Renee Cassidy and Erinne Losinio 20 April 2011 CIE403 Module 13 Internationalizing Higher Education
Overview Part One: Terminology Key concepts Part Two: The Debate Critical issues Part Three: The Way Ahead Considerations for the future
What is Internationalization? Part One: Terminology
What is internationalization? “… the process of integrating an international, intercultural or global dimension into the purpose, functions or delivery of higher education at the institutional and national levels” (Knight, 2008) “… internationalization is changing the world of higher education, and globalization is changing the world of internationalization” (Knight, 2004) Do you agree? How do you view the relationship between globalization and internationalization? What evidence of internationalization do we see in HEIs?
Another perspective… Globalization is the reality shaped by an increasingly integrated world economy, new technology, emergence of international knowledge network & role of English language Internationalization is the variety of policies and programs that universities and governments implement to respond to globalization American Council on Education, 2010
What is the role of universities? “…curricula with an international orientation in content, aimed at preparing students for performing (professionally/socially) in an international and multicultural context, and designed for domestic students and/or foreign students” (OECD, 1994) Supporting international students Facilitating study abroad and educational exchange to broaden and enrich students’ cultural experiences Learning about other languages and cultures as a way of developing their skills of intercultural communication Preparing to work in the global knowledge economy
Is the link between intercultural competence and economic advancement overstated?
Epistemic virtues including relationalityand reflexivity
How do you envision an effective internationalized curriculum?
Group one: Defend the statement Group two: Create a counter-argument You will have 20 minutes to prepare your case. Choose a spokesperson to present your group’s argument. The spokesperson must be different for each statement. Each side will have 3-5 minutes to present their case and 1 minute after the other side presents for any rebuttals. Online students will determine which side presented the best argument. Part Two: The Debate
Statements Internationalization ultimately leads to the commodification and commercialization of education. Curricular reforms focused on internationalization are narrow in scope and do not adequately prepare students to engage critically with the cultural politics of globalization.
What does the future look like for universities? Part Three: The Way Ahead
Rising demand of HE Demand exceeds supply, especially in developing countries Growth in number of students, opportunities, and demand of globalized, knowledge-based economy Competitive job market Consequences Student mobility Campuses abroad, online Growth of private HEIs Privatization of public HE Demand for accountability American Council on Education, 2010
Internationalization in HEIs Expect increased interconnectedness and competition Economic, political, social implications Collaboration vs. competition Top three concerns/perceived risks among institutions (OECD, 2005) Commodification/commercialization of education programs “Brain drain” Degree mills and low-quality education providers Universities remain intrinsically global, national, regional Competition for resources and position crosses national borders University curriculum cannot ignore cultural realities
Challenges Adjusting to growing and multiple expectations of internationalization At institutional level – quality, prestige, revenue At national level – competitiveness, answer to demographic trends, for strategic alliances At regional level – path to political and economic integration, competitiveness and social cohesion At global level – all of the above AND solidarity, capacity building, Millennium Development Goals and sustainable development IAU, 2007
What does the future hold? Survival of the “global fittest”? (American Council on Education, 2010) More privatization and growth of for-profit institutions? Role of technology? Increased role of governments? Ranking systems as evidence of quality?
Final thoughts Diversity of goals, rationales, geographic priorities, strategies, practices and models Growing complexity with regionally differentiated interests and policy objectives (ex. immigration, competitiveness, trade, development) New risks, new actors and new challenges but also new possibilities and opportunities “We are at the beginning of the era of transnational higher education” (Altbach, 2004)