Ubuntu (/ʊˈbʊntuˈ/uu-buun-too) is an operating system based on the
Linux kernel and the Linux distribution Debian, with Unity as
its default desktop environment. It is distributed as free and
open source software. It is named after the Southern African
philosophy of ubuntu, which often is translated as "humanity
towards others― or "the belief in a universal bond of sharing that
connects all humanity".
Vendor & Developer: Canonical Ltd., Ubuntu community a company
based in the Isle of Man and owned by South African
entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth.
Release periods and areas: 20 October 2004 / worldwide
Target Application: Personal Computers, Servers, Tablet Computers
(Ubuntu Touch), Smart TVs (Ubuntu TV) & Smartphones
OS Classification: Free and open-source software (FOSS)
• Ubuntu is composed of many software packages, the majority of which are distributed under a free software license. The main
license used is the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) which, along with the GNU Lesser General Public License (GNU
LGPL), explicitly declares that users are free to run, copy, distribute, study, change, develop and improve the software. On the
other hand, there is also proprietary software available that can run on Ubuntu.
• The Ubiquity installer allows Ubuntu to be installed to the hard disk from within the Live CD environment, without the need for
restarting the computer prior to installation. Beginning with 5.04, UTF-8 became the default character encoding, which allows
for support of a variety of non-Roman scripts.
• To provide a more secure environment, the sudo tool is used to assign temporary privileges for performing administrative
tasks, allowing the root account to remain locked, and preventing inexperienced users from inadvertently making catastrophic
system changes or opening security holes. PolicyKit is also being widely implemented into the desktop to further harden the
system through the principle of least privilege.
• Ubuntu Desktop includes a graphical desktop environment. In versions prior to 11.04 the default GUI was GNOME Panel but
it was dropped in favor of Unity, a graphical interface Canonical first developed for the Ubuntu Netbook Edition.
• Ubuntu comes installed with a wide range of software that includes LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird, Empathy, Transmission,
and several lightweight games (such as Sudoku and chess). Additional software that is not installed by default (including
software that used to be in the default installation such as Evolution, GIMP, Pidgin, and Synaptic) can be downloaded and
installed using the Ubuntu Software Center or other apt-based package management tools. Programs in the Software Center
are mostly free, but there are also priced products, including applications and magazines.
• Ubuntu can close its own network ports using its own firewalls software. End-users can install Gufw (GUI for Uncomplicated
Firewall) and keep it enabled. GNOME (the former default desktop) offers support for more than 46 languages. Ubuntu can
also run many programs designed for Microsoft Windows (such as Microsoft Office), through Wine or using a Virtual Machine
(such as VMware Workstation or VirtualBox).
• Ubuntu compiles their packages using gcc features such as PIE and Buffer overflow protection to harden their software.
These extra features greatly increase security at the performance expense of 1% in 32 bit and 0.01% in 64 bit.
Reviews from other source:
By: Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols for Linux and Open Source
The new Ubuntu Linux distribution, 13.04, aka Raring
Ringtail, is ready to go, and for most users, it may be all the desktop
True, many hard-core Linux users have turned against
Ubuntu in recent years. Or, to be more precise, they turned against it
when Ubuntu's parent company, Canonical, switched from the
GNOME 2.x desktop to its Unity desktop interface. They have a
point. Unity doesn't give Linux experts the kind of control over the
operating system that they get from desktops such as KDE, MATE,
and, my own personal favorite, Cinnamon.
However, Unity is not a user-experience failure like Windows
8's Metro. Instead, it's very good at what it sets out to do: Provide a
user-interface (UI) that's easy enough for an 80-year old to use and
provide an interface that's designed to work equally well for
desktops, tablets, and smartphones. In short, Ubuntu is not for Linux
power users, it's for all users.
Review by: Rob Zwetsloot
So the theory goes that the interim releases for Ubuntu between the big LTS versions are where
the biggest changes occur. Experiments, new features, etc, are added to these versions. When the LTS rolls
around, development shifts to stability, with the end goal being an operating system you can use for the many
years of support it receives. 13.04 is in the middle of the LTS cycle, with 14.04 succeeding 12.04 next year,
however there just isn’t much more to it over 12.10.
Featured updates highlighted by Canonical are the fact that Unity search has better support for
typos and common mistakes, and that general packages such as LibreOffice and Python have been updated.
While the Unity search update is quite nice, and seems to be very lenient, it’s hardly a redefining feature. At
the very least, it also makes its way into the HUD, however integration of online search results from
Canonical’s retail partners is still as obtrusive as before. We quickly turned this off in the privacy settings.
The thing is, some of those online search results would be quite good. Displaying YouTube
results in the video tab can work, however you can’t have that without Amazon trying to sell you something
that is usually completely unrelated to your search. There’s also the ongoing issue of privacy with that as well.
While you can filter out certain content on some of the specified tabs, such as the video or documents tab,
you can’t filter out the Amazon results from the home tab. It also means you can’t see or use the new Friends
tab for social networks when the online search is off – although notifications will still pop-up from somewhere.
As perhaps a trade-off for the lack of new features in the latest Ubuntu, Canonical claim it to
perform faster than previous versions, especially on older hardware. In our tests, there was very little
difference, although at the very least it was no worse. In general, installation seems to have received a minor
speed boost, and while it does begin the installation early on in the process, it hides that fact in favour of
letting you know how many more steps you need to complete. There are some other minor aesthetic changes
throughout the new version, such as the file manager getting a slightly squarer, more modern redesign. This
is typical of the handful of UI elements that have received an update.
Using a USB drive:
Most newer computers can boot from USB. You should see a welcome screen prompting you to
choose your language and giving you the option to install Ubuntu or try it from the CD.
If your computer doesn’t automatically do so, you might need to press the F12 key to bring up the
boot menu, but be careful not to hold it down - that can cause an error message.
• Prepare to install Ubuntu:
We recommend you plug your computer into a power source. You
should also make sure you have enough space on your computer to install
We advise you to select Download updates while installing and Install
this third-party software now. You should also stay connected to the internet so
you can get the latest updates while you install Ubuntu. If you're not connected
to the internet, we'll help you set up wireless at the next step.
*Set up wireless
If you are not connected to the internet, you will be asked to
select a wireless network, if available. We advise you to connect during
the installation so we can ensure your machine is up to date. So, if you
set up your wireless network at this point, it’s worth then clicking the
Back button to go back to the last screen (Preparing to install Ubuntu)
and ticking the box marked ‘Download updates while installing’.
• Allocate drive space
Use the checkboxes to choose whether you'd like to
Install Ubuntu alongside another operating system, delete
your existing operating system and replace it with Ubuntu,
or — if you're an advanced user — choose the 'Something
• Begin the installation
Depending on your previous selections, you can now verify that you have
chosen the way in which you would like to install Ubuntu. The installation process will
begin when you click the Install Now button.
Ubuntu needs about 4.5 GB to install, so add a few extra GB to allow for your
Not sure about this step? Windows users can use the Windows installer, which
will install and uninstall Ubuntu in the same way as any other Windows application. It's
simpler and completely safe.
• Select your location
If you are connected to the internet, this should be done automatically.
Check your location is correct and click 'Forward' to proceed. If you're unsure of
your time zone, type the name of the town you're in or click on the map and
we'll help you find it.
• TIP: If you’re having problems connecting to the Internet, use the menu in the
top-right-hand corner to select a network.
• Select your preferred keyboard layout
Click on the language option you need. If you’re not
sure, click the ’Detect Keyboard Layout’ button for help.
• Enter your login and password details
• Learn more about Ubuntu while the system installs…
• Restart your computer
English Desktop of Ubuntu 13.04 „Raring Ringtail―
Deutsch Desktop von Ubuntu 13.04 „Raring Ringtail―
Date: 26 April 2013
Author: Tim Schulz
The Ubuntu 13.04 default desktop.
The launcher icons are scaled to minimum size and the
system is logged into the cloud, as indicated by the cloud symbol
at top left.
Ubuntu 13.04 is a good, solid release. It has a more
finely tuned and polished Unity shell, with incremental
improvements in the Linux kernel and in all the major
preinstalled applications. There's no ability to install the GNOME
classic shell (unlike GNOME 3.8 which does offer a classic
mode); and no WUBI (Windows-based UBuntu Installer).
It is possible to install a GNOME 3 shell (version 220.127.116.11
at present) from the Ubuntu Software Centre, but if you don't like
Unity, GNOME 3 may also not appeal, as you cannot even scale
the size of its icons (or at least not without editing the gnome-
shell.css file). Alternatively for GNOME die-hards there is now an
official remix of Ubuntu, called GNOME Remix.