Special Education Students in the Face of Common Core Standards: A Common Misunderstanding
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Special Education Students in the Face of Common Core Standards: A Common Misunderstanding






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Special Education Students in the Face of Common Core Standards: A Common Misunderstanding Special Education Students in the Face of Common Core Standards: A Common Misunderstanding Presentation Transcript

  • Special Education Students in the Face of Common Core Standards: A Common Misunderstanding? Presented by: Cheryl Hazell-Small Steve France Jennifer R. Fain, Esq. Penny L. Valentine Cerritos • Fresno • Irvine • Pleasanton • Riverside • Sacramento • San Diego
  • Essentials 1 Background 2 Key Considerations 3 Standards-Based Goals and Objectives 4 Accommodations 1
  • Background • CCSS articulate rigorous grade level K-12 expectations in the areas of mathematics and language arts. Expectations of teachers and students (and parents) will be high. • The one common characteristic that special-educationeligible students share is a hindered ability to benefit from, and access, general education. • It is key, then, to understand how disabled students are taught so they can access CCSS and, hence, general education curriculum. 2
  • Background (continued) • There are numerous benefits of CCSS, which include high standards, consistent expectations, opportunity for comparison with other states that do it better, and cautionary tales about those that do not. • The instructional process and practices will need to connect to CCSS and to a student‘s IEP. • School districts will have 12-18 months to remain ―ahead of the curve‖ before parents and their attorneys and advocates, and NPSs and NPAs, catch up. 3
  • Key Considerations for Administrators, and Designees • Develop an understanding that ―they all are our students.‖ • Hold high expectations for all students. Develop an understanding and an expectation that all students will be challenged and expected to perform to the best of their abilities. 4
  • Key Considerations for Administrators, and Designees (continued) • Instructional planning varies from student to student, based on unique educational needs. Accordingly, instructional supports and accommodations will differ between students. It is critical that staff are knowledgeable about Universal Design for Learning. • Both general and special education staff must have the opportunity to share knowledge regarding evidencebased practices and interventions and how to apply them to instruction in the CCSS. Consider collaborative teaching. 5
  • Key Considerations (continued) • Students need to receive targeted interventions and sufficient time to allow them to develop the skills along with continuous monitoring of skill mastery. • Build a school-wide system of assessment that allows for the continuous monitoring of progress and growth. 6
  • Key Considerations (continued) • Align IEPs with grade-level content standards. • Hire and support the best special educators. – Include them in all of your professional development. – Special educators must be prepared to deliver high quality, evidenced based, individualized instruction and support services. 7
  • Key Considerations: Impact on Special Education • The student‘s ability to master the CCSS will vary: o o o o o o Learning – major impact Talking – major impact Seeing – moderate impact Hearing – moderate impact Behaving – moderate impact Walking – limited impact • The key is to then consider the impact of a student‘s unique educational needs, and how to support the student to master the applicable CCSS. 8
  • Key Considerations: Impact on Special Education (continued) • Interdisciplinary collaboration – IEP Snapshot – this provides everyone who works with the student information regarding what the student needs to access the content standard. – Curriculum Snapshot – completed by the LA and Math teachers to provide information for the special education staff on the big ideas that will be addressed in the general education setting, so the student will have access to the same instruction regardless of the setting and the minimum level of mastery. 9
  • Key Considerations: Impact on Special Education (continued) • Co-teaching – Co-planning – General and special education staff need to have dedicated time to co-plan so there is agreement on what to teach: Same book, same lesson, regardless of the setting. – Co-instruction – Station Teaching, Parallel Teaching, Alternative Teaching – Co-assessing – Move away from the traditional report card to one that reflects what the student can and cannot do related to the specific standard. • Universal Design • Technology 10
  • Universal Design for Learning • More ways to access • More ways to participate • More ways to demonstrate learning • Potentially more progress and demonstration of mastery of the standards UDL Principles 1. Recognition Networks – the what of learning 2. Strategic Networks – the how of learning 3. Affective Networks – the why of learning 11
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals An Overview of CCSS-Based IEP Goals 12
  • An Overview of CCSS-Based IEP Goals Goals & Objectives 1. The focus is positive. 2. Standards-based IEPs raise the bar on expectations and achievement. 3. Standards-based IEPs encourage collaboration and awareness among educators, parents, and schools. 13
  • An Overview of CCSS-Based IEP Goals Goals & Objectives (continued) 1. Intent is that goals should be based on the CCSS for the grade enrolled, regardless of the student‘s performance. 2. Use classroom and student data to identify where the student is functioning compared to the content standard. 3. Identify the present level of performance. 4. The standard is then unpacked using the vertical alignment based on the student‘s present level of performance to determine the skills the student must master to make progress on the content standard. 14
  • An Overview of CCSS-Based IEP Goals Goals & Objectives (continued) 5. Identify what the student needs to know and what instructional interventions are required for the student to make progress. 6. Students need to access grade level curriculum and instruction. Accommodations needed? 7. Standards-based IEP should monitor progress in achieving the IEP goals. 8. Access to the instruction can be in either the General Education setting or in the Special Education setting. 9. Goals should be flexible enough to allow learners multiple ways to successfully meet them using Universal Design for Learning. 15
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals Present Levels of Performance 16
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Present Levels of Performance • PLOP describes: – Areas of unique educational need – An understanding of where student is performing – Relevant background regarding student‘s strengths, interests, learning style, weaknesses AALRR Tip: Specify student‘s strengths and weaknesses in each present level area 17
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Present Levels of Performance (continued) • PLOP – Are the foundation of the IEP – Are the key to creating a legally defensible IEP – Identify the unique needs of the student – Must be written with enough detail that parents are informed and have input into the decision-making process 18
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Present Levels of Performance / Areas of Need • Identify areas of need — they can be: – Academic or – Non-academic • Identify all areas of need • Make sure behavior is considered – Does behavior impede learning of student or others? – If so, address through goals, BSP or BIP 19
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals Goals 20
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: The Legal Standard • An IEP must include: – A statement of measureable annual goals, including academic and functional goals, designed to: • Meet the needs of the student that result from the disability and to enable the student to be involved in and make progress in general education curriculum; and • Meet each of the other educational needs of the student that result from the disability. • A description of the manner in which the student‘s progress toward meeting the goals will be measured and when periodic reports will be provided. (generally quarterly) • For students whose native language is other than English, linguistically appropriate goals and objectives. (Education Code Section 56045 (a) and (b).) 21
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Prior to Development of New Annual Goals • Recognize all progress and note in IEP –Avoid writing ―not met‖ • Document in notes of the IEP whether parent agrees with progress reported & each goal developed • Consider continuing and/or revising prior goals 22
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Snapshot of the Development Process 1. Start with a grade-level standard a) Determine whether the child‘s abilities are appropriate for the standard with reduced depth or breadth b) Identify prerequisite skills of appropriate 2. Draft measurable goal 3. Review at the IEP team meeting 4. Implement and monitor 5. Revise as necessary 23
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Making the Goal Measurable • State specifically what the child is able to do at the time the goal is written (present level of performance) • What skill is the goal written for • Who will implement the goal • When is the child expected to achieve the goal • What are the conditions for achieving the goal • What are the mastery criteria for achieving the goal‘ • How is the goal measured 24
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Making the Goal Measurable (continued) • PLOP: – Student identified the main idea in a 2nd grade passage when the passage is read to him/her, with 50% accuracy. • Goal: – By December 10, 2014, after an adult or peer reads a narrative of at least 500 words at the third grade level, Student will state the main idea and two supporting details with 75% accuracy during five consecutive trials, as measured by teacher logs. • Responsible persons: – Special and general education teachers 25
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Objectives • Objectives (where required): identify reasonable steps between the PLOP and the goal – For individuals with exceptional needs who take alternate assessments aligned to alternate achievement standards, a description of benchmarks or short-term objectives (Education Code section 56045 (a) (1) (C).) 26
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Unpacking the Standard • The educators must – Know the standard; and – Understand what mastery of those standards looks like . • Make a plan to work toward that standard. • It may mean you need to write a goal that uses a lower grade-level standard along with a grade level standard. 27
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Unpacking the Standard • Working below grade level: – A 4th grade student reads at a 2nd grade level. A goal for this student could be to read 2nd grade text, but write a 4th grade goal of identifying the main idea in the text. – At the same time you continue to work on, through goals, the student‘s decoding skills. • Just because a student in below grade level in some aspects of a particular subject does not mean all their goals in that area and in other areas must be written below grade level. 28
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals Accommodations 29
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Accommodations • Educators must be able to distinguish between accommodations and modifications. – Accommodations are designed to reduce or eliminate the impact of the disability so the student can achieve the standard. They are generally grouped in the areas of: presentation, equipment, response, setting, and timing. – Modifications are significant changes to the core content. 30
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Accommodations Three levels of accommodations under consideration Universal Accessibility – available for all students • Embedded tools are provided digitally through assessment technology • Non-embedded tools are available based on student preference or selection Designated Accommodations – need has been indicated by an adult or adults and student • Information must be decided prior to the assessment • Designated accommodations are either embedded or nonembedded 31
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Accommodations  Documented Accommodations – these accommodations are documented on the IEP • Embedded accommodations currently being considered include:  ASL for listening items  Closed captioning for listening items  Speech to text for writing items  Text to speech for reading passages  Braille 32
  • Developing CCSS-Driven Goals: Accommodations  Documented Accommodations • Non-embedded  Scribe  Abacus  Alternate response options  Bilingual dictionary  Calculator  Multiplication tables  Print on demand  Translations 33
  • CCSS – The Specifics 34
  • CCSS – The Specifics Language Arts Standards • Reading – Literature – Informational Text – Foundational Skills • Writing • Speaking and Listening • Reading and Writing Standards for Literacy in Social Studies, Science, and Technology – Complement, not replacement 35
  • Language Arts Anchor Standards Reading Anchors 1. Key Ideas and Details 2. Craft and Structure 3. Integration of Knowledge and Ideas 4. Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity Writing Anchors 1. Text Types and Purposes 2. Production and Distribution of Writing 3. Research to Build and Present Knowledge 4. Range of Writing 36
  • Language Arts Anchor Standards Speaking and Listening Anchors 1. Comprehension and Collaboration 2. Presentation of Knowledge and Ideas Language Anchors 1. Convention of Standard English 2. Knowledge of Language 3. Vocabulary Acquisition and Use 37
  • Unpacking a Standard LA Anchor Area - Vocabulary Acquisition and Use • Standard 5 – Demonstrate understanding of figurative language, word relationships, and nuances in word meanings. • 5th grade - Standard B – Recognize and explain the meanings of common idioms, adages, and proverbs. • Using the student‘s PLOP, ―unpack‖ the standard to the level at which the student is functioning. 38
  • LA Standard 5B • 4th grade – 5B – Recognize and explain the meaning of common idioms, adages, and proverbs • 3rd grade – 5B – Identify real life connections between words and their use (e.g., describe people who are friendly or helpful) • 2nd grade – 5B – Distinguish shades of meaning among closely related verbs (throw, toss, hurl) and closely related adjectives (thin, slender, skinny, scrawny) • 1st grade – 5B – Define words by category and by one or more key attributes (a duck is a bird that swims; a tiger is a large cat with stripes) • K – 5B – Demonstrate an understanding of frequently occurring verbs and adjectives by relating them to their opposites 39
  • Unpacking a Standard • Example of a goal aligned to LA Standard 5.B: – Harry, a fifth grade student, is eligible for special education under the category of autistic-like behaviors. – Harry understands oral and written language only at a literal level. For example, he does not recognize the meaning of figurative phrases, such as ―A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush.‖ 40
  • Unpacking a Standard • Example goal for Harry: – PLOP: ―Harry understands oral and written language only at a literal level.‖ – Goal: ―Harry will identify and explain ‗what‘s not right,‘ when given a common idiom in four of five opportunities, as measured by his SDC teacher.‖ – Appropriate goal? • Is the PLOP specific and accurate? • Is the goal measureable? • Is the goal aligned to Standard 5.B? 41
  • CCSS – The Specifics Two Types of Mathematics Standards • Mathematical Practices • Content Standards • Mathematics Practices 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reason of others 42
  • CCSS – The Specifics 4. Model with mathematics 5. Use appropriate tools strategically 6. Attend to precision 7. Look for and make use of structure 8. Look for and express regularity in repeated reasoning 43
  • Unpacking a Math Standard Geometry – 6th grade – Solve real world and mathematical problems involving area, surface area, and volume. • 5th grade – Classify two dimensional figures into categories based on their properties. • 4th grade – Draw and identify lines and angles, and classify shapes by properties of their lines and angles. • 3rd grade - Reason with shapes and their attributes (recognize that some shapes have shared attributes and belong to larger categories). 44
  • Unpacking Math Standard 6.G • 2nd grade – Reason with shapes and their attributes (recognize shapes by specific attributes, partition shapes into equal shares). • 1st grade – Reason with shapes and their attributes (distinguish between defining and nondefining attributes, partition circles and rectangles into 2 or 4 equal shares). • K – Identify and describe shapes; analyze, compare, create, and compose shapes. 45
  • Unpacking a Standard • Example of a goal aligned to Math Standard 6.G: – Marisela, a sixth grade student, is eligible for special education under the category of specific learning disability. – Marisela can perform addition and subtraction, but cannot multiply or divide. 46
  • Unpacking a Standard • Example goal for Marisela: – PLOP: ―Marisela understands math at a second grade level.‖ – Goal: ―Marisela will explain an understanding of height, width, and depth of basic geometric figures in four of five opportunities.‖ – Appropriate goal? • Is the PLOP specific and accurate? • Is the goal measureable? • Is the goal aligned to Math Standard 6.G? 47
  • Unpacking a Standard • Might a better goal be: ―Marisela will group and label geometric figures according to attributes, including curves, right angles, and sides number of sides with 80% accuracy on five occasions as measured by work samples.‖ • Appropriate goal? – Is the goal measureable? – Is the goal aligned to Math Standard 6.G? 48
  • A Closing Thought… What the CCSS Do NOT Tell You 49
  • What the Standards Do NOT Tell You! • How teachers should teach • All that can or should be taught • The interventions needed for students well below grade level • The full range of support for English Learners and students with disabilities • Everything needed for students to be college and career ready 50
  • Thank You 51