١٦. A: (you, be) _______________ the director of the school? B: Yes, I ____________ . ١٧. A: (Ahmed, study) ____________________ today? B: No, he ________________ . ١٨. A: (James, be) ________________ a good student? B: Yes, he ________________ . ١٩. [go] I have a toothache. I think I ____________ go to the dentist. ٢٠. [fly] Ted ___________________ to London next month. _________________________________________________________________ ٥٣
  • 54. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ F) Put the verbs in the correct forms: ١. This office [open] ................... at ٩:٠٠ and [close] ...................... at ١٨:٣٠ every day. ٢. I have a car but I [not/use] .......................................... very often. ٣. How many cups of .................................. every day? coffee [you/drink] ٤. Where [your friend/come] .................................................. from? ٥. He [come] Scotland. ..................................................... from ٦. What [you/do] ........................................... ? - "I'm an electrical engineer." ٧. If you need money, why [you/not/get] .............................. a job? ٨. I [swim]................... , but I [not/dive] ............................... . ٩. I don't understand the word "deceive". What [it/mean] .... ? ١٠. Mice [not/catch] ............... cats. It is the other way round. G) Put the given verb in the right tense: ١. [have] Spiders _________ eight legs. This is a scientific fact. ٥٤ ________________________________________________________________
  • 55. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٢. [take] Will you speak softly please? The students_______ a test at the moment. ٣. [do] Don’t worry! I _____________________ all the work already. ٤. [work] He __________________ all day. He should rest now. ٥. [catch] Finally the police _________________ Fletcher and sent him to prison. ٦. [make] The car ________________ a very strange noise when I drove it yesterday. ٧. [left] I didn't meet him yesterday. When I arrived in the office, he ___________. ٨. [study] He _______________ a book for hours when I entered the room yesterday. _________________________________________________________________ ٥٥
  • 56. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٩. [travel] We __________________ to Saudi Arabia by car next week. ١٠. [watch] I ______________ TV when you call me at eight o'clock this evening. ١١. [write] I will finish my work on time. When you come to see me in the evening, I __________________ the article. ١٢. [proofread] I ______________________ for some hours. H) Put the verbs in the correct forms: [Future time] ١. I [cut] _______ class tomorrow. ٢. What time [class, begin] _____________ ٣. [you, stay] _______ tomorrow? here during vacation next week. ٤. A: You have a bad cough. B: I know. I [see] _______ Dr Talib later this afternoon. ٥. A: Where are you going for your vacation? B: Sharm El-Sheikh. A: Are you flying? B: No, we [drive] ____ so that we can enjoy the scenery. ٥٦ ________________________________________________________________
  • 57. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar I) Put the verbs in the correct forms: [Pres. Perf. & Past Perf.] ١. Islam [be] ________________ the most important religion in the Middle East for more than ١٤٠٠ years. ٢. All the students [study] ________________ hard since the beginning of the course. ٣. [you, ever, be] ________________ to New York? ٤. I couldn't catch the train because when I got to the station, the train [leave] ________________. ٥. By the time I arrived this morning, class [already, begin] ________________. J) Give the past form. Then make a sentence using the past form: Example: come ...came............ Response: My brother came from Oman yesterday. ١. eat ........................... ________________________________________________ ٢. write ......................... ________________________________________________ ٣. drink ........................... _______________________________________________ ٤. drive ......................... ________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ ٥٧
  • 58. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٥. go ............................ _______________________________________________ K) Put the verbs in the correct forms.[Different Tenses] Write the correct sentences on a sheet of paper. Write full sentence: ١. It's ٦:٠٠ p.m. Mary is at home. She [eat] dinner. She always [eat] dinner with her family around six o'clock. ٢. Ahmed [take, not] the bus to school every day. He usually [walk] instead. ٣. While Bob [study] last night, the phone [ring]. ٤. Thomas Edison [invent, not] the telephone. ٥. [you, go] to class yesterday? ٦. I [read] an hour ago when the lights [went] out. ٧. It isn't raining today, and according to the weather report, it [rain, not] tomorrow either. ٨. Before Tom [go] to bed later tonight, he [write] a letter to his uncle. ٩. After I [get] home from school every afternoon, I usually [drink] _____ a glass of orange juice. ١٠. Samy [meet] me when my plane [arrive] tomorrow. ١١. I'm ready to go. I [finish, already] my work. I [finish] it two hours ago. ١٢. I [have] a driver's licence since ١٩٩١. ١٣. Let's go. I [be] in class for more than two hours. ٥٨ ________________________________________________________________
  • 59. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ١٤. Since we [start] doing this exercise, we [complete] ١٣ sentences. ١٥. By the time class was over this morning, the rain [stop], so I didn't need my umbrella. ١٦. I often [leave] the city over the weekend. ١٧. Mr Anderson [use] the telephone now. ١٨. the children always [go] to bed early. ١٩. Yes, Ahmed [want] some cake and coffee. ٢٠. When class [be] over this morning, the rain [already, stop]. (L) Use the right tenses: ١. I [read] __________ that novel by Faulkner several times before. ٢. I [read] _____________ it again in my last vacation. ٣. Saleh [study] _____________ University last year. Spanish at Madrid ٤. Saleh [study] _____________ Spanish at this institute since last September. ٥. Mr Richard [live] _____________ in New York in ١٩٨٥. ٦. Mr Richard [live] ___________ in Detroit since that time. ٧. I [see] _____________ the statue of liberty in ١٩٨٩. ٨. My friend [see] _____________ it a hundred times. ٩. The Browns [be] _____________ in San Francisco twice since the war. ١٠. They [be] _____________ there the week before. _________________________________________________________________ ٥٩
  • 60. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ١١. It usually [rain] _____________ very much in that part of the country. ١٢. I [have] _____________ no trouble with my English lessons up to now. ١٣. My teacher [teach] _____________ English at this institute for six years. ١٤. Listen! I [think] _____________ at the front door. someone [knock] ١٥. Mr Smith [pay] _____________ all his bills at the end of the month. ١٦. I [see] _____________ the famous Grand Canyon in Arizona several times. ١٧. Mr and Mrs Garcia [be] _____________ for two months. in Florida ١٨. Those students [make] _____________ much progress since October. ١٩. I [be] _____________ sorry. I _____________ that fellow's name already. [forget] ٢٠. Mary [sit] _____________ at a different desk today. ٢١. Ali [look]__________ forward to his vacation next June. ٢٢. The tall boy in the front seat [come] _____________ from Ghana. ٢٣. Yes, we [hear] ___________ already. that song several times ٢٤. My wife and I [live] _____________ in this city for almost nine years. ٦٠ ________________________________________________________________
  • 61. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٢٥. The boy [study] _____________ their lessons together every afternoon. ٢٦. Thomas [have] _____________ a good time here since his arrival. ٢٧. I [need] some more money for my books and tuition. ٢٨. At present, that author [write] _____________ a historical novel. ٢٩. My son [talk] _____________ on the telephone at the moment. ٣٠. Up to the present, Khalid _____________ [do] good work in his class. ٣١. My uncle [work] _____________ thirty eight hours a week. ٣٢. The weather [get] _____________ quiet hot in July and August. ٣٣. So far, you [make] _____________ no mistakes on this exercise. ٣٤. Mr Kent [have] _____________ this job in Aswan since April first. M) Circle the letter of the right answer: ١. The speed limit on this road is ١٠٠ km/h. You ............... go faster than that. a. should b. must not c. have to d. don't have to _________________________________________________________________ ٦١
  • 62. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٢. I am very tired and sleepy this morning. I ............... up late last night. a. should stay b. shouldn't stay c. shouldn't have stayed d. shouldn't stayed ٣. I .................. to live in Jeddah, but now I live in Riyadh. a. used b. am used c. use d. am using ٤. I would rather ..................... a good book than spend the time chatting with people. a. studied b. studying c. to study d. study ٥. Last year they worked very hard and ..................... achieve very good results. a. could b. were able to c. can d. could have (N) Use the right tense of the given verb. ١. [play] All the children in the neighbourhood _________________ right now. ٢. [go] I always _____________________ out on Thursdays and Fridays. ٣. [drive] He _______________________ to Alexandria once a month. ٦٢ ________________________________________________________________
  • 63. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٤. [be] I _______________ very happy when I saw my brother home safe and sound. ٥. [finish] When we _______________ our work, we went out. ٦. [wait] We _________________for quite a while this morning. ٧. [see] ago. ٨. [travel] class. I __________________ Ahmed five minutes Last summer we ________________ first ٩. [have] I use the same car that I ______________ five years ago. ١٠. [eat] Tomorrow afternoon ______________ at a Chinese restaurant. we (O) Use the right tense of the given verb. ١. Samy usually [sit] _________ at the back of class, but today he [sit] __________ in the front row. ٢. He [come] __________ to see me every weekend. ٣. I [take] __________ my dog for a walk every evening before it died. ٤. What [you, do] ________________________ at this moment? ٥. She [not understand] ____________________ what you [mean] _____________ . ٦. Look at Samir! He [drink] _______________ up his medicine, but I can see that he [hate] _____________ it. _________________________________________________________________ ٦٣
  • 64. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٧. We usually [have] ________________ breakfast at ٧ o'clock nowadays. ٨. We nearly always [spend] _______________ our holidays at the seaside, but this year we [go] _____________ to France. ٩. I [have] _______________ my hair cut whenever it gets too long. ١٠. She [sing] _____________ beautifully when she was young, but nowadays she [not, sing] ______________ anymore. ١١. John [seem] _______________ rather tired at this moment. ١٢. Do you see this machine? _______________ of many parts. ١٣. Ask him what _____________________ now. he It [consist] [want] ١٤. Buses usually [run] ____________________ along this street, but today they [not, run] _______________ because it is under repair. (P) Put the verbs between parentheses in the right tenses: ١. The scientist suddenly (see) ______________ the answer to the problem that (occupy) ___________________ his mind for two months. ٦٤ ________________________________________________________________
  • 65. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٢. The burglar (open) ________________ the safe when he (hear) ______________ footsteps. He immediately put his torch out and crawled under the bed. ٣. A: Stop! Don't you see the notice? B: I (see) ________________ it, but I can't read it because I (wear, not) ____________ my glasses. ________________ ٤. He (clean) ______________ off and his gun when it suddenly (go) killed him. ٥. You looked very busy when I (meet) _______________ you last night. What (you, do) __________________ ? ___________________ ٦. Since British Rail (introduce) _______________ structure, more people (take) its new fare to travelling by train. _______________ ٧. He (cut) _________________ dinner yesterday. ٨. I (understand) ____________ ________________ exactly what you (mean) right now. ٩. He usually (find) when he (arrive) ١٠. I (not, have) ___________ his finger while he (cook) _______________ __________________ _____________ a lot of letters on his desk at the office. anything to eat since I (get) here. _________________________________________________________________ ٦٥
  • 66. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ١١. When He (arrive) ______________ here tomorrow morning, I (offer) ___________ him a cup of coffee. ١٢. Columbus (try) ______________ to reach India when he (discover) __________________ America. ١٣. By the time Ahmed (finish) night, everybody else (go) ١٤. He (not, pay) _____________ to this _____________ __________________ ___________________ his work last home. his rent since he (move) apartment. ١٥. Three days ago, John (begin) _____________ reading a long novel. He (not, finish) _________________ it yet. (Q) Circle the letter for the right answer: ١. I ____________ a new house last year, but I ___________ my old house yet, so at the moment I have two houses. a. have bought/ sold b. bought/ haven't sold c. had bought/ hadn't sold d. buy/ haven't sold ٢. I've been living here ______________________ . a. two years ago b. in ١٩٩١ c. for two years d. before ١٩٩١ ٣. I couldn't see Bill. When I got into the office, he a. had gone out b. went out c. have gone out d. has gone out ٦٦ ________ ________________________________________________________________
  • 67. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٤. I stood up when my father ___________________ in. a. comes b. had come c. would come d. came ٥. At the moment John say. a. is taking c. has taken __________________ a note of what they b. takes d. took ٦. Right now, I can see that the child _______________ his old toy. a. hate b. is hating c. hates d. had hated ٧. How long ago _________________ the United States? a. have you visited b. are you visiting c. do you visit d. did you visit ٨. When are you ____________________ your English course? a. will finish b. finish c. going to finish d. finished ٩. I'm specially glad that Bob's coming to the meeting because we _______________ him for several months. a. haven't seen b. didn't see c. weren't seen d. hasn't ١٠. It was such nice weather that we _______________ camping in the desert. a. have gone b. will go _________________________________________________________________ ٦٧
  • 68. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ c. went d. had gone (R) Fill in the spaces with the right tenses of the given verbs: ١. [take] Will you speak softly please? The students ________ a test at the moment. ٢. [have] Spiders ________ six legs. This is a scientific fact. ٣. [wear] If the suit arrives on time, I ______ it for the meeting. ٤. [catch] Finally the police Fletcher and sent him to prison. ٥. [go] There was a power outage in our part of the town last night and the lights ____ out. ٦. [study] This autumn I _ English at a night school. ٧. [eat] My child always a lot of sweets. ٨. [go] Mr. Richardson to a Qatar last month. ٩. [make] She _ a good cake next week. ١٠. [boil] Water at ١٠٠ C. ١١. [not smoke] He _ at all. He hates smoking. ١٢. [not work] They _ as fast as they can right now. ١٣. [see] I often see Jose, and I _ him again only yesterday. ١٤. ٦٨ [cost] How much does this watch ______? ________________________________________________________________
  • 69. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ١٥. [catch] My little boy ran after the cat and ___________ it. ١٦. [wake] Yesterday I _ up early. ١٧. [not, pass] Tom ________ his examination on January ١٢, ١٩٩٥. ١٨. [boil] Look! The water _____. Can you turn the kettle off? ١٩. [study] Please don't make so much noise. My child ________. ٢٠. [be] We _______ in Kuwait in ١٩٩٥. ٢١. [be] My friend, Edward, _________ here right now. ٢٢. [play] Tom usually ______ tennis on Thursdays. ٢٣. [write] Did you a letter to your folks yesterday? ٢٤. [not, understand] Look at that! He ________ what's going on. ٢٥. [drive] How are going to travel to Libya? _____________. ٢٦. I [go] They ____ to Damascus last week. ٢٧. [break] My vase fell to the floor and ___ into a hundred pieces. _________________________________________________________________ ٦٩
  • 70. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٢٨. [read] He usually ____ the newspaper in the evening. ٢٩. [smoke] I never ____ . ٣٠. [play] My children _ football at the moment. ٣١. [buy] I ____ a new car next week. ٣٢. [lie] I don't like him; he always ______ to people. ٣٣. [rise] Yesterday the sun _______ at ٥:٥٨. ٣٤. [send] [finish] I ____ a letter to my folks after I __________ studying yesterday evening. ٣٥. [live] They ____________________________ Montreal since they immigrated. in ٣٦. [work] His associate __________________________ from nine to five every day. ٣٧. [go] Bill _____________________________ to the public library once in a while. ٣٨. [knock] Listen! I think ___________________ at the door. somebody ٣٩. [be] The baby ___________________________ asleep for several hours. ٤٠. [learn] Mary usually _________________ languages very quickly. ٧٠ ________________________________________________________________
  • 71. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٤١. [make] The car ______________ a very strange noise when I drove it yesterday. ٤٢. [be] I ____________________ to Europe several times. ٤٣. [use] Our new secretary ________________ a computer all the time. ٤٤. [do] Don’t worry. I ___________________________ all the work already. ٤٥. [inherit] He’s excited because ____________________ a lot of money recently. he ٤٦. [not, arrive] We’re still waiting. He ______________ yet. ٤٧. [go] He _______________________ out ten minutes ago. ٤٨. [shop] I _____________________________ around for a good jacket later today. ٤٩. [send] So far today, ____________________________ three faxes. he ٥٠. [call] She ____________ him up five times. There has to be an important message. ٥١. [not, get] I still ________________________ a reply from them. _________________________________________________________________ ٧١
  • 72. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٥٢. [sit] It's ٧:٣٠ now and Mr. Wilson ________________ to the breakfast table. ٥٣. [meet] I _____________________ Larry and his friends some five years ago. ٥٤. [tell] If I see Mike tomorrow, I__________________ him about the meeting. ٥٥. [read] At the moment the students ______________ their books. ٥٦. [be] The weather ____________________ terrible all last week, but now it is fine. (S) Put the verbs between parentheses in the right tenses: ١. Right now John [take] _____ a nap. He [fall] __________ asleep an hour ago. He [sleep] ______________ for an hour. ٢. Since we began the course, John [study] __________ three novels. At the moment he [read] _____________ A Farewell to Arms. He [read] _______________________ this novel for the past three days. ٣. A: There is something I have to tell you. B: Go ahead. I [listen] ____________________________ . ٤. A: Stop! What [you, do] __________________________ ? B: I [try] _______________________ to get this piece of toast out of the toaster. It’s stuck. ٧٢ ________________________________________________________________
  • 73. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar A: Well, don’t use a knife. You [kill] _______________ yourself. ٥. A: Why [you, deliver, not] _________________ the report yesterday? B: When I got to his office, he [leave] ________________ . ٦. A: Can I borrow some money? My check [be] __________ supposed to arrive yesterday, but I still [receive, not] __________ it. B: Sure. I’d be happy to lend you some. How much (need, you] ____________? (T) Complete the following with the right tense of the verbs in brackets: ١. Bill ____________ [start] working at a pizza parlour in November. He ____________ [work] there successfully for several months. In fact everyone in the pizza parlour ______ [help] Bill in every way they can. For the first time in his life, Bill _____________ [be] able to earn his own living. He ________________ [receive, already] several paychecks, but the paychecks _____________ [not be] the most important part of the job) Most importantly, Bill _______________ [be] proud of himself because he _________________ [feel] useful. Now he ________ [have] a good reason to get up in the morning. _________________________________________________________________ ٧٣
  • 74. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Last year, the public school special program __________ [train] Bill for this job) It ____________ [teach] him the skills he needed. ٢. Last week, I (see) ______________ a very good book in a book shop, but I (not have) _______________ enough money to buy it. Now I have enough money, but I have no time to go to the book shop, so I (buy) ________ it tomorrow morning. (U) Circle the letter of the right answer: ١. Gases ________________ when heated. This is a scientific fact. a. expands b. expanding c. expand d. are expanding ٢. The house is in a mess right now. The plumbers _________ in a new bath and the carpenter_______ us some bookshelves. a. is putting/ building b. puts/ builds c. are putting/ is building d. are putting/ builds ٣. I often see Dr Richards. I______ him again only yesterday. a. see b. am seeing c. saw d. have seen ٤. They sell all kinds of rubbish nowadays, but they once_________ good furniture. a. sell b. are selling c. have sold d. sold ٧٤ ________________________________________________________________
  • 75. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٥. The Carters didn't ___________ for Chicago. a. leave b. left c. leaves d. leaving ٦. He ___________ along a deserted road when suddenly he ___________ a camel in front of him. a. was driving/ saw b. drove/ saw c. was driving/ was seeing d. drove/ was seeing ٧. I couldn't meet Ahmed last week. When I got to his office he ________ . a. left b. has left c. had left d. had been left ٨. We ___________ the new bridge by the end of this year. a. have completed b. completed c. will have completed d. complete ٩. We will run out of gas before we reach Alex. I _________ at the next gas station. a. am going to stop b. will have stopped c. have stopped d. stop ١٠. He ___________ French at Cairo University since ١٩٨٩. a. teaches b. taught c. is teaching d. has taught ١١. The leaves usually _________ from the trees in October. a. falls b. fall c. are falling d. will fall _________________________________________________________________ ٧٥
  • 76. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ١٢. Washington, D. C., ________ the capital of the United States ١٨٠٠. a. is/ in b. has been/ in c. has been/ for d. has been/ since ١٣. Books like this one can___________ anywhere. a. be bought b. have bought c. will buy d. buy ١٤. The windows ___________ while I was there. a. were cleaning b. clean c. cleaned d. were being cleaned ١٥. This matter ___________ with very soon. a. will deal b. has dealt c. will be dealt d. will be dealing ١٦. He can't answer these questions properly. He _________ more time studying when he had the chance. a. must have spent b. should have spent c. would spend d. could spend ١٧. I don't know, but it___________ rain tomorrow. a. might b. has to c. must d. will ١٨. He couldn't ___________ everything about Europe; he has never been there. a. knew b. know c. known d. knows ١٩. I ___________ a calculator while I was doing these calculations. I made many mistakes. ٧٦ ________________________________________________________________
  • 77. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar a. ought to use c. must have used b. should use d. ought to have used ٢٠. Since the new boss took over, we to change our working methods. a. have had b. should have c. must d. must have ٢١. Fishing is strictly forbidden in this area. You ___________ fish here. a. don't have to b. mustn't c. ought to d. should ٢٢. ___________ you please help me with this suitcase? a. May b. Must c. Should d. Could ٢٣. Would you mind ___________ the phone? a. to answer b. answered c. answering d. answer ٢٤. He___________ wear a uniform. It is not obligatory. a. mustn't b. shouldn't c. hasn't had d. doesn't have to ٢٥. You'd better ___________ near the edge. It is dangerous. a. not go b. go not c. don't go d. to not go ٢٦. Would you like ___________ to the manager. a. speak b. speaking c. to speak d. spoke _________________________________________________________________ ٧٧
  • 78. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٢٧. The lawyer advised his client___________ the case as there was no use. a. dropping b. drop c. dropped d. to drop ٢٨. I am used to ___________ in this part of the country. a. live b. living c. have lived d. will live ٢٩. He said the trip without the right company would be___________. a. bored b. bore c. boring d. to bore ٣٠. Before trains were invented, people used ___________ on horseback. a. to travel b. travel c. travelling d. to travelling ٣١. My father remembers parts of his childhood quite clearly. He remembers ___________ to school for the first time. a. to go b. go c. going d. went ٣٢. He said, "I'm terribly sorry to___________ you___________." a. keep/ wait b. keep/ waiting c. keeping/ waiting d. keeping/ wait ٣٣. I hope ..................... you again soon. a. seeing b. to see c. will see d. see ٧٨ ________________________________________________________________
  • 79. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٣٤. Boys usually enjoy ................... football. a. playing b. to play c. plays d. play ٣٥. You like ................... big trucks. Don't you? a. driving b. drive b. drove d. driven ٣٦. I don't mind .................... the children from school. a. collect b. to collect c. collected d. collecting ٣٧. I think he is a liar; he seems ....................... false evidence. a. give b. to give c. giving d. gives ٣٨. I've been living here ___________________________________ . a. two years ago b. in ١٩٩١ c. for two years d. before ١٩٩١ ٣٩. I couldn't see Bill. When I got into the office, he ______. a. had gone out b. went out c. have gone out d. has gone out ٤٠. I stood up when my father ______________________________ in. a. comes b. had come c. would come d. came _________________________________________________________________ ٧٩
  • 80. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٤١. At the moment Abdullah of what they say. a. is taking c. has taken _____________________________ a note b. takes d. took ٤٢. Right now, I can see that the child _________________ his old toy. a. hate b. is hating c. hates d. had hated ٤٣. How long ago ____ ___________ the United States? a. have you visited b. are you visiting c. do you visit d. did you visit ٤٤. When are you _________________ your English course? a. will finish b. finish c. going to finish d. finished ٤٥. I'm specially glad that Bob's coming to the meeting because we _______________ him for several months. a. haven't seen b. didn't see c. weren't seen d. hasn't ٤٦. It was such nice weather that we ___________________ camping in the desert. a. have gone b. will go c. went d. had gone ٨٠ ________________________________________________________________
  • 81. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar (V) Fill in the blanks with the appropriate verb forms [affirmative or negative] of the base forms given in brackets: ١. [drive] The mechanic ________________________ the car right now. ٢. [not, eat] When he's on a diet, he __________ potatoes. ٣. [rain] When I left the office this afternoon, it _______________. ٤. [not, have] I didn't go on the trip because I ___________ any money. ٥. [win] Who, do you think, ______________________ the next game? ٦. [rise] The sun ___________________ at ٦:٢١ yesterday morning. ٧. [eat] I seldom ______________________ Italian food. ٨. [ring] The bell ____________________________ and class began. ٩. [set] A strong wind blew while we ______________ up the tent. ١٠. [understand] Good! The poor stranger __________now. ١١. [install] The company technician ________________ our new AC system right now. _________________________________________________________________ ٨١
  • 82. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ١٢. [check] Our new manager always _____________ on everything once he gets to the work ١٣. [drive] Ahmed ________________________ to Alex five days ago. ١٤. [be] We ____________ very happy when we knew that everyone was home safe and ١٥. [file] So far Carol and ______________________ six applications. Henry ١٦. [eat] Tomorrow afternoon ______________________ at a Chinese we ١٧. [break] My vase fell to the ________________ into a hundred pieces. floor and ١٨. [use] Our new secretary ______________ a computer all the time. ١٩. [inherit] He's excited because __________________ a lot of money recently. ٢٠. he [go] He ___________________ out ten minutes ago. ٢١. [shop] I _______________________ around for a good jacket later today. ٢٢. [listen] Shsh! Someone __________________________ to our conversation. ٢٣. [fall] Rain rarely __________________________ in the Sahara. ٢٤. [hide] I _________________ some money in my dictionary last week. ٨٢ ________________________________________________________________
  • 83. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٢٥. [get] We all _______________________ wet during the rainstorm yesterday. ٢٦. [be] I _____________ very happy when I saw my brother home safe and sound. ٢٧. [lie] I don't like him; ___________________ to people. he always ٢٨. [live] They _____________________________ in Montreal since they immigrated. ٢٩. [work] His associate _________________________ from nine to five every day. ٣٠. [go] Bill _____________________________ to the public library once in a while. ٣١. [knock] Listen! I __________________ at the door. think somebody ٣٢. [be] The baby _______________________ asleep for several hours. (X) Fill in the blanks with the appropriate verbs in the right tense. The base forms of the verbs are given below: appear send call occur drink see feel drive leave arrive ١. The speaker ________________________________ in his best suit last night. ٢. A major earthquake _______________________ in San Francisco in ١٩٠٦. _________________________________________________________________ ٨٣
  • 84. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٣. I've met him twice since he ______________________ in Cairo. ٤. My brother ___________________________ sick for a whole week. ٥. Next week I ___________________________ you to your work in my new car. ٦. This is a good scientific film. I ___________________ it over three times. ٧. Look at them! They _________________________ a signal now. ٨. I couldn't meet John; when I got to his office, he _______. ٩. He isn't at home. I __________________________ up a few minutes ago and there was no answer. ١٠. These people ____________________ gallons of coffee every day. (Y) Use the given verb in the right tense: ١. [go] They ___________________ to Alex last week. ٢. [break] My vase fell to the floor and _____________ into a hundred pieces. ٣. [read] He usually ___________________ the newspaper in the evening. ٤. [smoke] I never _____________________ . ٨٤ ________________________________________________________________
  • 85. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٥. [buy] I ________________________________ a new car next week. ٦. [lie] I don't like him; he always ____________ to people. ٧. [rise] Yesterday the sun ____________________ at ٥:٥٨. ٨. [eat] He _________________________ a sandwich right now. ٩. [believe] Now I _____________ that I am fully aware of the situation. ١٠. [play] All the children in the neighbourhood _________ right now. ١١. [go] I always ___________________________ out on Thursdays and Fridays. ١٢. [drive] He ________________________ to Port Said once a month. ١٣. [be] I ____________ very happy when I saw my brother home safe and sound. ١٤. [finish] When we _______________________________ our work, we went out. ١٥. [wait] We ______________________________ for quite a while this morning. ١٦. [see] I _________________________________ Ahmed five minutes ago. ١٧. [travel] Last summer we _________________________ first class. _________________________________________________________________ ٨٥
  • 86. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ١٨. [have] I use the same car that I ____________________ five years ago. ١٩. [eat] Tomorrow afternoon we _________________ at a Chinese restaurant. ٢٠. [invent, not] Thomas Edison the telephone. ___________________ (Z) Use the Past Tense form of the verbs in brackets: ١. [be] We ____________________ here yesterday. ٢. [be] Alexander Graham Bell ___________________ the inventor of the telephone. ٣. [lie] He ______ to me when he said he was a mechanic; he doesn't know a thing about car mechanics. ٤. [lie] I was tired, so I ____________________ down on bed for a few minutes. ٥. [forget] I ______________________ to take this book back to the library. ٦. [hide] I _________________ some money in my dictionary last week. ٧. [put] This fireman can ______________ out the fire in only a few minutes. ٨. [have] We ________________ a wonderful time at Ahmed's place next weekend. ٨٦ ________________________________________________________________
  • 87. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٩. [ring] The bell ___________________ just a few minutes ago. ١٠. [drink] He always _______________________ a cup of coffee for breakfast. ١١. [feed] Mary __________________________ the baby at the moment. ١٢. [blow] The wind ________________ down a tree in front of our house last October. ١٣. [get] We all _______________________ wet during the rainstorm yesterday. ١٤. [hold] The board of directors __________________ a meeting last Tuesday. ١٥. [leave] The boss _________________ his office for a business tomorrow morning. _________________________________________________________________ ٨٧
  • 88. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Unit (٣) The Passive Voice Objectives: After studying this unit you should be able to: ١. identify the form of the sentence in active voice and in the passive voice: ٢. form different verb tenses and forms in the passive voice. ٣. detect the errors in the formation of verbs in the passive voice. Active Voice: The doer begins the sentence: I bought a book. Passive Voice: The object begins the sentence: The thief was arrested (by the police). Usually all sentences are in the active voice unless the writer or speaker does not want to emphasis or mention the doer because either: ١. the doer is understood as in: The thieves were arrested. [There is no point in showing that the doer is the police.] ٢. or the doer is unimportant or unknown as in: The money was stolen. _________________________________________________________________ ٨٧
  • 89. English Grammar _____________________________________________________ Form of the passive: verb to be in the form of the main verb Reminder: Infinitive Write Play Put + the main verb in the pp past wrote played put past participle (pp) written played put For a complete list, see appendix (C) Examples: ١. The chairman suggests changes. Changes are suggested by the chairman. ٢. The chairman suggested changes. Changes were suggested by the chairman. ٣. The chairman has suggested changes. Changes have been suggested by the chairman. {or Changes have been suggested. The by phrase will only be used when necessary.} Study the following table for the different forms of verb to be some passive sentences. ٨٨ ________________________________________________________________
  • 90. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Guide to forming the passive: Passive of Verb Tenses: The passive is formed by using the form of the helping verb to be in whatever tense the writer selects and then adding the past participle. Verb-Tense Formation in the Passive Voice Example Present : am, is, are + past participle Mail is delivered to the residence hall every day except Sunday. Present Progressive : am being, is being, are being + past participle A new addition is being added to the library. Past : was, were + past participle The grades were posted by the teaching assistant at ٣:٠٠ P.M. Past Progressive : was being, were being + past participle When I arrived at Wellman Hall, the corrected problem sets were just being distributed. Present Perfect : has been, have been + past participle I think the money has already been sent electronically by the bank. Past Perfect : had been + past participle All the food had been eaten when I arrived at the potluck. Future : will be + past participle The tests will be given back on Thursday. Future Perfect : will have been + past participle By the time you arrive at the concert hall, all the free tickets will have been given out. _________________________________________________________________ ٨٩
  • 91. English Grammar _____________________________________________________ Passive of Modal Verb Phrases: In a modal verb phrase, the passive is formed by adding be + the past participle after the modal for the present tense and have been + the past participle after the modal for the past tense. Modal Verb-Tense Formation in Example Passive Voice Present : Revision for spelling can easily be done modal + be + past participle on a computer. Cheating on tests should be reported to the Judicial Board. Past : modal + have been + past participle It is possible that the train could have been delayed. I think she should have been elected chair of the committee. Passive of Infinitives and Gerunds: Infinitives in Passive Voice Present infinitive : to + be + past participle Example She arranged for the make-up test to be given on Monday. The results were supposed to have Perfect infinitive : to + have been + past participle been sent yesterday. Gerunds: Being + past participle He did not like being called Jim instead of James. Being awakened in the middle of the night by a telephone call upset Ali. After being told to go from one office to another, Hassan finally found where to turn in his financial aid forms. ٩٠ ________________________________________________________________
  • 92. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Transitive vs Intransitive The third element of the verb is whether: - it is transitive (t.) - or intransitive. (int.) The transitive verb is that which has to have one or two objects. • object The boy bought a book I indirect object gave my friend direct object a book. If you stop after the verb, the sentence will not be grammatically correct. The intransitive verb is that which does not need an object and so the meaning will be complete if you stop after the verb. • The girl is standing. • They are sitting. To know whether the verb is transitive or not you have to look it up in a dictionary. _________________________________________________________________ ٩١
  • 93. English Grammar _____________________________________________________ Exercises: (A) Restate in the Passive Voice: Examples: They prepared supper. Supper was prepared. Nobody speaks Russian here. Russian is not spoken here. is pp was pp is not pp ١. Somebody called the fire brigade. ٢. Nobody opened the door. ٣. People often prefer coffee for breakfast. ٤. Somebody opened the door early this morning. ٥. Somebody checks their names. ٦. Somebody will wake you at seven o’clock. ٧. They all expected the minister at three o’clock. ٨. People make mistakes sometimes. ٩. The public demands action. ١٠. Somebody has broken John’s new vase. ١١. One eats rice with chopsticks in the east. ١٢. We serve the soup before the fish at dinner. ١٣. A man supports his family as well as possible. ١٤. The public reads many newspapers and magazines. ٩٢ ________________________________________________________________
  • 94. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ١٥. People use trains and buses to travel to work. ١٦. Everybody drinks tea in England. ١٧. One never mentions certain matters except in private. ١٨. Somebody will meet us at the station. ١٩. We pack Dates here. ٢٠. We respect the elders here. ٢١. Shakespeare wrote Othello. ٢٢. The teacher is going to explain the lesson. ٢٣. Alex has suggested a new idea. (B). Change the following active sentences to passive sentences if possible. Include the "by phrase" only if necessary: ١. They make these artificial flowers of silk. _________________________________________________ ________________ ٢. Somebody had slashed the picture with a knife. _________________________________________________ __________________ ٣. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. _________________________________________________________________ ٩٣
  • 95. English Grammar _____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ __________________ ٤. We use this room only on special occasions. _________________________________________________ __________________ ٥. It is high time someone told him to stop behaving like a child. _________________________________________________ __________________ ٦. A jellyfish stung him. _________________________________________________ __________________ ٧. Did the idea interest you? _________________________________________________ __________________ ٨. There was a sudden thunderstorm while they were on their way to the tent. _________________________________________________ _________________ ٩. The police didn't escort the referee from the football field. ٩٤ ________________________________________________________________
  • 96. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar _________________________________________________ __________________ ١٠. He has proved this scientific theory to be false. _________________________________________________ __________________ (C) Complete the sentences with the given verbs using active or passive in the appropriate tense: ١. [give] The Nobel Prize for literature ______________ to Toni Morrison a few years ago. ٢. [do] Nothing _________________ about the problem, even though it is getting serious. ٣. [not, install] A good air conditioner ______________ in my office yet. ٤. [shop] I ___________________________ around for a good jacket later today. ٥. [make] He was angry with himself because he ______ a lot of mistakes. ٦. [feed] Babies ___________________ five times a day. ٧. [install] The company technician ________________ our new AC system right now. ٨. [check] Our new manager always ________ on everything once he gets to the work place. _________________________________________________________________ ٩٥
  • 97. English Grammar _____________________________________________________ ٩. [file] So far Carol and Henry ____________________ six applications. ١٠. [break] My vase fell to the floor and ______________ into a hundred pieces. ١١. [use] Our new secretary _______________ a computer all the time. ١٢. [inherit] He's excited because he _________________ a lot of money recently. (D). Circle the letter of the right answer: ١. All sorts of things ___________________ in buses. a. leave b. are leaving c. are left d. have left ٢. When I returned, I found that my car _________________ away because I had parked it under a No Parking sign. a. had towed b. had been towing c. had been towed d. towed ٣. Dogs guard the warehouse. The other day a thief ___________ to get in and a dog chased him out. a. was tried b. had been tried c. tries d. tried ٤. The man who _________________ by a snake was given a serum. a. bites b. bit ٩٦ ________________________________________________________________
  • 98. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar c. had bitten d. had been bitten ٥. I found myself in an ____________ situation when I spilled the coffee on my guest's clothes. a. embarrassing b. embarrassed c. embarrass d. embarrasses ٦. There was an accident, but nobody __________. a. got hurt b. get hurt c. hurt d. gets hurt ٧. Right now a patient ___________ in the other room. a. is treating b. is treated c. is being treated d. treats ٨. There was an explosion yesterday, but no one__________. a. was hurt b. had hurt c. hurt d. hurts ٩. We've been suffering from this problem for a long time. Something must ___________. a. do b. have done c. be done d. be doing ١٠. These dishes ___________ right after the meal. a. washed b. were washed c. had been washing d. were washing ١١. My TV set ___________ twice since I bought it. a. has fixed b. have fixed c. has been fixing d. has been fixed _________________________________________________________________ ٩٧
  • 99. English Grammar _____________________________________________________ (E) Rewrite the following sentences in the passive. Use "the by phrase" only if necessary. ١. They owe a lot of money to the bank. _________________________________________________ _________________ ٢. Aerosol sprays have damaged the ozone layer. _________________________________________________ _________________ ٣. They constantly remind us that the world has become smaller. _________________________________________________ _________________ ٤. Did they say anything of importance? _________________________________________________ __ ٩٨ ________________________________________________________________
  • 100. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٥. Dell doesn't manufacture this type of computer anymore. _________________________________________________ _________________ ٦. They will not take a decision until the next meeting. _________________________________________________ ________________________ ٧. The MP arrested the run-away soldiers. _________________________________________________ ________________________ ٨. People should send their complaints to the head office _________________________________________________ ________________________ (F) Restate the following sentences in the passive voice. ١. The police questioned the three suspects early in the morning. _________________________________________________________________ ٩٩
  • 101. English Grammar _____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _______________________ ٢. They always turn their papers in late. _________________________________________________ _______________________ (G) Change the following sentences into the passive voice. Use the by phrase only when necessary. ١. People speak about ٤٠٠٠ languages in the whole world. _________________________________________________ ___________________ ٢. Ibrahim delivers our mail. _________________________________________________ ____________ ٣. Someone has fixed my TV set twice. _________________________________________________ ___________________ ٤. Dr. Martin didn't sign the complaint. ١٠٠ ________________________________________________________________
  • 102. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar _________________________________________________ ___________________ ٥. They have not painted the outside of our house. _________________________________________________ _____________ ٦. The police questioned the three suspects early in the morning. _________________________________________________ _______________________ ٧. They always turn their papers in late. _________________________________________________ _______________________ ٨. They will not take a decision until the next meeting. _________________________________________________ ________________________ ٩. The MP arrested the run-away soldiers. _________________________________________________ ________________________ ١٠. People should send their complaints to the head office _________________________________________________________________ ١٠١
  • 103. English Grammar _____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ ________________________ (H) Convert the following sentences into the passive voice: ١. They will not take a decision until the next meeting. _________________________________________________ ____________________ ١. They make these artificial flowers of silk. _________________________________________________ _________________ ٢. Somebody had slashed the picture with a knife. _________________________________________________ __________________ ٣. Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone. _________________________________________________ __________________ ٤. We use this room only on special occasions. ١٠٢ ________________________________________________________________
  • 104. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar _________________________________________________ __________________ ٥. It is high time someone told him to stop behaving like a child. _________________________________________________ __________________ ٦. A jellyfish stung him. _________________________________________________ __________________ ٧. Did the idea interest you? _________________________________________________ _____________ ٨. There was a sudden thunderstorm while they were on their way to the tent. _________________________________________________ _________________ ٩. The police didn't escort the referee from the football field. _________________________________________________ __________________ ١٠. He has proved this scientific theory to be false. _________________________________________________________________ ١٠٣
  • 105. English Grammar _____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________ _________________ ١٠٤ ________________________________________________________________
  • 106. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Unit (٤) Sentence Structure Objectives: After studying this unit you should be able to: ١. identify the different sentence structures: simple, compound and complex. ٢. distinguish between the meanings and structures of phrases and clauses. ٣. use the connectors in each of the above structures with the correct meaning and punctuation. There are three kinds of sentences in English: ١. The Simple. ٢. The Compound. ٣. The Complex. In writing, you have to use the three types so that the reader will not be bored from reading one type in your text. It is also a sign of sophistication of ideas if you phrase them in complex sentences. To understand this, you have to know the constituents of each type and differences between them. _________________________________________________________________ ١٠٥
  • 107. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Simple : ١ ٢ ٣ Subject Verb Complement noun/pro/ noun phrase adjective adverb object all are phrases The phrase is a group of words that does not contain a verb. The noun phrase, the adverbial phrase and the adjectival phrase do not contain any verbs. The simple sentence is composed only of phrases, and therefore it has only One Verb which is the main verb. ١. Simple Sentences: • The boy came yesterday. • The good boy is playing in the garden. • The boy bought a very interesting colourful book. • The clever Egyptian tall boy is playing in the house's green spacious beautiful garden. • A boy came to the house. ١٠٦ ________________________________________________________________
  • 108. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Because the subject, object and adverb of these sentences are all phrases, they are simple sentences. ٢. Compound Sentences: These are two or more simple sentences connected by ١. and ٢. or ٣. but ٤. both......and ٥. as well as ٦. either .. or ٧. neither .... nor ٨. not only .. but also Examples: ١. The teacher entered the class, and the students sat down. ٢. He will sleep, or go to the club. ٣. The place was beautiful, but the weather was bad. ٤. He will both correct the errors, and rewrite the essay. ٥. He will correct the errors, as well as rewrite the essay. ٦. You may either correct the errors, or rewrite the essay. ٧. He neither went to school, nor studied his lessons. ٨. Neither did he go to school, nor did he study his lesson. [Notice that when "neither" comes at the beginning, you _________________________________________________________________ ١٠٧
  • 109. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ should turn the two sentences into a question form.] ٩. He not only succeeded, but also got high marks. ١٠. Not only did he succeed, but he also got high marks. There are two problems concerning the compound sentences: ١. Run-on sentences. ٢. Parallel structure. The Run-on sentence is one of the serious problems in any one's writing. It means that you continue too many ideas with no full stop so that the reader cannot follow the thread of your thoughts. From the grammatical point of view, your writing is correct but it is not acceptable to write too long sentences. For example: I went to school, met my friends, entered the class, prepared my books, waited for the teacher, talked with my colleagues, listened to the lesson, participated in the class work, felt tired and went back home happily. Run-on sentence ↓ A serious mistake ١٠٨ ________________________________________________________________
  • 110. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Parallel structure: a) Parallel meaning: Theoretically speaking, you can combine any two simple structures by "and" or "or" but from the point of view of meaning this is not always possible. For example: I met my students and the cars were fast. The first lesson is on comprehension and there is a film on television tonight. There is no clear logical connection between the two parts of each sentence. "And" should used to add a point to or group it on one level or on the same category with the first point. b) Parallel grammatical structures: "And" or "or" can connect: two sentences, two subjects, two adjectives, two adverbs, two objects, or two prepositional phrases. _________________________________________________________________ ١٠٩
  • 111. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Therefore, you have to make sure that what comes before and after "and" belongs to the same grammatical category. You cannot connect two different parts of speech or else it would be a major grammatical mistake. Examples: * He prefers to eat breakfast, exercising and to shower before he goes to class. [Wrong] exercising ---> this is different, and therefore ungrammatical to connect it with the rest. He prefers to eat breakfast, to exercise and to shower before he goes to class. [Correct] ٣. Complex Sentences: Definition: It is composed of one or more clauses (not phrases like in the simple sentence). The clause is a sentence embedded in the main sentence. Simple My address is unknown. subject complement noun adjective phrase phrase Complex Where I live is unknown. subject clause [connector] + S + V ١١٠ ________________________________________________________________
  • 112. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Simple I will meet him tomorrow adverb of time ↓ phrase Complex I will meet him when he comes. ↓ adverbial clause of time There are three places in the sentence where we can replace the phrase with a clause and accordingly there are three kinds of clauses: ١. The noun clause comes in the place of the subject or object or after a preposition. ٢. The adjectival clause comes in the place of the adjective describing one noun of the sentence. ٣. The adverbial clause comes in the place of the adverb. For each type there is a group of connectors that permits the clause to enter the main sentence replacing one of its constituents. _________________________________________________________________ ١١١
  • 113. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Noun Clauses Connectors: that, what, when, where, why, how, who, whom, which, whose N.B. Though most of these connectors are interrogative words, they are used in the complex sentence as relative pronouns connecting a clause to the main sentence replacing one of its nouns. Examples: subject That - That he was a liar was known by everyone. subject Why - Why he was absent is a mysterious fact. object When - I do not know when I will see him. subject Who - Who comes first will take a present. Object What - I could not understand what he said. How - She could not speak of how she succeeded. —> after a preposition in the prepositional phrase. ١١٢ ________________________________________________________________
  • 114. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Adjectival Clauses Connectors: Relative pronouns: who, whom, which, that N. B. The function of these connectors is different from their function as connectors in the noun clauses (compare the examples above to the following). Examples: Who: S V O S V adv. I met the girl (who visited us three times.) ↓ The whole clause is an adjective of the noun Which: I bought the book (which was highly valued among critics). [The whole clause is an adjective of the noun]. Rules for Relative Clauses: Relative clauses are adjective clauses formed with the relative pronouns who, whom, whose, which, or that or with the relative adverbs when, where, or why. To use relative pronouns correctly, you need to be aware of their different functions in a relative clause. _________________________________________________________________ ١١٣
  • 115. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ١. Who, that, and which can function as the subject of a relative clause. Who refers to people, that refers to people and things, and which refers only to things. Examples: The teacher called out the names of those students who [or that] were absent. (Who [or that] refers to students and is the subject of the relative clause). The book that (or which) was left on the table is no longer there. (That [or which] refers to the book and is the subject of the relative clause). ٢. Whom, that, and which can function as a direct object in a relative clause. Whom refers to people, that refers to people and things, and which refers only to things. Examples: The student whom [or that] they have chosen to be editor of the class newspaper does not want the job. (Whom [or that] refers to the students and is the direct object of chosen in the relative clause. In spoken English, who can be used, but should not be used in formal, written English). I think the gift that (or which) I found will please Samuel. (That [or which] is the object of found and refers to the gift). ١١٤ ________________________________________________________________
  • 116. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٣. Whom and which can function as the object of a preposition in a relative clause. Whom refers to persons and which refers to things. Examples: The person for whom these plane reservations were made never picked up the tickets. (Whom is the object of the preposition for and refers to the person). The history class in which Adela enrolled requires a term paper. (Which is the object of the preposition in and refers to the history class). ٤. Whose functions as a possessive pronoun in a relative clause and refers to people or things. Examples: The person whose books are on the table will be back soon. (Whose shows that the books belong to the person). Eric fixed my car as well as the car whose transmission was broken. (Whose shows that the transmission belongs to the car). _________________________________________________________________ ١١٥
  • 117. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٥. Relative clauses can also be connected to the nouns they modify with the relative adverbs when, where, and why. Examples: The restaurant where we ate is only open for dinner. Tell me the reason why you had so much difficulty with the exam. I will never forget the time when the teacher got mad at us in class. Restrictive and non-restrictive relative clauses In the example sentences given so far in this section, the information the relative clause added to the sentence is essential, meaning that it is necessary to identify the noun or to distinguish the noun from others of the same type. However, if the relative clause adds additional or extra information to the sentence, it is set off by commas. The first is called a restrictive relative clause and the second a nonrestrictive relative clause. The sentences below contain nonrestrictive relative clauses. In non-restrictive relative clauses, "that" is not interchangeable with who, whom, or which. ١١٦ ________________________________________________________________
  • 118. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Examples: My mother, who is ninety-one years old, lives in a retirement community. The University of California, which is a public school, has nine campuses. My math professor, who loves to cook, invited us all to dinner at his house. Thomas Jefferson, whose home was in Virginia, always loved to return there. Pepe's restaurant, where we often eat, has an excellent buffet. Adverbial Clauses They include NINE types of adverbs and, for each type, there is a group of connectors: N.B. You have to understand the meaning of these connectors so that you can use the suitable connector to the type of writing that you are dealing with. A Note on Punctuation: All connectors and their clauses usually come after the main clause and if they come at the beginning, you have to use a comma between the subordinate adverbial clause and the main clause. e.g.: He will come when he likes. → no comma _________________________________________________________________ ١١٧
  • 119. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ When he likes, he will come. → coma Connectors: ١. Time adverbial clauses Connectors: when, as soon as, while/as , after, before, till/until, since, no sooner ..... than hardly ....when scarcely ... when You can use any tense with these connectors. However, some of these connectors require a certain tense. e.g. ١. Since + a definite moment in time: Usually this is used with the present perfect tense in the main clause. Usually the tense after since is past simple: I have been here since he began his speech. ٢. No sooner ...... than Hardly .......... when Scarcely ........ when These are used with past perfect or past simple and the first part should be phrased like a question: ١١٨ ________________________________________________________________
  • 120. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar e.g. - No sooner had he found his watch, than he lost it again. - Hardly had he thanked us, when he fell down dead. - Scarcely did he reach his house, when he discovered the murder. ٣- If you are to use any of these connectors with the future, you have to use the present simple instead of the future simple in the subordinate clauses: I will meet him when he comes. [That’s when he comes tomorrow, or next week, etc.] Though we mean future, we use present simple. ٢- Adverbial clauses of place where, wherever e.g. The girl followed him where / wherever he went. ٣- Adverbial clauses of cause because, as (for cause), since (for cause) Since his mother was absent, he could do what he liked. I punished him because / as he was careless. ٤- Adverbial clauses of manner. as, as if , as though _________________________________________________________________ ١١٩
  • 121. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ He behaved as he was told. He fights as though he were a lion. After "as if” and “as though”, we usually use "were" instead of "was" with [he, she, it] to show that we are only supposing a meaning which is imaginary or impossible. ٥. Adverbial clauses of purpose. so that, in order that, lest, for fear that Examples: He works hard so that he may succeed. He works hard lest he should fail. He behaves politely for fear that he may be punished N.B. After "so that", "in order that", "for fear that", there should come "may" or "might" + infinitive and after lest comes "should". ٦- Adverbial clauses of result ١- so + adj. + that + clause He is so weak that he cannot walk. ١٢٠ ________________________________________________________________
  • 122. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٢- such a + noun phrase + that clause He made such a noise that he was punished He was such a brave man that he won many battles. ٧- Contrast. though / although However + adjective + S V, main clause Whatever + noun + S V, main clause Although he is rich, he is unhappy. However rich he is, he is unhappy. Whatever wealth he has, he is unhappy. ٨- Comparison as ..... as not so ..... as than the more the more ..... the more ..... ..... the less ..... He is as clever as his brother [is]. He is not so clever as I [am]. "I" has idiomatically changed to be [me]. _________________________________________________________________ ١٢١
  • 123. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ I am cleverer than he [is]. (“ him” idiomatically) The more you work, the more you gain. /Or/ the less you gain! ٩- Conditional If Unless Should Were Had "If" and " unless" have three rules of the tenses they take and the meanings they express Meaning Probable future if/unless clause Present If it rains, main clause Will or shall + infinitive I will stay at home. improbable future Past If the rich people grew poor, would should + infinitive they would understand the feeling of the poor. past time and hence impossible would + have + pp should I would have given him a present. Past Perfect If he had come, ١٢٢ ________________________________________________________________
  • 124. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar The other three connectors replace “If”: Should + subject + infinitive, S + would + inf should Should he come, I should give him a present Were + S + C, S + should / would + inf. Were I a rich man, I would help the poor. Other examples: Had I enough time, I should help everyone.. [had as a main verb] Had he known of my trouble, he would have helped me. [had + pp] Important notes on clauses: For all these clauses, there are phrases that can replace them in meaning but will be shorter in length. - Remember: Clause = S V C The V + ing is not a verb. The infinitive is not a finite verb. And so it cannot appear in a clause except with other verbs like "verb to be". - Correct: Although I was shouting, he did not hear me _________________________________________________________________ ١٢٣
  • 125. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ - Wrong: Although I shouting, he did not hear me. The infinitive is not a verb and so it should not appear in a clause but it should appear only in phrases. Wrong: I have studied for six years, so that to learn English. Correct: I have studied for six years so that I can learn English. A List of connectors that are followed by phrases and can replace the above clauses and their meanings and use: Meaning Clause Phrase ١-Time - when / on + noun when e.g. When / On seeing the policeman, the child cried. as soon as - immediately + on + noun Immediately on our arrival, we went to the club. while - during + noun During the mother's absence, the boys played. after - after + noun - Having + pp After his arrival, he met his students. Having arrived, he met his d ١٢٤ ________________________________________________________________
  • 126. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar students. before - before + noun He had studied his lessons before going to bed. till, until - Till, until + noun I shall wait until his coming back. Since - Since + noun I have not visited him since his father's death. No sooner - Immediately after + noun (hardly) scarcely Immediately after his departure, the thief broke into the house. ٢- Place Where - In + possessive + place Wherever - everywhere He remains where he is. He remains in his place. His dog follows him everywhere ٣- Cause because - because of / - owing to _________________________________________________________________ ١٢٥
  • 127. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ since Due to the fact - on account of / - due to + noun that He could not go to school because of (owing to, on account of, due to) his illness. ٤-Manner as, as if, as though - according to + noun - like + noun as I advised him He did everything according to my advice. as if he were a race He was running like a race horse horse. ٥-Purpose - to - in order to} + infinitive so that, in order that lest for fear that ٦- Result so + adjective / adverb such + noun - so as to We go to school to (in order to / so as to) learn. - for fear of + noun I worked hard for fear of failure. - too + adj. or adv. + to + infinitive (a negative meaning) ١٢٦ ________________________________________________________________
  • 128. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar He is so old that He is too old to work. he cannot work. He was clever enough to answer any question ٧- Contrast though / although In spite of / Despite / however / whatever For all / With all In spite of (or any of the above connectors) his strength, he Although he was was easily beaten. strong, he was easily beaten. ٨. Comparison as not + as He is as old as I am. ٩. Conditional If / unless He is of my age. He is not of my age. In case of without + noun but for In case of illness, I shall go to the doctor. Without books, we would be ignorant. But for his help, I would have failed. _________________________________________________________________ ١٢٧
  • 129. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Clause linkers (within sentences) Because S V, S V. S V because S V. {Note: S V because of n. or gerund .} { clause + phrase} -----------------------------Because they needed more time, they postponed the event. subordinate clause + main clause dependent + independent They postponed the event because they needed more time. main clause + subordinate clause independent + dependent They postponed the event because of lack of time. one clause + phrase ١٢٨ ________________________________________________________________
  • 130. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar While Whereas If Unless When As soon as As Although Though {Note: In spite of n. or gerund, S V .} {Note: Despite n. or gerund, S V .} Although they exerted great efforts, they failed. subordinate clause + main clause dependent + independent They failed although they exerted great efforts. main clause + subordinate clause independent + dependent They failed despite the great effort. _________________________________________________________________ ١٢٩
  • 131. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ one clause + phrase in spite of After Before Since S V so that S V. I knew that S V. } I did not know what S V. } noun clauses I would like to know why S V. } Noun Clauses S V O (or C) ١. Noun Noun ٢. Pronoun Pronoun ٣. Noun Phrase Noun Phrase ٤. Noun Clause Noun Clause ١. Students write essays. ٢. They write them. ٣. Good students write good essays. ١٣٠ ________________________________________________________________
  • 132. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٤. That they write I How he did it We That he is angry .………. them. other students. proves What you want teachers. ……….. essays amazes that they’re learning. is impossible. Don’t know what he wants. remains a secret. understand why he disappeared. doesn’t bother me. I know when he’s leaving. She knows which book he chose. _________________________________________________________________ ١٣١
  • 133. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Adjective Clauses Students who are hardworking write essays. S V O Students write essays which are sophisticated. S V O Students whose major is English write essays. S V O The students I teach write essays. S V O (“whom” is understood) ١٣٢ ________________________________________________________________
  • 134. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Sentence linkers (within paragraphs) S V. However, S V. ( two structurally separate sentences) Therefore, Thus, Moreover, In addition, Besides, Furthermore, Nevertheless, On the one hand, On the other hand, First, Finally, Concerning the psychological aspect, _________________________________________________________________ ١٣٣
  • 135. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ As regards the financial element, To illustrate, From the point of view of the outsider, At one side of the road, On top of all that, ١٣٤ ________________________________________________________________
  • 136. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Exercises: A) Analyse the following sentences. (Identify Subjects, Verbs, and Complements. Determine the number of clauses involved and which connectors are used): Simple: ١. The child kicked the ball. ٢. Yesterday morning, the cute little Russian child in the red suit vigorously kicked the huge synthetic rubbery ball with his left foot in our garden. ٣. Rats took this and that to gnaw behind the panels. ٤. The huge African elephants escaped from the Russian circus in the north of country. ٥. In ancient times, primitive people knew how to use fire to their benefit. Compound: ١. He was in Italy last year, but now he has returned home. ٢. The man knocked at the door and waited for an answer. ٣. Our car had a flat tire, and it had started to rain, and some large black ants were devouring our picnic lunch. _________________________________________________________________ ١٣٥
  • 137. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٤. I left my briefcase behind, so I had to return home. ٥. She bought very few things, yet she spent a lot of money. ٦. “Hurry up, or you’ll be late.” Complex: ١. I have found the book I have been looking for everywhere. ٢. The man whose car was parked on the wrong side of the road had to pay a fine. ٣. Amy, who is a friend of mine, had to pay a fine for parking in a No-Parking zone. ٤. You must find out why he declined the job offer. ٥. As I was afraid to hurt his feelings, I did not tell him. ٦. He is sure to pass his examination since he worked so hard. B) Sentences for Analysis Compound and Simple: ١. We made the scenery, the girls made the costumes, and everybody turned out for the amateur theatricals. ٢. Children waited to walk home with their parents, and there was an air of mystery around town. ١٣٦ ________________________________________________________________
  • 138. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٣. Horseback and carriage were the only practical ways of travel; the roads were impassable to automobiles. ٤. Various people passed him, and he walked on, saying nothing. ٥. Ten minutes later, after shedding my disguise, I went into the restaurant again, and this time the intensity of the excitement was even greater. ٦. He must go to bed early tonight, or he will oversleep tomorrow morning. ٧. One day as the boy came by, the blinds were drawn, and the opportunity to indulge his longing seemed at hand. ٨. He plucked a berry and ate it, but its taste was bitter, and he took no more. ٩. As he was about to turn away, the blinds of a window flew open, the old lady leaned out and cried “Now, you naughty boy, you have found your reward.” ١٠. At that very moment of fury and flying accusations, the best thing is to quit this abominable job of reconciling these warring factions of half-wits. _________________________________________________________________ ١٣٧
  • 139. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ C) Adjective Clauses Combine each pair of the following sentences making the second an adjective clause: ١. The mushrooms made me sick. I ate them last night. ٢. The man was a doctor from Chicago. I met him on the ship. ٣. The lawyer never sent a reply. I wrote a letter to him. ٤. The doctor was not a specialist. He arrived late. ٥. The coffee tasted bitter. I had coffee this morning. ٦. The child screamed out loud. His toy was smashed. ٧. He invited several people to the meeting. It was held in a big hotel. ٨. I talked to someone. He couldn't understand me. ٩. The thief took a valuable watch. It doesn't belong to me. ١٠.They contacted the official. He is the only one in charge there. ١٣٨ ________________________________________________________________
  • 140. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ١١.The company employed an expert. The expert's skills are limited. ١٢.I lost the papers. You gave these papers to me. ١٣.Mary takes care of my children. Everybody appreciates her greatly. ١٤.Mary is a good nurse. Everybody appreciates her work. ١٥.I know a man. He makes a living by writing poetry. ١٦.I have a watch. It doesn't need winding. ١٧.I have a neighbor. His dog is always barking. ١٨.My friend helped me a lot. My friend's father has special connections in the government. ١٩.The doctor gave him the wrong prescription. He visited this doctor. ٢٠.The table was not stable. He placed the vase on it. ٢١.The decision was made too hastily. We objected to this decision. _________________________________________________________________ ١٣٩
  • 141. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٢٢.The man is his boss in the Gas Company. He is talking to him on the phone. ٢٣.The dictionary is out of date. They usually use it in their work. ٢٤.The employer is always giving people a hard time. I work for him. ٢٥.Some of the customers are rude. The waiter has to serve them. ٢٦.The woman lives next door to us. She's a speakerine on a local TV station. ٢٧.The daycare center was established to take care of children. These children's parents work during the day. ٢٨.What was the name of the horse? It won the French race. ٢٩.The waitress served us last night. The waitress was very impolite and impatient. ٣٠.The lieutenant filed a suit against the company. His Mini was smashed in the crash. ٣١.I have to call the man. I accidentally picked up his briefcase after the meeting. ١٤٠ ________________________________________________________________
  • 142. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٣٢.I come from a country. Its history goes back thousands of years. ٣٣.He lectured on a topic. I know very little about it. ٣٤.The instructor gave me good advice. I spoke to him. ٣٥.The people were nice. We visited their house. ٣٦.We came within sight of Everest. Its summit has attracted many climbers. ٣٧.There are times. Everyone needs to be alone at these times. ٣٨.The lawyer never sent a reply. I wrote a letter to him. ٣٩.The exhibition was not very interesting. My friend took me to see it. ٤٠.The police finally caught the man. This man had set the fire. ٤١.I can't remember the name of the person. I gave the money to him. ٤٢.The applicant is not going to be employed. I am holding his file right now. _________________________________________________________________ ١٤١
  • 143. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ D) Conditional Sentences: (Type ١) If I move to Boston, I will live on Main Street. present S , future S If you call your parents, they’ll be very happy. If the mechanic fixes our car on time, we’ll drive to Alex. If I’m not in a hurry tonight, I’ll write to him. If she isn’t sick, she’ll go to school. If John doesn't buy a car, he'll buy a motorcycle. Exercises: I. Fill in the spaces with verbs in the right tenses: Example: If we go to London, we will visit the British Museum. ١. If they _______ their homework tonight, the teacher _____ happy. ٢. If the weather ____________ good, George ___________ swimming this weekend. ٣. If he ___________ swimming this weekend, he ________ a wonderful time. ٤. If you don't eat your dinner tonight, you ______________ hungry. ٥. If you ___________ too many cookies, you ___________ a stomachache. ١٤٢ ________________________________________________________________
  • 144. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٦. If she misses the bus, she _________________________ . II. Complete the sentences appropriately: If the weather is bad tomorrow, ................................................... If we hitchhike to work, .. If I don't sleep well tonight, .. If you don't fix the broken window, ... If he doesn't curl his hair, ... If ..............................................., they’ll go to a restaurant tonight. If ...................................................., his family will be happy. If ...................................................., his son will be sad. If ...................................................., his boss will fire him. If ..................................................., his friends will be jealous. (Type ٢) What might happen? ١. Paul shouldn't eat so much. If he ate too much, he might .......................................... ٢. Your friends shouldn't do their homework so quickly. If they did it too quickly, they might ............................. ٣. Richard shouldn't worry so much. If .................................................................................... ٤. You shouldn't drive so carelessly. If ........................................................................ ٥. Your cousin shouldn't speak so impolitely to his boss. If .................................................................. ٦. Your children shouldn't go to bed so late. If ................................................................... _________________________________________________________________ ١٤٣
  • 145. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٧. You shouldn't talk so much. If ......................................................................... Situations Answer the questions with conditional statements of Type ٢. ١. What cities or other places of interest would you visit if you went to America? ٢. What would you do (or not do) if you could live your life over again? ٣. What would you do or say if someone called you a fool? ٤. If a visitor came to you town, what places would you advise him to see? ٥. What famous person would you like to meet if you had the chance? ٦. Which country would you choose if you decided to live abroad? ٧. What change would you make in your house, assuming you had the money? ٨. What would you do if you saw a house on fire? ٩. What would you do if you had something stolen? ١٠. Which books would you take with you if you went to live on a desert island? Unreal conditions (present time) (type ٢) Write sentences following the example: Example: Sentence: We don’t have any wood, so we can’t light a fire. Response: If we had some wood, we could light a fire. ١٤٤ ________________________________________________________________
  • 146. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ١. As I don’t have a watch, I can’t tell you the time. ٢. Britain doesn’t export enough, so it has a constant balance of payments problems. ٣. Since I know the meaning of the word, I don’t have to look it up. ٤. This exercise is easy, so everyone will get the correct answer. ٥. I know the answer so I can tell you. ٦. We haven’t any matches so we can’t light the fire. ٧. I am not a doctor so I can’t prescribe the right medicine for you. ٨. He plays very well. Therefore, they give him prizes. Complete the sentences using conditional statements of type ٢: ٩. If you explained the situation well to your boss, .............................. ١٠.Perhaps he ......................................... if you spoke to him yourself. ١١.If you changed your job, you .............................................. ١٢.If you went to see a doctor, h............................................... ١٣.If we bought a house in the country, we ............................ _________________________________________________________________ ١٤٥
  • 147. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ١٤.If they came to see us in London, we.................................. ١٥.I’m sure he would take the job on if ................................... ١٦.If you took the shoes back to the shop, they........................ ١٧.If you read the book a second time, you ............................. ١٨.If we all pooled our resources, we .................................... (Type ٣) A: Why didn’t you pay Tom? B: You didn’t tell me to. If you had told me, I would have paid him. (If you’d told me, I’d have paid him.) Why didn’t you ... ١. wait for Henry? ٢. meet John? ٣. warn Mary? ٤. thank James? ٥. remind the children? ٦. invite Mr. and Mrs. Jones? ٧. ring Margaret? ١٤٦ ________________________________________________________________
  • 148. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٨. send the parcel? ٩. phone the doctor? ١٠.write to George? ١١.report it? ١٢.ask Billy? ١٣.help Peter? ١٤.sack Tom? ١٥.look for Philip? ١٦.follow the man? ١٧.search the house? ١٨.vote for Donald? ١٩.stop the car? ٢٠.oppose the new policy? _________________________________________________________________ ١٤٧
  • 149. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Appendices (A) Brief Notes on Errors in Complex Sentences There are three major problems concerning complex sentences: • Run-on sentences. • Fragments. • Missing verbs in any of the clauses. Run-on sentences: This can also happen with complex sentences because you may go on endlessly with adding different clauses in one sentence (Look up run-on compound sentences in this book). Example: Although the book which I bought, when I came from England which was very developed in comparison to my country which at the time of my buying the book was quite underdeveloped, was nice, I could not read it at that time because I was very busy reading another book which was also ............... The sentence is grammatical but it is very difficult for the reader to follow all these ideas grouped in one sentence. ١٤٨ ________________________________________________________________
  • 150. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar Fragments: It is one dangling clause or phrase that is not combined with a main clause. Examples: When I was young. Because she was beautiful. On my arrival. Missing verbs in any of the clauses: Once you choose to write a complex sentence, you have to be sure that each clause has its constituents: S V C So, the following is wrong: Although reading important, I do not like it. No verb → → → Serious Mistake _________________________________________________________________ ١٤٩
  • 151. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ Next term we will cover most of the important problematic areas in the English sentence. The following is a list of the major errors that we have covered in this term and that you have to avoid while writing. ١٥٠ ________________________________________________________________
  • 152. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar (B) General checklist of language errors covered this term Type of error Explanation Examples "for some items" vt incorrect verb tense yesterday, he likes vf verb incorrectly formed he did not received ss incorrect sentence structure verb is missing. wo incorrect or awkward word order unparallel structure, etc. any word incorrectly placed. conn missing or incorrectly used connector unclear unclear message for any reason Incomplete sentence frag run-on non-stop sentences grammatically or ungrammatically connected sva subject verb agreement Although he was ill. He like. They likes. _________________________________________________________________ ١٥١
  • 153. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ (C) Irregular Verbs This is a list of the most frequently used irregular verbs of English. The verbs are ordered according to similarity of conjugation to make learning them easier. The students are required to make sure they can use the different forms of the verbs properly. ١ ٢ ٣ become / became / become come / came / come run / ran / run ٤ ٥ be (am / is / are) (was / were) been see / saw / seen ٦ ٧ ٨ ٩ ١٠ ١١ bite / bit / bitten do / did / done go / went / gone hide / hid / hidden speak / spoke / spoken steal / stole / stolen ١٢ ١٣ ١٤ ١٥ ١٦ ١٧ blow / blew / blown draw / drew / drawn fly / flew / flown grow / grew / grown know / knew / known throw / threw / thrown ١٥٢ ________________________________________________________________
  • 154. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ١٨ ١٩ ٢٠ ٢١ ٢٢ ٢٣ ٢٤ ٢٥ ٢٦ ٢٧ ٢٨ ٢٩ ٣٠ ٣١ ٣٢ ٣٣ ٣٤ ٣٥ ٣٦ ٣٧ ٣٨ ٣٩ ٤٠ ٤١ ٤٢ ٤٣ ٤٤ ٤٥ ٤٦ ٤٧ ٤٨ ٤٩ ٥٠ bend / bent / bent bring / brought / brought build / built / built buy / bought /bought catch / caught / caught dig / dug / dug feed / fed / fed feel / felt / felt fight / fought / fought find / found / found get / got / got hang / hung / hung have / had / had hear / heard / heard hold / held / held keep / kept / kept lay / laid / laid lead / led / led leave / left / left lend / lent / lent lose / lost / lost make / made / made mean / meant / meant meet / met / met read / read / read say / said / said sell / sold / sold send / sent / sent shoot / shot / shot sit / sat / sat sleep / slept / slept stand / stood / stood stick / stuck / stuck _________________________________________________________________ ١٥٣
  • 155. English Grammar ______________________________________________________ ٥١ ٥٢ ٥٣ ٥٤ ٥٥ ٥٦ strike / struck / struck teach / taught / taught tell / told / told think / thought / thought understand / understood / understood win / won / won ٥٧ ٥٨ ٥٩ ٦٠ ٦١ begin / began / begun drink / drank / drunk ring / rang / rung sing / sang / sung swim / swam / swum ٦٢ ٦٣ ٦٤ ٦٥ ٦٦ ٦٧ ٦٨ ٦٩ ٧٠ ٧١ ٧٢ cost / cost / cost cut / cut / cut fit / fit / fit hit / hit / hit hurt / hurt / hurt let / let / let put / put / put quit / quit / quit set / set / set shut / shut / shut spread / spread / spread ٧٣ ٧٤ ٧٥ ٧٦ ٧٧ ٧٨ ٧٩ ٨٠ bear / bore / born bear / bore / borne break / broke / broken choose / chose / chosen drive / drove / driven eat / ate / eaten fall / fell / fallen forget / forgot / forgotten ١٥٤ ________________________________________________________________
  • 156. ______________________________________________________ English Grammar ٨١ ٨٢ ٨٣ ٨٤ ٨٥ ٨٦ ٨٧ ٨٨ ٨٩ ٩٠ ٩١ ٩٢ forgive / forgave / forgiven freeze / froze / frozen give / gave / given lie / lay / lain ride / rode / ridden rise / rose / risen shake / shook / shaken take / took / taken tear / tore / torn wake / woke / woken wear / wore / worn write / wrote / written _________________________________________________________________ ١٥٥