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  • Elsevier items and derived items ©2012, 2008 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc.
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    1. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 1 Cellular Structures, Genes, Immunity, and Diseases Week One Lecture
    2. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 2 Cellular Functions  Movement  Conductivity  Metabolic absorption  Secretion  Excretion  Respiration  Reproduction  Communication
    3. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 3 Eukaryotic Cell  Nucleus  Nuclear envelope  Nucleolus  DNA • DNA replication, repair, and transcription  Histone proteins  Cell division  Genetic information
    4. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 4 Eukaryotic Cell (cont’d)  Nucleus (cont’d)
    5. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 5 Eukaryotic Cell (cont’d)  Nucleus (cont’d)
    6. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 6 Eukaryotic Cell (cont’d)  Cytoplasm  Cytoplasmic matrix  Cytosol  Function  Cytoplasmic organelles
    7. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 7 Eukaryotic Cell (cont’d)  Cytoplasm (cont’d)
    8. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 8 Eukaryotic Organelles  Ribosomes  RNA protein  Free ribosomes  Attached ribosomes  Endoplasmic reticulum  Site of protein synthesis  Smooth vs. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    9. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 9 Eukaryotic Organelles (cont’d)  Golgi complex  Flattened, smooth membranes  Secretory vesicles  Proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum are packaged in the Golgi complex  Cisternae
    10. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 10 Eukaryotic Organelles (cont’d)  Lysosomes  Originate from the Golgi  Catalyze proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and carbohydrates  Role in autodigestion
    11. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 11 Eukaryotic Organelles (cont’d)  Peroxisomes  Contain oxidative enzymes  Break substances down into harmless products
    12. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 12 Eukaryotic Organelles (cont’d)  Mitochondria  Surrounded by a double lipid–bilayer membrane  Participates in oxidative phosphorylation  Increased inner membrane surface area provided by cristae
    13. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 13 Eukaryotic Organelles (cont’d)  Cytoskeleton  “Bones and muscles” of cell  Maintains the cell’s shape and internal organization  Permits movement of substances within the cell and movement of external projections  Microtubules • Centrioles  Macrofilaments
    14. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 14 Plasma Membrane  Controls the composition of a space or compartment they enclose  Structure  Caveolae  Lipids • Amphipathic lipids  Hydrophilic and hydrophobic • Phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol  Carbohydrates • Glycoproteins
    15. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 15 Plasma Membrane (cont’d)  Proteins  Integral, peripheral, transmembrane  Functions • Receptors • Transport • Enzymes • Surface markers • Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) • Catalysts  Fluid mosaic model
    16. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 16 Plasma Membrane (cont’d)  Fluid mosaic model  Flexibility  Self-regulating  Impermeability to some substances  Fluidity impacted by temperature, amount of cholesterol
    17. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 17 Membrane Fluidity
    18. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 18 Plasma Membrane  Plasma membrane protein functions
    19. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 19 Cellular Communication  Plasma membrane bound receptors  Intracellular receptors  Gap junctions (contact signaling)  Chemical signaling  Paracrine  Autocrine  Hormonal  Neurohormonal  Neurotransmitters
    20. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 20 Cellular Communication (cont’d)
    21. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 21 Cellular Communication (cont’d)
    22. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 22 Cellular Metabolism  Metabolism  Chemical tasks of maintaining essential cellular functions  Anabolism • Energy using  Catabolism • Energy releasing
    23. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 23 Adenosine Triphosphate  Created from the chemical energy contained within organic molecules  Used in synthesis of organic molecules, muscle contraction, and active transport  Stores and transfers energy
    24. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 24 Cellular Energy  Digestion  Extracellular breakdown of proteins, fats, polysaccarides to subunits  Glycolysis  Intracellular breakdown of subunits to pyruvate, then to acetyl CoA  Anaerobic  Limited ATP produced
    25. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 25 Cellular Energy (cont’d)  Citric acid cycle  Also called Krebs cycle or the tricarboxylic acid cycle (TCA)  Much ATP produced via oxidative phosphorylation if oxygen present  Waste products excreted
    26. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 26 Cellular Energy (cont’d)  Oxidative phosphorylation  Occurs in the mitochondria  Mechanism producing energy from fats, CHO, proteins  Involves the removal of electrons from various intermediates via a co-enzyme such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) to transfer electrons
    27. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 27 Cellular Energy (cont’d)  Oxidative phosphorylation (cont’d)  Anaerobic glycolysis: if oxygen not available, CHO is converted to pyruvic acid (pyruvate) in cytoplasm with production of two ATP molecules which is insufficient for energy needs; pyruvate then converted to lactic acid  Process reverses when oxygen becomes available and lactic acid is converted back to either pyruvic acid or glucose, which moves into the mitochondria and enters the citric acid cycle
    28. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 28 CellularCellular Energy (cont’d)
    29. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 29 Cellular Energy (cont’d)
    30. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 30 Membrane Transport  Cellular intake and output  Cells continually take in nutrients, fluids, and chemical messengers from the extracellular environment and expel metabolites, or the products of metabolism, and end products of lysosomal digestion
    31. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 31 Body Fluids  Electrolytes, which are electrically charged, make up 95% of solutes  Cations are positively charged and migrate toward the negative pole (e.g., Na+)  Anions are negatively charged and migrate toward the positive pole (e.g., Cl-)
    32. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 32 Movement of Body Fluids and Electrolytes  Water and electrolytes move across cell membranes via multiple passive (no energy required) and active (energy required) mechanisms
    33. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 33 Membrane Transport  Passive transport (small uncharged solutes)  No energy expended  Diffusion of solutes • Concentrated gradient  Filtration • Hydrostatic pressure (BP)  Osmosis of water • Osmolarity vs. osmolality  Tonicity • Isotonic, hypertonic, and hypotonic  Passive mediated transport • Integral or transmembrane proteins • Channel protein (ion channels) (gating)
    34. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 34 Membrane Transport (cont’d)
    35. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 35 Membrane Transport (cont’d)
    36. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 36 Membrane Transport (cont’d)  Active mediated transport (active transport)  Energy expended  Protein transport pumps • Na/K ATPase pump  Transport by vesicle formation • Endocytosis  Pinocytosis  Phagocytosis  Receptor mediated  Caveolae • Exocytosis
    37. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 37 Active Transport
    38. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 38 Membrane Transport
    39. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 39 Electrical Impulses  Resting membrane potential  Action potential  Depolarization  Threshold potential • Hyperpolarized vs. hypopolarized  Repolarization  Refractory period • Absolute and relative
    40. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 40 Propagation of an Action Potential
    41. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 41 Theory of AgingTheory of Aging  Accumulation of injurious eventsAccumulation of injurious events  Genetically controlled programGenetically controlled program  Theories:Theories:  Genetic and environmental lifestyle factorsGenetic and environmental lifestyle factors  Alterations of cellular control mechanismsAlterations of cellular control mechanisms  Degenerative extracellular and vascularDegenerative extracellular and vascular changeschanges
    42. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 42 AgingAging  Cellular agingCellular aging  Atrophy, decreased function, and loss of cellsAtrophy, decreased function, and loss of cells  Tissue and systemic agingTissue and systemic aging  Progressive stiffness and rigidityProgressive stiffness and rigidity  SarcopeniaSarcopenia  FrailtyFrailty  Mobility, balance, muscle strength, motorMobility, balance, muscle strength, motor activity, cognition, nutrition, endurance, falls,activity, cognition, nutrition, endurance, falls, fractures, and bone densityfractures, and bone density
    43. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 43 Tissue Formation  Extracellular matrix  Pattern formation
    44. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 44 Types of Tissue  Epithelial tissue  Simple vs. stratified squamous  Transitional  Cuboidal  Simple vs. stratified columnar  Pseudostratified ciliated
    45. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 45 Types of Tissue (cont’d)  Connective tissue  Dense regular or irregular  Fibers  Loose and dense connective tissue  Elastic and reticular connective  Cartilage, bone, vascular, and adipose
    46. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 46 Types of Tissue (cont’d)  Muscle tissue  Smooth  Striated (skeletal)  Cardiac
    47. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 47 DNADNA  Pentose sugar (deoxyribose)Pentose sugar (deoxyribose)  Phosphate moleculePhosphate molecule  Four nitrogenous bases:Four nitrogenous bases:  Pyrimidines: cytosine and thyminePyrimidines: cytosine and thymine  Purines: adenine and guaninePurines: adenine and guanine  Double helix modelDouble helix model  NucleotideNucleotide
    48. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 48 RNARNA  RNA is synthesized from the DNARNA is synthesized from the DNA templatetemplate  RNA polymerase binds to promoter siteRNA polymerase binds to promoter site  Results in the formation of messengerResults in the formation of messenger RNA (mRNA)RNA (mRNA)  RNA polymerase detachesRNA polymerase detaches  mRNA moves out of the nucleus and intomRNA moves out of the nucleus and into the cytoplasmthe cytoplasm  Transcription continues until terminationTranscription continues until termination sequence is reachedsequence is reached
    49. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 49 ChromosomesChromosomes  Somatic cells:Somatic cells:  Contain 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)Contain 46 chromosomes (23 pairs)  Diploid cellsDiploid cells  Gametes:Gametes:  Contain 23 chromosomesContain 23 chromosomes  Haploid cellsHaploid cells • One member of each chromosome pairOne member of each chromosome pair
    50. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 50 ChromosomesChromosomes  MeiosisMeiosis  Formation of haploid cells from diploid cellsFormation of haploid cells from diploid cells  MitosisMitosis  Formation of somatic cellsFormation of somatic cells
    51. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 51 Autosomal AneuploidyAutosomal Aneuploidy  Partial trisomyPartial trisomy  Only an extra portion of a chromosome isOnly an extra portion of a chromosome is present in each cellpresent in each cell  Chromosomal mosaicsChromosomal mosaics  Trisomies occurring only in some cells of theTrisomies occurring only in some cells of the bodybody
    52. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 52 Down SyndromeDown Syndrome
    53. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 53 Single-Gene DisordersSingle-Gene Disorders  EpigeneticsEpigenetics  Same DNA sequence can produce differentSame DNA sequence can produce different phenotypes due to chemical modification thatphenotypes due to chemical modification that alters expression of genesalters expression of genes  Genomic imprintingGenomic imprinting  One parent imprints (inactivates) the geneOne parent imprints (inactivates) the gene during transmission to offspringduring transmission to offspring
    54. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 54 Single-Gene Disorders (cont’d)Single-Gene Disorders (cont’d)  Autosomal recessive disorderAutosomal recessive disorder  Abnormal allele is recessive and a person mustAbnormal allele is recessive and a person must be homozygous for the abnormal trait tobe homozygous for the abnormal trait to express the diseaseexpress the disease  The trait usually appears in the children, notThe trait usually appears in the children, not the parents, and it affects the genders equallythe parents, and it affects the genders equally because it is present on a pair of autosomesbecause it is present on a pair of autosomes  Cystic fibrosis gene encodes a chloride ionCystic fibrosis gene encodes a chloride ion channel in some epithelial cells that alterschannel in some epithelial cells that alters sodium balancesodium balance
    55. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 55 Sex-Linked DisordersSex-Linked Disorders  Sex-linked (X-linked) disorders are usuallySex-linked (X-linked) disorders are usually expressed by males because femalesexpressed by males because females have another X chromosome to mask thehave another X chromosome to mask the abnormal geneabnormal gene  Can you name a disorder that is a sex-Can you name a disorder that is a sex- linked disorder?linked disorder?
    56. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 56 ImmunityImmunity  First line of defenseFirst line of defense  Innate (natural) (native) immunityInnate (natural) (native) immunity  Second line of defenseSecond line of defense  InflammationInflammation  Third line of defenseThird line of defense  Adaptive (acquired) immunityAdaptive (acquired) immunity
    57. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 57 First Line of DefenseFirst Line of Defense Physical barriers:Physical barriers:  SkinSkin  Linings of the gastrointestinal,Linings of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, and respiratory tractsgenitourinary, and respiratory tracts • Sloughing off of cellsSloughing off of cells • Coughing and sneezingCoughing and sneezing • FlushingFlushing • VomitingVomiting • Mucus and ciliaMucus and cilia
    58. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 58 PhagocytesPhagocytes  NeutrophilsNeutrophils  Also referred to as polymorphonuclearAlso referred to as polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs)neutrophils (PMNs)  Predominate in early inflammatory responsesPredominate in early inflammatory responses  Ingest bacteria, dead cells, and cellular debrisIngest bacteria, dead cells, and cellular debris  Cells are short lived and become a componentCells are short lived and become a component of the purulent exudateof the purulent exudate
    59. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 59 Phagocytes (cont’d)Phagocytes (cont’d)  Monocytes and macrophagesMonocytes and macrophages  Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow,Monocytes are produced in the bone marrow, enter the circulation, and migrate to theenter the circulation, and migrate to the inflammatory site, where they develop intoinflammatory site, where they develop into macrophagesmacrophages  Macrophages typically arrive at theMacrophages typically arrive at the inflammatory site 24 hours or later afterinflammatory site 24 hours or later after neutrophilsneutrophils
    60. Mosby items and derived items © 2012 Mosby, Inc., an imprint of Elsevier Inc. 60 Phagocytosis (cont’d)Phagocytosis (cont’d)  Steps:Steps:  AdherenceAdherence  EngulfmentEngulfment  Phagosome formationPhagosome formation  Fusion with lysosomal granulesFusion with lysosomal granules  Destruction of the targetDestruction of the target

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