Lauren P. Kipaan
College librarian 11
Benguet State University
• The American Psychological Association (APA) style is widely
accepted in the social sciences and other fields, such as education,
business, and nursing. as far as bibliographic citations it covers:
• In-text Citations The APA citation format requires parenthetical
citations within the text (Smith, 2007) rather than endnotes or
footnotes, it is the so-called author-date style system . This is not
unique to APA alone but widely adopted.
Citations in the text provide brief information, usually the name
of the author and the date of publication, to lead the reader to the
complete source of information in the reference list at the end of the
This system is light and immediate, it makes reference to the
same entry cited in the reference list, it does not change depending on
the type of document cited (article, video, electronic...).
• Reference list (where: Italics, underlined, bold, superscript etc. are
indicated as such: Title ; Text strings between quotation marks `...`
like `ed.` have to be supplied (by hand or by the program)
Author's surname, F. (Year). Title and subtitle. [Type of Article]. Journal,Volume
Electronic Journal article
Author (Year). Title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), Pages. `Retrieved from`URL.
Author (Year). Title (Translator's first name +
Surname,`Trans.`Edition`ed.``Vol.`Volume). City: Publisher.
Editor`(Ed.)`^`(Eds.)`. (Year). Title (Edition `ed.` `Vol. `Volume). City: Publisher.
Author (Year). Title (Translator,`Trans.`). `In `Editors first name + Surname
`(Ed.)`,^`(Eds.)`, Book Title (Edition `ed.`, `Vol.` Volume, `pp.` Pages). City: Publisher.
Author (Year of Conference, Date=Month and day ). Title.` Paper presented at the
`Conference Name, Conference Location.
Author (Year, Last Update Date). Title. Series Title. Edition. 'Retrieved 'Access Date,
Access Year, 'from 'URL
(JOURNALS, MAGAZINES, NEWSPAPERS IN PRINT FORMAT )
Author's surname, F. (Year). Title and subtitle. [Type of Article]. Journal,Volume(Issue),Pages.
Form : Author, A., Author, B., & Author C. (Year). Title. Journal, Vol.(issue), pages-
The journal title and the volume number are in italics
The issue number in parenthesis is in regular type not separated by blank space from the volume
The & ampersand is preceded by a comma
Add month, day to dates for articles published in magazines, newspapers and alike
Mellers, B. A. (2000). Choice and the relative pleasure of consequences. Psychological Bulletin, 126(6), 910-924.
Two to Six Authors : cite them all
Klimoski, R., & Palmer, S.(1993). The ADA and the hiring process in organizations. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research,
More than six Authors : cite the first six + et al.
Wolchik, S. A., West, S. G., Sandler, I. N., Tein, J., Coatsworth, D., Lengua, L., et al. (2000). An experimental evaluation of theory-based
mother and mother-child programs for children of divorce. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 68(5), 843-856.
Rodgers, J. (2006, July). Extreme psychology. Psychology Today, 39(4), 86-93.
Review of a Book
Schatz, B. R. (2000, November 17). Learning by text or context? [Review of the book The social life of information]. Science, 290, 1304.
Daily Newspaper Article, No Author=Anonymous title in plain font, not in italics
New drug appears to sharply cut risk of death from heart failure. (2001, August 3). The Washington Post, p. A12.
Letter to the Editor, Newspaper Article : integration between brackets for the type of the article
Berkowitz, A.D. (2000, November 24). How to tackle the problem of student drinking [Letter to the editor]. The Chronicle of Higher Education,
Entire Issue of a Journal
Barlow, D.H. (Ed.). (1991) Diagnoses, dimensions, and DSM-IV: The science of classification [Special issue]. Journal of Abnormal Psychology,
Electronic Journal Article
Author (Year). Title. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), Pages. `Retrieved from`URL. `doi:`DOI
General Form: Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume(issue),
pages. doi: unique identifier OR Retrieved from OR Available from [URL OR database, site, blog, wiki ... name]
Give the exact URL for open access journals or the URL of the journal home page if accessed through a subscription. There is no
period at the end of a reference citation ending with a URL.
You may use "Available from" rather than "Retrieved from" to indicated that the URL will lead users to a download site rather
than directly to the data
Full-Text Article with DOI assigned
Jacobson, J. W., Mulick, J. A., & Schwartz, A. A. (1995). A history of facilitated communication: Science, pseudoscience, and
antiscience. American Psychologist, 50(9), 750-765. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.50.9.750
Journal Article within a database
Francis-Smythe, J., Robertson, I. (1999). Time-related Individual Differences. Time & Society, 8(2), 273-292. Retrieved from http://
Newspaper article retrieved from a Web Site
McHugh, P. (2005, March 17). Feeling down? It might help if you just take it outside. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved from
Research or Technical Report from a Web Site
NAACP. (n.d.). Juvenile justice fact sheet. Retrieved December 11, 2007, from
Crystal, L. (Executive Producer). (1993, October 11). The MacNeil/Lehrer news hour. [Television broadcast]. New York and
Washington, DC: Public Broadcasting Service.
Electronic Book from Web Site
O'Keefe, E. (n.d). Egoism & the crisis in Western values. Available from http://onlineoriginals.com/showitem.asp?itemID=135
bfy. (2007, January 22). Re: The unfortunate prerequisites and consequences of partitioning your mind. Message posted to
Book and Reports
Author (Year). Title (Translator's first name + Surname,`Trans.`Edition`ed.``Vol.`Volume). City: Publisher.
General form: Author, A. A. (Year). Title of work. (Translator's first name + Surname+`Trans.` edition+`ed.` volume+`Vol. ` ). Location:
A Book by More than One Author
Levison, M., Ward, R. G., & Webb, J. W. (1973). The settlement of Polynesia: A computer simulation. (3rd ed.). Minneapolis:
University of Minnesota Press.
Roeder, K., Howdeshell, J., Fulton, L., Lochhead, M., Craig, K., Peterson, R., et.al. (1967). Nerve cells and insect behavior.
Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Ruiz, V. L. & Sánchez Korrol, V. (Eds.). (2006). Latinas in the United States: A historical encyclopedia. Bloomington: Indiana
Corporate as Author
American Psychiatric Association. (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.
Anonymous (no personal or corporate author: title in first position in italics)
Guidelines and application form for directors, 1990 summer seminar for school teachers. (1988). Washington, DC: National
Endowment for the Humanities.
Chapter in a Book (edited book: editors' names = First name's initials+Surname)
Massaro, D. (1992). Broadening the domain of the fuzzy logical model of perception. In H. L. Pick Jr., P. van den Broek, & D.C. Knill
(Eds.), Cognition: Conceptual and methodological issues (pp. 51-84). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
Conference proceedings (note the date of the conference plus introductive wording)
Bensalah, M., Benest, M., Truccino, G., & Dell'Orso, F. (1998, January 13). Relation between emersion phase and compressive Lutetian
tectonics in the southern Tellian basin (Algeria). Paper presented at the Comptes rendus des séances de l'Academie des sciences.
Série II, Mécanique, physique, chimie, sciences de l'univers, sciences de la terre, Paris.
ERIC Document after the main title: "(Type + No. + Report Number)"
Mead, J. V. (1992) Looking at old photographs: Investigating the teacher tales that novice teachers bring with them (Report No.
NCRTL-RR-92-4). East Lansing, MI: National Center for Research on Teaching Learning. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service
National Institute of Mental Health. (1990). Clinical training in serious mental illness (DHHS Publication No. ADM 90-1679).
Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
[** "If the publisher and the author are the same, use the word “Author” as the publisher. Otherwise, identify the author and
publisher separately if they are different."
Author (Year). Title
(Translator,`Trans.`). `In `Editors first
name + Surname `(Ed.)`,^`(Eds.)`,
Book Title (Edition `ed.`, `Vol.`
Volume, `pp.` Pages). City: Publisher.
Author (Year of Conference, Date=Month and day ). Title.`
Paper presented at the `Conference Name, Conference
(note the date of the conference plus introductive wording)
Bensalah, M., Benest, M., Truccino, G., & Dell'Orso, F. (1998,
January 13). Relation between emersion phase and
compressive Lutetian tectonics in the southern Tellian basin
(Algeria). Paper presented at the Comptes rendus des
séances de l'Academie des sciences. Série II, Mécanique,
physique, chimie, sciences de l'univers, sciences de la
Author (Year, Last Update Date). Title. Series Title.
Edition. 'Retrieved 'Access Date, Access Year, 'from
O'Keefe, E. (n.d). Egoism & the crisis in Western values.
In Text Citation
do not put the name between parentheses if :
it is already cited in parentheses
the name is already cited, without ambiguity, within the sentence or paragraph
more authors' names: up to 5: cite them all, if >= 6 then 1st + et al. since the first time; if >=3 authors list 1st and et. al the
subsequent times anonymous work: 2-3 words from the title, as cited in the Ref. List; if analytic work (i.e. article): ("Work in
progress", 1992) if book or serial: (Work in progress, 1992) cite also the specific source if there exists: p. page, chap., vol., pt., fig., ...)
letters personal communication only cited, not in the RL Author and Date already Cited in Text : no parenthetical citation
"In a 1989 article, Gould explores some of Darwin's most effective metaphors. " Author Not Cited in Text
"As metaphors for the workings of nature, Darwin used the tangled bank, the tree of
life, and the face of nature (Gould, 1989). " Author Cited in Text: only date in in-text
"Gould (1989) attributes Darwin's success to his gift for making the appropriate metaphor. " Direct Quotation with Name of
Author cited in the text and exact reference to a location
"Gould (1989, chap. 3) explains that Darwin used the metaphor of the tree of life "to express the other form of interconnectedness–
genealogical rather than ecological–and to illustrate both success and failure in the history of life" (p. 14). " Ambiguous citations
namely same author same year, add a letter after the year:
"The same author retains this statement of Kerchove (Durgin, 2003a) that he would discard later(Durgin, 2003b) "
within the Reference List:
Durgin, P. A. (2003a). At-risk behaviors in children.
Durgin, P. A. (2003b). Treating obesity with psychotherapy. More authors: (Dewey & Ross, 1997) ['&' not 'and', only two: no
(Dewey, Ross, Jones, & Dell'Orso, 1997)
(Dewey, Ross, Jones, Fancy, & Clinton, 1997)
(Fancy et al., 1997) [i.e. this is the form for: (a) first citation for works with six or more authors; (b) subsequent citation for more
than two authors]
Citing a secondary source
"Seidenberg and McClelland’s study (1989, as cited in Coltheart, Curtis, Atkins, & Haller, 1993)" Citing a corporate name
(Association of Indian Reference Librarians [AIRL], 1996) [first citation]
(AIRL, 1997) [following citations]
Dell’ Orso, Francesco ( 2009, February 14 ). Bibliographic
citations and bibliographic description. `Lecture presented at the`
Scientific & Technological Information Management Training Course for
Inter-University Cooperation , Brussels, Belgium.