Apa Style Bibliographic Description
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An easy guide for Benguet State University Library users and researchers.

An easy guide for Benguet State University Library users and researchers.

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Apa Style Bibliographic Description Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Lauren P. Kipaan College librarian 11 Benguet State University
  • 2. Overview • The American Psychological Association (APA) style is widely accepted in the social sciences and other fields, such as education, business, and nursing. as far as bibliographic citations it covers: • In-text Citations The APA citation format requires parenthetical citations within the text (Smith, 2007) rather than endnotes or footnotes, it is the so-called author-date style system .  This is not unique to APA alone but widely adopted. Citations in the text provide brief information, usually the name of the author and the date of publication, to lead the reader to the complete source of information in the reference list at the end of the paper. This system is light and immediate, it makes reference to the same entry cited in the reference list, it does not change depending on the type of document cited (article, video, electronic...). • Reference list (where:  Italics, underlined, bold, superscript etc. are indicated as such: Title ; Text strings between quotation marks `...` like `ed.` have to be supplied (by hand or by the program)
  • 3. Overview style  Journal article Author's surname, F. (Year). Title and subtitle. [Type of Article]. Journal,Volume (Issue),Pages.  Electronic Journal article Author (Year). Title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), Pages. `Retrieved from`URL. `doi:`DOI  Book Author (Year). Title (Translator's first name + Surname,`Trans.`Edition`ed.``Vol.`Volume). City: Publisher.  Edited book Editor`(Ed.)`^`(Eds.)`. (Year). Title (Edition `ed.` `Vol. `Volume). City: Publisher.  Book Section Author (Year). Title (Translator,`Trans.`). `In `Editors first name + Surname `(Ed.)`,^`(Eds.)`, Book Title (Edition `ed.`, `Vol.` Volume, `pp.` Pages). City: Publisher.  Conference proceedings Author (Year of Conference, Date=Month and day ). Title.` Paper presented at the `Conference Name, Conference Location.  Web page Author (Year, Last Update Date). Title. Series Title. Edition. 'Retrieved 'Access Date, Access Year, 'from 'URL
  • 4. Serials (JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS IN PRINT FORMAT )  Author's surname, F. (Year). Title and subtitle. [Type of Article]. Journal,Volume(Issue),Pages.  Form : Author, A., Author, B., & Author C. (Year). Title. Journal, Vol.(issue), pages-  The journal title and the volume number are in italics  The issue number in parenthesis is in regular type not separated by blank space from the volume  The & ampersand is preceded by a comma  Add month, day to dates for articles published in magazines, newspapers and alike  One Author Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological  Bulletin, 126(6), 910-924.  Two to Six Authors : cite them all Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S.(1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations.  Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 45(2), 10-36.  More than six Authors : cite the first six + et al. Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., et al. (2000).  An experimental evaluation of theory-based mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 843-856.  Magazine Article Rodgers, J. (2006, July). Extreme psychology. Psychology Today, 39(4), 86-93.  Review of a Book Schatz, B. R. (2000, November 17). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The  social life of information]. Science, 290, 1304.  Daily Newspaper Article, No Author=Anonymous title in plain font, not in italics New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (2001, August 3). The Washington Post, p. A12.  Letter to the Editor, Newspaper Article : integration between brackets for the type of the article Berkowitz, A.D. (2000, November 24). How to tackle the problem of student drinking [Letter  to the editor]. The Chronicle of Higher Education, p B20.  Entire Issue of a Journal Barlow, D.H. (Ed.). (1991) Diagnoses, dimensions, and DSM-IV: The science of classification  [Special issue]. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 100(3).
  • 5. Electronic Journal Article  Author (Year). Title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), Pages. `Retrieved from`URL. `doi:`DOI  General Form: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume(issue), pages. doi: unique identifier OR Retrieved from OR Available from [URL OR database, site, blog, wiki ... name]  Give the exact URL for open access journals or the URL of the journal home page if accessed through a subscription.  There is no period at the end of a reference citation ending with a URL. You may use "Available from" rather than "Retrieved from" to indicated that the URL will lead users to a download site rather than directly to the data  Full-Text Article with DOI assigned Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated  communication: Science, pseudoscience,  and antiscience. American  Psychologist, 50(9), 750-765. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.50.9.750   Journal Article within a database Francis-Smythe, J., Robertson, I. (1999). Time-related Individual Differences.  Time & Society, 8(2), 273-292. Retrieved from http:// search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aph&AN=4548317&site=ehost-live  Newspaper article retrieved from a Web Site McHugh, P. (2005, March 17). Feeling down? It might help if you just take it outside.  San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved from http://sfgate.com  Research or Technical Report from a Web Site NAACP. (n.d.). Juvenile justice fact sheet. Retrieved December 11, 2007, from           http://www.naacp.org/advocacy/research/facts/Juvenile%20Justice.pdf  Television Broadcast Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour.  [Television broadcast]. New York and Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.  Electronic Book from Web Site O'Keefe, E. (n.d). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Available from http://onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135  Blog post bfy. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your  mind. Message posted to http://scienceblogs.com/pharyngula/
  • 6. Book and Reports  Author (Year). Title (Translator's first name + Surname,`Trans.`Edition`ed.``Vol.`Volume). City: Publisher.  General form: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. (Translator's first name + Surname+`Trans.`  edition+`ed.`  volume+`Vol. ` ). Location: Publisher.  A Book by More than One Author Levison, M., Ward, R. G., & Webb, J. W. (1973). The settlement of Polynesia: A computer simulation. (3rd ed.). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.  Roeder, K., Howdeshell, J., Fulton, L., Lochhead, M., Craig, K., Peterson, R., et.al. (1967). Nerve cells and insect behavior.  Cambridge, MA:   Harvard University Press.  Edited Book Ruiz, V. L. & Sánchez Korrol, V. (Eds.). (2006). Latinas in the United States: A historical encyclopedia. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.  Corporate as Author  American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author. [**]   Anonymous (no personal or corporate author: title in first position in italics) Guidelines and application form for directors, 1990 summer seminar for school teachers. (1988). Washington, DC: National Endowment for the Humanities.  Chapter in a Book (edited book: editors' names = First name's initials+Surname) Massaro, D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick Jr.,  P. van den Broek, & D.C. Knill (Eds.), Cognition: Conceptual and   methodological issues (pp. 51-84). Washington, DC: American Psychological  Association.  Conference proceedings  (note the date of the conference plus introductive wording) Bensalah, M., Benest, M., Truccino, G., & Dell'Orso, F. (1998, January 13). Relation between emersion phase and compressive Lutetian tectonics in the southern Tellian basin (Algeria). Paper presented at the Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des sciences. Série II, Mécanique, physique, chimie, sciences de l'univers, sciences de la terre, Paris.  ERIC Document  after the main title: "(Type +  No. + Report Number)" Mead, J. V. (1992) Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that  novice teachers bring with them (Report No. NCRTL-RR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teaching Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED346082)   Government Report National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.  [**  "If the publisher and the author are the same, use the word “Author” as the publisher. Otherwise, identify the author and publisher separately if they are different."
  • 7. Book Section  Author (Year). Title (Translator,`Trans.`). `In `Editors first name + Surname `(Ed.)`,^`(Eds.)`, Book Title (Edition `ed.`, `Vol.` Volume, `pp.` Pages). City: Publisher.
  • 8. Conference Proceedings  Author (Year of Conference, Date=Month and day ). Title.` Paper presented at the `Conference Name, Conference Location. Example : (note the date of the conference plus introductive wording) Bensalah, M., Benest, M., Truccino, G., & Dell'Orso, F. (1998, January 13). Relation between emersion phase and compressive Lutetian tectonics in the southern Tellian basin (Algeria). Paper presented at the Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des sciences. Série II, Mécanique, physique, chimie, sciences de l'univers, sciences de la terre, Paris.
  • 9. Web Page  Author (Year, Last Update Date). Title. Series Title. Edition. 'Retrieved 'Access Date, Access Year, 'from 'URL Example: O'Keefe, E. (n.d). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Available from Http://onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp? ItemID=35
  • 10. In Text Citation  do not put the name between parentheses if :  it is already cited in parentheses   the name is already cited, without ambiguity, within the sentence or paragraph  more authors' names: up to 5: cite them all, if >= 6 then 1st + et al. since the first time; if >=3 authors list  1st and et. al the subsequent times anonymous work: 2-3 words from the title, as cited in the Ref. List; if analytic work (i.e. article): ("Work in progress", 1992) if book or serial: (Work in progress, 1992) cite also the specific source if there exists: p. page, chap., vol., pt., fig., ...) letters personal communication only cited, not in the RL Author and Date already Cited in Text : no parenthetical citation necessary "In a 1989 article, Gould explores some of Darwin's most effective metaphors. " Author Not Cited in Text "As metaphors for the workings of nature, Darwin used the tangled bank, the tree of life, and the face of nature (Gould, 1989). " Author Cited in Text: only date in in-text  "Gould (1989) attributes Darwin's success to his gift for making the appropriate metaphor. " Direct Quotation with Name of Author cited in the text and exact reference to a location "Gould (1989, chap. 3) explains that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness– genealogical rather than ecological–and to illustrate both success and failure in the history of life" (p. 14). " Ambiguous citations namely same author same year, add a letter after the year: "The same author retains this statement of Kerchove (Durgin, 2003a) that he would discard later(Durgin, 2003b)  " within the Reference List:       Durgin, P. A. (2003a). At-risk behaviors in children.       Durgin, P. A. (2003b). Treating obesity with psychotherapy. More authors: (Dewey & Ross, 1997)  ['&' not 'and', only two: no comma]  (Dewey, Ross, Jones, & Dell'Orso, 1997)  (Dewey, Ross, Jones, Fancy, & Clinton, 1997)  (Fancy et al., 1997)   [i.e. this is the form for: (a) first citation for works with six or more authors; (b) subsequent citation for more than two authors]  Citing a secondary source "Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (1989, as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993)" Citing a corporate name (Association of Indian Reference Librarians [AIRL], 1996)  [first citation] (AIRL, 1997)  [following citations]
  • 11. More presentations?  http://www.slideshare.net/smp3/apa-style-tutorial  http://www.slideshare.net/WrSantiago/apa-style-1164639  http://www.slideshare.net/guest3bd2a12/apa-citation-style-prese Reference: Dell’ Orso, Francesco ( 2009, February 14 ). Bibliographic citations and bibliographic description. `Lecture presented at the` Scientific & Technological Information Management Training Course for Inter-University Cooperation , Brussels, Belgium.