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Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
Great Lakes Diversion History
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Great Lakes Diversion History

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This powerpoint was produced for my cap-stone class in the Environmental Studies program at the University of Michigan - Dearborn

This powerpoint was produced for my cap-stone class in the Environmental Studies program at the University of Michigan - Dearborn

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  • 1. “ Great Lakes water diversions: political hearsay or an impending reality?” Student: Eric Bacyinski ENST 485 Term Paper ID #: 3408-5792 [email_address]
  • 2. What is a water diversion? <ul><li>Any transfer of water across watershed boundaries through a man-made pipeline or canal </li></ul><ul><li>2,121 million gallons of water are being diverted out of the Great Lakes every day </li></ul><ul><li>Happen for variety of reasons: social, political and economical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most in GL due to growing large metropolises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Supply range of uses from municipal supplies to irrigation and industry </li></ul><ul><li>-Provide for bottled water (groundwater) </li></ul>Pros -alter natural flow, water quality, lake levels and general ecology of the Great Lakes -secondary impacts in wetlands, nearshore ecosystems, tourism, property values Cons
  • 3. <ul><li>Water, Water… not everywhere … </li></ul><ul><li>Covers 70% of Earth’s surface </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Only 3% of that is fresh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>20% of that lies in the GL </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Today 1 in 6 people worldwide do not have access to fresh-water </li></ul><ul><li>40% of world’s population subject to serious water shortages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within 25 years, half the world’s population could have trouble finding freshwater for drinking & irrigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Michigan could be the future Saudi Arabia </li></ul>
  • 4. Unique Nature <ul><li>2 Nations: 8 States & 2 Provinces </li></ul><ul><li>+ 33 million people </li></ul><ul><li>= A complicated history & complex legal parameters </li></ul>
  • 5. Significance <ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>-State mottos </li></ul><ul><li>-Sports </li></ul><ul><li>-Recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul><ul><li>-Sub-continental divide </li></ul><ul><li>-1% of water is renewed annually </li></ul><ul><li>-Habitat for specialized species </li></ul>Economic -Brookings Institute report; direct economic benefit of restoring the Great Lakes – $50 billion -38% of the nation’s bachelor’s degrees and 37% of its advanced science and engineering graduates A statewide poll of Michiganders found that 70% of residents supported the creation of a binding no-diversions pact
  • 6. A billboard in SE Michigan (2001) sponsored by the organization, “Citizens for Michigan’s Future’
  • 7. History Lesson: Chicago’s Dirty Water <ul><li>Late 1800’s: Downtown slaughterhouses, factories </li></ul><ul><li>Poor sanitation system + stagnant water = PROBLEMS </li></ul><ul><li>1885: 90,000 die from Cholera from drinking water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/10 th of Chicago’s population at the time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>formation of the Drainage and Water Supply Commission and the Sanitary District of Chicago </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reversal began in 1892; took 8,500 workers to construct </li></ul><ul><li>Courts consistently sided w/ Chicago on legal challenges </li></ul><ul><li>… to be continued… </li></ul>
  • 8. <ul><li>Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Canadian and U.S. governments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prior to, fear ran rampant that anyone could tap waters without consequences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>International Joint Commission (IJC) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Created to facilitate management of waters; advisory body </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Role has expanded to include Great Lakes Water Quality Agreement, border air quality; uses an ecological approach </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 9. … continued… <ul><li>1930: Wisconsin wins ct. case against excessive Chicago diversion </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Supreme Ct. mandates Chicago wean itself off excessive quantities; from 8,500 cfs 1,500 cfs by ’39 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>’40 & ’56: Dry-times </li></ul><ul><ul><li>’56: 1 st time Chicago diversion was increased solely for needs of people outside the GL Basin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>‘80’s & ’90’s: Controversy rages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>’96: Memorandum of Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>’03: Daley cuts off the flat-rate for H 2 0 </li></ul>
  • 10. Current Chi-town issues <ul><li>Grand-fathered into every GL agreement </li></ul><ul><li>Adding 1 new community every two years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most are well beyond GL Basin boundary </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rising population and increased contention </li></ul>
  • 11. Long Lac and Ogoki diversions <ul><li>Unknown yet brings billions of gallons into GL </li></ul><ul><li>Completed in ’43, 20% larger than Chicago d. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic opportunity locals in late 1930’s & to boost Canada’s hydro. capabilities during WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offsets all other diversions in GL Basin </li></ul>
  • 12. The not so Pleasant Prairie <ul><li>Small Wisconsin community discovered local groundwater was contaminated w/ Radium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4X the federal level; EPA mandated alt. source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Community decided: L. Michigan water </li></ul><ul><li>Proposed diversion was 3.2 mgd and did not trigger GL Charter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yet, Water Resources Development Act of ‘86 applied </li></ul></ul><ul><li>½ of the community lies outside GL Basin </li></ul><ul><li>GL States eventually signed off on their proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons learned… </li></ul>
  • 13. Little ol’ Lowell <ul><li>Lowell, IN; 1987: EPA orders drinking water unsafe </li></ul><ul><li>New source chosen: L. Michigan 30 mi. to N </li></ul><ul><li>Town in 5 mi. S. of GL Basin boundary </li></ul><ul><li>Asking for <5 million gallons/day; No Charter but WRDA </li></ul><ul><li>Michigan objected & Engler vetoed proposal </li></ul><ul><li>Situation becomes symbolic ? Of ‘how far is too far?’ </li></ul>
  • 14. The Nova Group <ul><li>1997: Canadian entrepreneur proposes to export/sell GL H 2 0 to Asia </li></ul><ul><li>Permitted & approved by Ontario govt.; 158 million gallons/year </li></ul><ul><li>Controversy/Public outcry </li></ul><ul><li>WRDA & Charter not applicable </li></ul><ul><li>Identified gaps in system </li></ul><ul><li>Dropped proposal & leaders realize need for better system/solution </li></ul><ul><li>Beginnings of GL Compact </li></ul>
  • 15. The Compact <ul><li>International agreement/interstate compact - prohibits most new diversions & exports of water out of GL Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Boundary straddling communities can request </li></ul><ul><li>All state legislatures/Governors then U.S. Congress must ratify </li></ul><ul><li>As of 4/3/08: MN, IL, NY and IN are only adopters; passed one chamber in OH, PA, WI. Still not through one chamber in MI. </li></ul>the water diverted must be used solely for public supply and returned as treated wastewater to the Great Lakes watershed 2 have no reasonable alternative, including conservation AND 1 Straddling communities must…
  • 16. Census scare <ul><li>GL states are losing people; especially MI </li></ul><ul><li>+ Brain-drain w/ following ↓ in political clout </li></ul><ul><li>+ Shrinking congressional delegation </li></ul><ul><li>+ SE & SW gaining pop. & congressional rep. </li></ul><ul><li>___________________________________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>= GL increasing eyed as national fresh-H 2 0 resource </li></ul>2000 Census Results 2010 Census Predictions for Congressional seats
  • 17. Political Chemistry of H 2 0 <ul><li>“ We’re not going to buy it. We’re going to be stealing it. You’re going to have to protect your Great Lakes.” </li></ul><ul><li>- U.S. Representative Dick Armey (R-Texas), 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>Water as a fundamental resource has a long political history </li></ul><ul><li>Example: The Toledo War between Michigan and Ohio, 1835 </li></ul><ul><li>Any resource that is crucial to lifestyle will be politically intertwined; see Petroleum </li></ul><ul><li>Gov. Bill Richardson, Congressman John Linder (R-Georgia) </li></ul>
  • 18. Economic Nature <ul><li>Hydroelectric power for Canada (mostly) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>58% of Canadian electricity from Hydro </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Much from dams, etc. in GL Basin or St. Lawrence Seaway….same place as Canadian population </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alberta Tar Sands </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Need water for extraction…tapping of GL? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To what extent will North Americans go to have cheap, easily accessible oil? </li></ul></ul>“… we must remember that water is not like oil, in that ecosystems do not depend on oil for their survival, we must manage it in a completely different context,” Peter Annin . “ Water is a commodity; it’s a lot like oil. We use oil to heat Boston, but that oil doesn’t come from Boston…”, Hal Rothman.
  • 19. Acts, compacts, laws and bills <ul><li>Great Lakes Water </li></ul><ul><li>Quality Agreement </li></ul><ul><li>crafted in 1972 and established ‘common U.S. and Canadian goals for the Great Lakes resources’ </li></ul><ul><li>only standing agreement of its kind between the U.S. and Canada </li></ul><ul><li>Not really any anti-diversion measures </li></ul><ul><li>Water Resources Development </li></ul><ul><li>Act of 1986 </li></ul><ul><li>requires all Great Lakes Governors to approve any exports or diversions of Great Lakes water out of the Basin </li></ul><ul><li>Legally-binding </li></ul><ul><li>prevents federal agencies, except the IJC, from studying possible diversions </li></ul><ul><li>Drawback: No CA involvement </li></ul><ul><li>Amended in 2000 </li></ul>
  • 20. 2008 American Presidential Candidates <ul><li>Stated that when he is President, “the Great Lakes Collaboration will receive real support, real financial resources and real leadership from the federal government “ </li></ul><ul><li>Signed ‘Great Lakes Protection Pledge’ </li></ul><ul><li>Member of U.S. Senate’s Great Lakes Task Force </li></ul><ul><li>Signed ‘Great Lakes Protection Pledge’ </li></ul><ul><li>Member of U.S. Senate’s Great Lakes Task Force </li></ul><ul><li>Has committed that he would not ‘enter into an agreement that would move water out of the Great Lakes to other states’ </li></ul><ul><li>Signed ‘Great Lakes Protection Pledge’ </li></ul>
  • 21. Conclusion <ul><li>Remember despite hoopla: “when all of these diversions both in and out of the Great Lakes are summed, there is a positive net gain of water coming into the Great Lakes” </li></ul><ul><li>Future of GL is promising and highly dependant upon GL Compact being ratified by Congress </li></ul><ul><li>Most important anti-diversion measure: Public Outcry </li></ul>Thank You

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