Tamaray ACT22A


Published on


Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Tamaray ACT22A

  1. 1. UBUNTU (Operating System) By: Nerrisa V. Tamaray ACT 2 – 2A Permit no. 110312
  2. 2. GENERAL DESCRIPTION: Ubuntu (/ʊˈbʊntuˈ/uu-buun-too) is an operating system based on the Linux kernel and the Linux distribution Debian, with Unity as its default desktop environment. It is distributed as free and open source software. It is named after the Southern African philosophy of ubuntu, which often is translated as "humanity towards others― or "the belief in a universal bond of sharing that connects all humanity". Vendor & Developer: Canonical Ltd., Ubuntu community a company based in the Isle of Man and owned by South African entrepreneur Mark Shuttleworth. Release periods and areas: 20 October 2004 / worldwide Target Application: Personal Computers, Servers, Tablet Computers (Ubuntu Touch), Smart TVs (Ubuntu TV) & Smartphones OS Classification: Free and open-source software (FOSS)
  3. 3. Versions of Ubuntu Version Code name Release date Supported until Desktop Server 4.10 Warty Warthog 2004-10-20 2006-04-30 (old version) 5.04 Hoary Hedgehog 2005-04-08 2006-10-31 5.10 Breezy Badger 2005-10-13 2007-04-13 6.06 LTS Dapper Drake 2006-06-01 2009-07-14 2011-06-01 6.10 Edgy Eft 2006-10-26 2008-04-25 7.04 Feisty Fawn 2007-04-19 2008-10-19 7.10 Gutsy Gibbon 2007-10-18 2009-04-18 8.04 LTS Hardy Heron 2008-04-24 2011-05-12 2013-05-09 8.10 Intrepid Ibex 2008-10-30 2010-04-30
  4. 4. Cont. of Ubuntu Versions 9.04 Jaunty Jackalope 2009-04-23 2010-10-23 9.10 Karmic Koala 2009-10-29 2011-04-30 10.04 LTS Lucid Lynx 2010-04-29 2013-05-09 2015-04 10.10 Maverick Meerkat 2010-10-10 2012-04-10 11.04 Natty Narwhal 2011-04-28 2012-10-28 11.10 Oneiric Ocelot 2011-10-13 2013-05-09 12.04 LTS Precise Pangolin 2012-04-26 2017-04 (older version, still supported) 12.10 Quantal Quetzal 2012-10-18 2014-04 13.04 Raring Ringtail 2013-04-25 2014-01 (Latest Version) 13.10 Saucy Salamander 2013-10-17[70] 2014-07 (Future Release)
  5. 5. FEATURES: • Ubuntu is composed of many software packages, the majority of which are distributed under a free software license. The main license used is the GNU General Public License (GNU GPL) which, along with the GNU Lesser General Public License (GNU LGPL), explicitly declares that users are free to run, copy, distribute, study, change, develop and improve the software. On the other hand, there is also proprietary software available that can run on Ubuntu. • The Ubiquity installer allows Ubuntu to be installed to the hard disk from within the Live CD environment, without the need for restarting the computer prior to installation. Beginning with 5.04, UTF-8 became the default character encoding, which allows for support of a variety of non-Roman scripts. • To provide a more secure environment, the sudo tool is used to assign temporary privileges for performing administrative tasks, allowing the root account to remain locked, and preventing inexperienced users from inadvertently making catastrophic system changes or opening security holes. PolicyKit is also being widely implemented into the desktop to further harden the system through the principle of least privilege. • Ubuntu Desktop includes a graphical desktop environment. In versions prior to 11.04 the default GUI was GNOME Panel but it was dropped in favor of Unity, a graphical interface Canonical first developed for the Ubuntu Netbook Edition. • Ubuntu comes installed with a wide range of software that includes LibreOffice, Firefox, Thunderbird, Empathy, Transmission, and several lightweight games (such as Sudoku and chess). Additional software that is not installed by default (including software that used to be in the default installation such as Evolution, GIMP, Pidgin, and Synaptic) can be downloaded and installed using the Ubuntu Software Center or other apt-based package management tools. Programs in the Software Center are mostly free, but there are also priced products, including applications and magazines. • Ubuntu can close its own network ports using its own firewalls software. End-users can install Gufw (GUI for Uncomplicated Firewall) and keep it enabled. GNOME (the former default desktop) offers support for more than 46 languages. Ubuntu can also run many programs designed for Microsoft Windows (such as Microsoft Office), through Wine or using a Virtual Machine (such as VMware Workstation or VirtualBox). • Ubuntu compiles their packages using gcc features such as PIE and Buffer overflow protection to harden their software.[25] These extra features greatly increase security at the performance expense of 1% in 32 bit and 0.01% in 64 bit.[26]
  6. 6. Reviews from other source: By: Steven J. Vaughan-Nichols for Linux and Open Source www.zdnet.com The new Ubuntu Linux distribution, 13.04, aka Raring Ringtail, is ready to go, and for most users, it may be all the desktop they need. True, many hard-core Linux users have turned against Ubuntu in recent years. Or, to be more precise, they turned against it when Ubuntu's parent company, Canonical, switched from the GNOME 2.x desktop to its Unity desktop interface. They have a point. Unity doesn't give Linux experts the kind of control over the operating system that they get from desktops such as KDE, MATE, and, my own personal favorite, Cinnamon. However, Unity is not a user-experience failure like Windows 8's Metro. Instead, it's very good at what it sets out to do: Provide a user-interface (UI) that's easy enough for an 80-year old to use and provide an interface that's designed to work equally well for desktops, tablets, and smartphones. In short, Ubuntu is not for Linux power users, it's for all users.
  7. 7. Review by: Rob Zwetsloot So the theory goes that the interim releases for Ubuntu between the big LTS versions are where the biggest changes occur. Experiments, new features, etc, are added to these versions. When the LTS rolls around, development shifts to stability, with the end goal being an operating system you can use for the many years of support it receives. 13.04 is in the middle of the LTS cycle, with 14.04 succeeding 12.04 next year, however there just isn’t much more to it over 12.10. Featured updates highlighted by Canonical are the fact that Unity search has better support for typos and common mistakes, and that general packages such as LibreOffice and Python have been updated. While the Unity search update is quite nice, and seems to be very lenient, it’s hardly a redefining feature. At the very least, it also makes its way into the HUD, however integration of online search results from Canonical’s retail partners is still as obtrusive as before. We quickly turned this off in the privacy settings. The thing is, some of those online search results would be quite good. Displaying YouTube results in the video tab can work, however you can’t have that without Amazon trying to sell you something that is usually completely unrelated to your search. There’s also the ongoing issue of privacy with that as well. While you can filter out certain content on some of the specified tabs, such as the video or documents tab, you can’t filter out the Amazon results from the home tab. It also means you can’t see or use the new Friends tab for social networks when the online search is off – although notifications will still pop-up from somewhere. As perhaps a trade-off for the lack of new features in the latest Ubuntu, Canonical claim it to perform faster than previous versions, especially on older hardware. In our tests, there was very little difference, although at the very least it was no worse. In general, installation seems to have received a minor speed boost, and while it does begin the installation early on in the process, it hides that fact in favour of letting you know how many more steps you need to complete. There are some other minor aesthetic changes throughout the new version, such as the file manager getting a slightly squarer, more modern redesign. This is typical of the handful of UI elements that have received an update.
  8. 8. InstallationProcedure Using a USB drive: Most newer computers can boot from USB. You should see a welcome screen prompting you to choose your language and giving you the option to install Ubuntu or try it from the CD. If your computer doesn’t automatically do so, you might need to press the F12 key to bring up the boot menu, but be careful not to hold it down - that can cause an error message.
  9. 9. • Prepare to install Ubuntu: We recommend you plug your computer into a power source. You should also make sure you have enough space on your computer to install Ubuntu. We advise you to select Download updates while installing and Install this third-party software now. You should also stay connected to the internet so you can get the latest updates while you install Ubuntu. If you're not connected to the internet, we'll help you set up wireless at the next step.
  10. 10. *Set up wireless If you are not connected to the internet, you will be asked to select a wireless network, if available. We advise you to connect during the installation so we can ensure your machine is up to date. So, if you set up your wireless network at this point, it’s worth then clicking the Back button to go back to the last screen (Preparing to install Ubuntu) and ticking the box marked ‘Download updates while installing’.
  11. 11. • Allocate drive space Use the checkboxes to choose whether you'd like to Install Ubuntu alongside another operating system, delete your existing operating system and replace it with Ubuntu, or — if you're an advanced user — choose the 'Something else' option.
  12. 12. • Begin the installation Depending on your previous selections, you can now verify that you have chosen the way in which you would like to install Ubuntu. The installation process will begin when you click the Install Now button. Ubuntu needs about 4.5 GB to install, so add a few extra GB to allow for your files. Not sure about this step? Windows users can use the Windows installer, which will install and uninstall Ubuntu in the same way as any other Windows application. It's simpler and completely safe.
  13. 13. • Select your location If you are connected to the internet, this should be done automatically. Check your location is correct and click 'Forward' to proceed. If you're unsure of your time zone, type the name of the town you're in or click on the map and we'll help you find it. • TIP: If you’re having problems connecting to the Internet, use the menu in the top-right-hand corner to select a network.
  14. 14. • Select your preferred keyboard layout Click on the language option you need. If you’re not sure, click the ’Detect Keyboard Layout’ button for help.
  15. 15. • Enter your login and password details • Learn more about Ubuntu while the system installs…
  16. 16. • Restart your computer
  17. 17. Screen Shots Description: English Desktop of Ubuntu 13.04 „Raring Ringtail― Deutsch Desktop von Ubuntu 13.04 „Raring Ringtail― Date: 26 April 2013 Source: Screenshot Author: Tim Schulz
  18. 18. The Ubuntu 13.04 default desktop. The launcher icons are scaled to minimum size and the system is logged into the cloud, as indicated by the cloud symbol at top left. Ubuntu 13.04 is a good, solid release. It has a more finely tuned and polished Unity shell, with incremental improvements in the Linux kernel and in all the major preinstalled applications. There's no ability to install the GNOME classic shell (unlike GNOME 3.8 which does offer a classic mode); and no WUBI (Windows-based UBuntu Installer). It is possible to install a GNOME 3 shell (version at present) from the Ubuntu Software Centre, but if you don't like Unity, GNOME 3 may also not appeal, as you cannot even scale the size of its icons (or at least not without editing the gnome- shell.css file). Alternatively for GNOME die-hards there is now an official remix of Ubuntu, called GNOME Remix.