What is adhd? The DSM-IV-TR defines ADHD as a “persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequently displayed and more severe than is typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development” ?? What does this mean??
What is adhd? (cont.) a disorder that appears in early childhood* signs and symptoms of ADHD typically appear before the age of 7** it can be difficult to distinguish between ADHD and normal “kid behavior.” ***
Specific culture, age, gender features ADHD is known to occur in various cultures, with variations in reported prevalence among Western countries probably arising from different diagnostic practices than from differences in clinical presentation
Specific culture, age, gender features (cont.) Symptoms of ADHD are typically at their most prominent during the elementary grades.*
prevalence 3% - 7% in school age children*
Familial pattern ADHD has been found to be more common in the first-degree biological relatives of children with ADHD than in the general population.*
Subtypes* Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Combined Type This subtype should be used if six (or more) symptoms of inattention and six (or more) symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity have persisted for at least 6 months. Most children and adolescents with the disorder have the Combined Type.
Subtypes (cont.) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Predominantly Inattentive Type This subtype should be used if six (or more) symptoms of inattention (but fewer than six symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity) have persisted for at least 6 months.
Subtypes (cont.) Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity, Predominantly Hyperactive-Impulsive Type This subtype should be used if six (or more) symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity (but fewer than six symptoms of inattention) have persisted for at least 6 months.
Diagnostic criteria 6 or more of the following symptoms of INATTENTION have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level :
Diagnostic criteria-Inattention Fails to give close attention to details or makes careless mistakes in schoolwork, work, or other activities Difficulty sustaining attention in tasks or play activities Does not seem to listen when spoken to directly Does not follow through on instructions and fails to finish school-work, chores, or duties in the workplace Difficulty organizing tasks and activities Avoids, dislikes, or is reluctant to engage in tasks that require sustained mental effort Loses things necessary for tasks or activities Distracted by extraneous stimuli Forgetful in daily activities
Diagnostic criteria 6 or more of the following symptoms of HYPERACTIVITY-IMPULSIVITY have persisted for at least 6 months to a degree that is maladaptive and inconsistent with developmental level:
Diagnostic criteria-hyperactivity-impulsivity Hyperactivity Fidgets with hands or feet or squirms in seat Leaves seat in classroom or in other situations in which remaining seated is expected Runs about or climbs excessively in situations in which it is inappropriate Often has difficulty playing or engaging in leisure activities quietly Is often “on the go” or often acts if “driven by a motor” Talks excessively
Diagnostic criteria-hyperactivity-impulsivity (cont.) Impulsivity Blurts out answers before questions have been completed Has difficulty awaiting turn Interrupts or intrudes on others
Conclusion In early childhood, it may be difficult to distinguish symptoms of ADHD from age-appropriate behaviors in active children (e.g., running around or being noisy) Inattention in the classroom may also occur when children with high intelligence are placed in academically understimulating environments.