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The Action Research was Done to the Eight A Grade Students of SMPN 1 Geger Madiun in the Academic Year 2012/2013

The Action Research was Done to the Eight A Grade Students of SMPN 1 Geger Madiun in the Academic Year 2012/2013

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    • USING “MOST NAMES”TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILL IN DESCRIPTIVE TEXT (The Action Research was Done to the Eight A Grade Students of SMPN 1 Geger Madiun in the Academic Year 2012/2013) By Heny Sulistyo Rini, M.Pd Nip: 19740812 200701 2 020 ABSTRACT The research was done in August 2012 in SMPN 1 Geger Madiun. The subject of the study was the eight year students consisting of 20 students. It was a classroom action research. The researcher conducted the research in some steps for each cycle. There were planning, acting, observing, and reflecting. In collecting data, there were two kinds of data which were used in this study, the quantitative data and the qualitative data. The quantitative data were in the forms of students‟ scores. The data were students‟ scores from the beginning of the research to the end of the research. They came from the tests given. The qualitative data were collected by the following techniques: observations, interviews, and document analysis. The quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. It compares the score of the pretest to the score of the post test. The qualitative data were analyzed by using analyzed into data reduction, data display and conclusion drawing/ verification. The research findings showed that by implementing the “Most Names” in the speaking class, there were some improvements which can be classified into three main points as follows: The improvement of students‟ speaking skill; The improvement of students‟ participation; The improvement of students‟ interest; And the improvement of students‟ motivation. For that reason, “Most Names” was able to stimulate students to speak English. In conclusion, “Most Names” is able to improve students‟ speaking skill in class VIII/A. However, “Most Names” has its own strength and weaknesses. Most Names stimulated students to be more active, interactive, and creative to speak English. In short, it is recommended to the teachers to use “Most Names” to improve the students‟ speaking skill in English. Key words: Most Names, Speaking, Descriptive I. INTRODUCTION Speaking is one of the four skills which have been taught at school besides listening, reading, and writing, and all of them are taught integrated. They cannot be separated because all of the language skills are used to communicate with other people. Bailey and Savage (in Murcia, 2001: 103) state that speaking in a second language or foreign language has often been viewed as the most demanding of
    • the four skills. When students master communicate at school especially on speaking English, they will be able to Friday because there is one day English earn more money, to fulfill certain program on the day. All teachers should education requirements, to travel abroad, also speak English in the classroom and to gain access to the culture of English students must respond it well. Students speaking nations, or simply to meet more and teachers should people. opportunity to speak English in the be given the The aim of speaking is primarily to classroom or outside the classroom. communicate his message rather than to School environment must support to be nice to the listener and when the create English atmosphere, so it will message is the reason for speaking, the motivate message must be understood (Brown and speaking skill. Yule, 1998: 13). It is needed to give more opportunity for the students students to practice their In fact, the condition was still far to from what was expected. In other words, communicate by using target language the students speaking skill was still low. regularly to build their skill in speaking It happened because of students‟ low English and try to understand when competence, low motivation, and the someone speaking English, so they will unsuitable method in teaching-learning be brave to communicate by using the process. target language and by using their knowledge, and VIII/A of SMPN 1 Geger Madiun in the response it, so the communication will be speaking skill. The average score of happened. students in speaking is 67. The highest The try to aims understand There was a serious problem in class common to all score was 85 and the lowest score was communicative activities, to have people 46. There were 20 students in the class, relaxed and enjoy themselves, acquire just 3 students passed from passing grade language through natural use, as well as of speaking and 17 students could not make language more readily available, pass the passing grade. It meant that 85% are particularly important (Edge, 2001: students failed in speaking test and just 101). 15% students succeed. The cause of the It was expected that the students of problems were as follows: students read SMPN 1 Geger Madiun can speak the words like in Indonesian; students English asked their friends or teachers the well or use English to
    • intonation of the sentences, students used Based on the observation and the „be‟ and „verb‟ in a sentence; students interview of class VIII/A students above, used unsuitable vocabulary, students it could be identified that there were spoke word by word so it made difficult some causes why the students were not to understand what they talked about. motivated to Referring to the questions whether speak English during learning process in the classroom or students used English to communicate using with their friends outside the classroom communication. They were afraid of or not, most of them said no and they had doing mistakes in pronunciations and various reasons, for example they were structures, they lack of vocabularies, they not motivated to speak English because didn‟t have self-confidence in speaking they were ashamed or they lack of self- English, and they didn‟t have more confidence. They didn‟t want their chance to speak English. It could be said friends considered him to be proud and that the students need a certain learning they were afraid of making mistakes. environment that makes them brave to They spoke English very little in order to speak English without thinking of some fulfill their assignment on Friday English mistakes, made them had more self- day. Some students had tried to use confidence, got many vocabularies they English in daily activity especially on need, gave pattern they need and gave Friday but their friends always responded them more chance to speak in right it in Indonesian and this condition made pronunciations, them change expressions. Nunan (1999: 233) states condition classroom. also into Indonesian. This happened When students in it as daily means structures, of and the that learners are unmotivated because didn‟t lack of success over time/lack of understand what the teacher said they perception of progress, uninspired always keep silent but when the teacher teaching, boredom, lack of perceived asked about what they were talking about relevance of materials, lack of knowledge there weren‟t any students who could about the goals of the instuctional answer the questions. Sometimes when program, lack of appropriate feedback. students had to make a dialogue and Nunan also presents what can be done by demonstrate it in front of the classroom, the teacher is making instructional goals they usually did it by reading their books. explicit to learners, break learning down into sequences of achievable steps, link
    • learning to the needs and interests of the words as „play‟, „fun‟, „cooperative‟, and learners, allow learners to bring their own „competition‟. knowledge and perspectives into the There are many kinds of language learning process, encourage creative games or communication games which language use, help learners to identify the we can apply for our students in order to strategies underlying the learning tasks improve their speaking skill. It will create they are engaged in, and develop ways in students-centered speaking climates and which learners can record their own it will make students conduct direct progress. conversation program quite well because According to Bygate (2000: 3) one of a game can be stimulating and the basic problems in foreign-language entertaining, and when the participants teaching is to prepare learner to be able have stopped playing the game teacher to use the language. It is also stated that can use it as a stimulus for additional how this preparation is done, and how conversation (Dobson, 1987: 107). successful it is, depends very much on By using games, students will be how we as teachers understand our aims. stimulated to speak English in their daily Richards, et al. (2002: 204) also state that life both in the classroom and outside the it is difficult for EFL learners, especially classroom. The most important is by adults, to speak the target language using the games the average score of fluently and appropriately. students in speaking will improve too. It Dealing with the condition above, the was expected that more than 75% solution offered was related to “Most students of class VIII/A can reach Names”. “Most Names” is a kind of Passing Grade of speaking. guessing game. Game is one of the techniques that can be applied in teaching II. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY speaking because games give students pleasure to practice to This study applied Classroom express Action Research (CAR). Action Research themselves. Games are also useful to is the name given to a series of encourage students‟ interaction in oral procedures teachers can engage in, communication. Games offer the creation perhaps because they wish to improve of an enjoyable atmosphere to learn. aspects (Edge, 2001: 101) states that the game is alternatively, of their teaching, or, because they wish to evaluate the success and/or apropriacy of
    • certain activities procedures how effective they were, how they (Harmer, 2003: 414). According to Mills looked at their students, how they looked (2000: 6) Action Research is any at themselves if they were observing on systematic inquiry conducted by teacher teaching and they would improve their researcher, principals, school counselors, quality in teaching to achieve their goal or other stakeholders in the teaching in teaching-learning process. learning and environment, to gather Action research is described as a information about the ways that their spiral of steps and there are four stages: particular schools operate how they teach planning, acting, observing, reflecting and how well their students learn. This (Lewin in McNiff, 1998: 22) information is gathered with the goals of In Planning, students‟ problem in gaining inside, developing reflecting speaking English was classified based on practice, effecting positive changes in the the interview and observation in the pre school environment (and on educational cycle of class VIII/A of SMP Negeri 1 practices in general), and improving Geger Madiun. There were four students‟ student outcomes and the lives of those problems to solve; students had very involved. limited chance to speak English, they had The Classroom Action Research low interest and motivation to speak each is aimed at educating teachers by the other, they had limited vocabulary and process of becoming self conscious about they had many mistakes to pronounce in their work, and that is as important an English. Based on the problems stated aim information above language games were implemented gathering (Brumfit and Mitchell, 1989: to overcome the problems with the 9). (Maley in Harmer 2003: 414) states following that the aims of the action research is to language game activities in English class, abstract a theory from classroom practice (2) setting the objective that would be besides to solve immediate problems, or achieved, and (3) designing the tests that answer woulds be used to know the success of as evaluating urgent or personally-relevant questions. activities: (1) designing the action. By doing action research teachers In acting and observing step, knew more about their students and what language games would be implemented they found motivating and challenging. in this step and the activities done here Teachers learnt more about themselves-
    • were designed based on the students‟ from the tests given. The qualitative data problems. are collected by the following techniques: Many kinds of language games like guessing games and describing observations, interviews, and documentation. games would be applied to the students The observation is done to observe of VIII/A grade of SMP 1 Geger Madiun. how the students of VIII/A grade skill in The games would be done classically, in speaking especially their activity before pairs or group of four till six. The teacher and after using guessing game. Sutrisno and the collaborator would act as Hadi (1986) in Sugiono (2007: 145) facilitators and observers. The individual states that “Tehnik mengumpulkan data test would be given to know the menggunakan observasi dilakukan jika improvement of the students‟ speaking peneliti ingin mengetahui tingkah laku skill. At the end of the class, students manusia, proses kerja fenomena alam would be interviewed to know their dan responden yang diteliti dalam jumlah opinion and response of the language kecil. games implementation. The statement above means that by The last step is reflecting. It‟s using the observation, the researcher time to reflect or review everything wants to understand the behaviour of which had been done in the action people, working process and, natural activity. It would be analyzed to find the phenomenon. Few respondents, in this strength and the weakness and evaluate case, the researcher was actively in the the success and the failure of the research to observe exactly how the implementation of language games to behaviour of student and the studying solve students‟ problems. Then, the process weakness and the failure would be solved observation the researcher will present in the next cycle. the check-list as the result of the There are two kinds of data which of student. While doing observation. are used in this study, the quantitative The writer also used interview to data and the qualitative data. The collect the data.”Inteview adalah alat quantitative data are in the forms of pengumpul students‟ scores. The data are students‟ mengajukan sejumlah pertanyaan. Ciri scores from the beginning of the research utama dari intervew adalah kontak to the end of the research. They come langsung dengan tatap muka antara informasi dengan cara
    • pencari informasi (interviewer) sebagainya. It means that documentation informasi sumber dan method is an activity in finding data (interviewee).”(Margono, 2000: 165). That statement means which is formed in writing forms such as, that notes, transcript, newspaper, magazines, interview is a tool to get information by and agenda. giving the This research takes document from the respondents answer them orally too. The English book used for teaching and main is learning, speaking scores of the eighth directly contacts between interviewer and grade students of SMPN 1 Geger Madiun interviewee. In this research, the writer both pre research and after the research interviews some students VIII-A grade in was done, RPP, and photographs. questions orally characteristic of and interview questioner form about the learner ability The quantitative data will be in speaking. This Interview was done to analyzed by using descriptive statistics. It get the information from students what analyzes the comparison between the problem faced by students in speaking score of the pretest, before implementing and what they feel after they study in Most Name and the score of the posttest, speaking after implementing Most Name. by using most names.” Didalam interview, penulis berusaha The qualitative data would be mendengarkan yang responden rasakan analyzed into data reduction, data display (Sugiono: 2007: 141). and conclusion drawing/ verification The last data collecting technique such as stated by Mile and Huberman in used by the writer is documentation, Sugiono (2006: 337-345). The complete documentation helps the way to collect explanations are as follows. data by using books, theories, and laws Data reduction is the way where the (Margono 2000: 181). In this research, researcher summarizes, writes down the the writer used books and collected some important data and throws away the theories to support the research. unimportant data. It makes the researcher According to Suharsimi Arikunto (2002:206),’Metode dokumentasi yaitu mencari data mengenai easier to give a clear description of the research and to collect data. hal-hal atau In qualitative research, data display variabel yang berupa catatan, transkrip, can be made in the form of table, graphic, buku, surat kabar, majalah, prestasi, pie chart, and pictograph. Besides that, it notulen rapat, legger, agenda, dan can also be presented by giving short
    • text, chart, or flowchart. By displaying Based on the observation in cycle data, it will make easier for researcher to 1 and cycle 2, it was found that each understand what happens in the research indicator of speaking improved. There and then plan what should do based on were improvements on: (a) students‟ the data display. accent, It is the time where the researcher concludes the research. The some something in students could say a stress and good first intonation, they could pronounce each of conclusion is usually temporary and it the word well; (b) students‟ vocabulary, will be changed if there is no evidence students got some new words about supporting the collecting data done in the adjectives, part of the body, possessive next step. If the first conclusion is adjectives. Most students could use the supported by the evidences, it will be a words correctly in applying the game; (c) credible conclusion. Students‟ grammar, Most of students The conclusion of the qualitative research could arrange and use nominal and verbal can be a description of the object, sentences in descriptive text well. They hypothesis or theory. could change positive sentences into negative and interrogative sentences and also arrange and use the noun phrase III. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND well; (d) Students‟ comprehension, Most DISCUSSION The previous condition of the of students could ask to their friends and eight grade students was far from what is answer each of the questions which were expected. Based on the interview and given in the game from their friend to some questionnaires answered by the find someone or something in the students be describing well. It means that they concluded that the students had problems understood the topic; (e) Fluency, Most in speaking English especially on accent, of students could someone‟s appearance grammar, clearly and fluently from cycle 1 to cycle and teacher, vocabulary, it could fluency, and comprehension. 2. They always got some experience from Based on what were found in this research, there were some improvements as follow: 1. The Improvement Speaking Skill the previous cycle, so they could tell more clear and fluent. By using the most names which of Students’ had been applied in this research, there were improvements in each of speaking
    • indicators. It happened because games focus student specific and analyze the indicators of speaking, it grammatical patterns and can be seen that the implementation of vocabulary items as has been stated by most names as a kind of guessing game Callum (1998: ix). could improve students‟ speaking skill. structures, attention on Based on the explanation above The students‟ speaking score improved from cycle 1 to cycle 2 which 2. The can be seen from the following table. Level Pre-Test Post-Test 1 1 High score Post-Test 2 85 85 95 67.15 74.8 81.1 46 61 67 Average 2 score Lowest 3 score Students’ Participation Comparison of high, average, and lowest score of pre-test, post- test 1 and posttest 2 No of Improvement Most Names which had been applied in this research from cycle 1 to cycle 2 was very challenging. Each group played in turn to be the winner of the competition. So, they had to cooperate among their friends in their own group to do the game well. As stated by Edge Comparison of students achieved the as passing grade No 1 2 Explanation Score above passing grade Score lower passing grade Passing Number of Students grade Pre-Test (2001: 101) that game include such word Cycle 1 Cycle 2 „play‟ fun, cooperation and competition. All students should be involved in the game especially in their 80 4 11 17 own group because each of group 80 16 9 3 members had different task. There were students as the representatives of the From the table above, it could be group and students who answered the score questions, and shared their ideas to improved from cycle 1 to cycle 2. At the decide the best answers. All of the class last of the research or cycle 2, there were should be involved in one way or another 17 students or 85% student who fulfilled as has been stated by Callum (1998: xi). concluded that the students‟ the passing grade while the rest, 3 Most Names as a kind of students or 15% student did not pass Guessing Game which had been applied from the passing grade. This study could was student centre. The teacher was as a be said successful because more than facilitator and prepared the media of the 75% student could fulfill the passing game. The players were all students in grade. the classroom, so all students had to
    • participate in the game. Games ensure of speaking. The problems which maximum student participation for a happened in the previous cycle could be minimum of teacher preparation (MC covered in the next cycle. Competitions Callum, 1998: ix). were the students‟ favorite activities. Each of the cycle competed in group. 3. The Improvement of Students’ Students were motivated to be the winner of the competition. As the result they Interest and Motivation Based on the collaborator and the played the game seriously. researcher observation from cycle 1 to Individual test was students‟ duty cycle 2, most of student said that they in each cycle. Every student had to enjoyed the game very much. They didn‟t perform feel boring and sleepy when they were appearance to get the individual score. As playing games. They also felt that the the result student tried to do the best in time too fast because they didn‟t want to order to get good mark from the teacher. stop playing the games. Beside the indicators of speaking which By Most Names which had been applied in this research, students were in describing someone‟s students attended, they used eye contact, gesture, expression, and intonation well. motivated to be the winner of the competition, so they were motivated to study hard. They tried to find each of the word which they did not know the IV.CONCLUSION, IMPLICATION, AND SUGGESTION The research was done meaning of it; they memorized the completely in August, 2012. The research words; and tried to use the words to make was done in two cycles. Based on the good sentences so their friends could findings in implementation most names understand what they talk about. It means in teaching speaking, the researcher made that most names improved students‟ conclusion interest speaking skill, the strengths and the and motivation. Games viewed from students‟ also the students‟ automatically stimulate student interest, a weaknesses, and properly introduce game can be one of responses toward the implementation of the highest motivating techniques (MC most names. Callum, 1998: ix). First, Most Names can improve In the first and second cycle, most students‟ speaking skill. The speaking names had been done to achieve the skill skill includes saying in a good accent,
    • using correct grammatical sentences, group members so this condition could selecting and add their knowledge because they shared expressions, comprehending the topic of each other; the self confidence could be conversation, and saying in a clear and developed when they delivered their fluent voice so the other people can ideas to their friends in group, their understand what we talk about. Those friends were appreciated them, and when indicators of speaking can be achieved by one of the group members to be the the implementing of most names and representative, he or she would describe from the research, it could be seen that someone, it made his or her self the students could improve their speaking confidence increased; the eye contact, skill from cycle 1 to cycle 2. body movement, appropriate words and gesture were Second, Most Names had more developed by explaining someone in strengths than weaknesses, It made detail. They used eye contact, body students work in a group and familiar movement, and gesture to make clear each other, the students are as the subject their sentences so their friend could guess so they did everything by themselves, all someone in describing. students involve in the activity, students Student had more good learn not only from their teacher but also relationship with their friends in the from their friends, students motivate to group because they always play the game study hard like their friend which success and share among their friends in the in the game, and students competed one group. From the result of the research, another to study hard to be the winner of there were some positive responses to the the competition. students in teaching learning process in Third, good order to achieve the goal and the responses in the implementation of the researcher had recorded the strengths and most names. They like doing most the weaknesses of applying game to names. They enjoyed the game very improve the students‟ speaking skill. The much and felt that the time ran too fast. strengths were more than the weaknesses. They did not feel sleepy and were not All the improvements achieved by the bored. By applying most names, they students can improved their skill in became speaking English. more students confident gave with their speaking skill. Most Names were done in group. They gathered ideas from the In teaching learning process, especially in teaching speaking, it is
    • necessary to implement an appropriate students should not very hard; working in technique. The technique used by English a group can solve this problem. The time teacher is based on the purpose of the should be attended to get the maximal related lesson, the characteristic of the result. class, the ability, and the reason of language learning. Most Most Names as the game is one of the Names as the game in teaching speaking alternative techniques to achieve the is an effective way to teach descriptive students‟ speaking skill in English. text. Teacher should not measure the students‟ Most support competence from their ability in finishing students‟ motivation. They are motivated the task but rather on the students‟ skill and enjoy in teaching learning activity. It in using the language communicatively in helps students comprehend the material their daily life. they Names Choosing The teacher should remember that learn. can Consequently, their achievement improved. students to practice speaking. One of By considering the fact, there are students‟ significant The teacher should facilitate the improvements them is through most names which can be held in the form of competition among achieved by the students and benefits the students at school. when Most Names is implemented in the 2. The Student classroom activities. It implies that most The students should be more names is urgently needed to improve confidence and brave to speak English. students‟ speaking skill. By applying Most Names, it is easy for Realizing that Most Names is students to practice in speaking English very essential in developing students‟ among their friends. Students should skill in speaking, some suggestions are practice English everyday in the daily life put forward to the English teachers, the and it will improve their speaking skill. other researchers, and the students. English is very important for us. By 1. The Teacher mastering English, it will be easy for us The teacher should be creative to get a good education, to get a good and innovative to design the activity in relationship, and to get a good job. studying-learning process especially in 3. The Other Researcher speaking activity accordance with the Most Names as a kind of guessing students‟ problem. The task given to the game is one of interesting and joyful
    • techniques that can be applied in the classroom to improve the students‟ speaking skill. There were some weaknesses in this study so it is hoped that the other researcher could help to overcome the weaknesses which were found. V. REFERENCES Arikunto Suharsimi. 1986. Prosedur Penelitian: Suatu Pendekatan Praktek. Jakarta: PT. Bina Aksara Brown Douglas H. 2004. Language Assessement: Principle and Classroom Practice. San Fransisco: Pearson Education, Inc Brown Gillian, George Yule. 1983. Teaching the Spoken Language: An Approach based on the Analysis of Conversation English. UK: Cambridge University Press Brumfit Christopher, Mitchell Rosamond, 1995. Research in the Language Classroom, Modern English Publications in Association. Bygate Martin. 2000. Speaking. New York: Oxford University Press. Language. USA: Longman Inc Callum George P Mc, 1980. 101 Word Games. Oxford University Press. Dobson Julia M. 1987. Effective Techniques for English Conversation Groups. Washington D.C: United States Information Agency Edge Julian. 2001. Essentials of English Language Teaching. London: Longman Kingdom: Cambridge University Hadi Sutrisno. 1991. Metodologi Research. Jogjakarta: Percetakan dan Penerbitan ANDI OFFSET Harmer Jeremi. 2001. How to Teach English: An Introduction to the Practice of English Language Teaching. England: Longman http://universityofibnkhaldunbogorindonesia.blogspot.com/2010/01 /improving-speaking-skill-byconnective Kistono, 2007. The Bridge Competence. Yudistira Klippel Frederike. 1998. Keep Talking. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press Larsen-Freeman, 2004. Techniques and Principles in Language Teaching. Oxford University Press Louma Sari. 2005. Assessing Speaking. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press Madsen Harold S. 1983. Technique in Testing. New York: Oxford University Press McNiff, Jean, 1988. Action Research, Principle and Practice, Mac Millan Education Ltd. Murcia Marianne Celce. 2001. Teaching English as a Second and Foreign Language. USA: Heinle and Heinle Nunan David. 1989. Design Task for the Communicative Classroom. Great Britain: Cambridge University Press Oller, Jhon W, 1979. Language Test at School, Longman Ricard Jack C, Renandya Willy A. 2002. Metodology in Language Teaching. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press Smaldino, Sharon F et all. 2005. Instructional Technology and Media for Learning. New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc Spatt mary, et all. 2005. TKT (Teaching Knowledge Test). United Kingdom. Cambridge University Sugiono. 2006. Metode Penelitian Pendidikan: Pendekatan Kuantitatif, Kualitatif, dan R & D: Bandung
    • Weir Cyril J. 1990. Communicative Language Testing. New York: Oxford University Press