Ch 19 WWI


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This is an example of how I incorporate geography into my keynotes. Almost every slide has animation to help the student stay interested and grasp the larger concepts surrounding WWI: imperialism, foreign relations, boundary shifts, etc.

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Ch 19 WWI

  1. 1. WORLD WAR I 1914 - 1918
  2. 2. MAP of EUROPE
  3. 3. ORIGINS of WWI ••• The -ISMs of War ••• ✤ Nationalism: a devotion to the interests and culture of one’s nation ✤ Nationalists often embody competitive and antagonistic rivalries with other nations in attempts to show pride in one’s country (Think: Olympics) or to fight in its name. ✤ KEEP IN MIND: Germans possessed a high level of nationalism due to its growing economic and military power in Europe. ✤ Ethnic Groups resented their dominating mother countries and longed to be independent (Think Revolutionaries and England in early US History), however, many smaller groups relied on larger countries for support and protection. ✤ Russia protected Slavic peoples no matter where they lived or who ruled over them. ✤ Serbs are a type of Slav. Austria-Hungary ruled over the millions of ethnic Serbs in Serbia, which was an independent country. ✤ Therefore, Russia and Austria-Hungary battled for influence in this area.
  4. 4. ORIGINS of WWI ••• The -ISMs of War ••• ✤ Imperialism: What makes the natives...well, native. ✤ When mother countries extend economic, military, and political control over other peoples of the world. (Reference CH 18 - Am. Imperialism) ✤ European nations such as France and Great Britain had been building vast empires in Asia and Africa. ✤ The territory, called colonies, provided small European nations with raw materials and new markets for trade of manufactured goods. ✤ As Germany grew in power, it began to compete with Great Britain and France. See the tension building?!
  5. 5. Example of Imperialism: The British Empire
  6. 6. ORIGINS of WWI ••• The -ISMs of War ••• ✤ Militarism: With land to protect, you need guns…lots of guns. ✤ Empires were expensive and difficult to defend without a large armed force (soldiers) and a larger stockpile of weaponry (guns, bombs, boats, planes, etc). ✤ As you can see on our world stage today, the country with the most and the best weaponry “wins”. ✤ By 1890, Germany was the most powerful ✤ Strong leader: Kaiser (or Emperor) Wilhelm II ✤ Army reserve and draft = plenty of soldiers ✤ Large navy of battleships and destroyers that rivaled the British fleet and brought about a worldwide naval arms race.
  7. 7. ORIGINS SystemWWI ••• The Alliance of ••• Triple Entente (later the Allies): France, Britain, and Russia. Triple Alliance (later the Central Powers): Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy later joined with the Ottoman Empire which consisted of mostly Middle Eastern land controlled by the Turks.
  8. 8. THE POWDER KEG The Balkan Peninsula earned the nickname “The Powder Keg” due to its centralized location and melting pot society. Many powerful nations claimed interests there: Russia wanted access to the Mediterranean Sea, Germany wanted a rail connection to the Ottomans, and Austria-Hungary wanted control over Bosnia. Yipes – it was primed to blow!
  9. 9. ASSASSINATION In the Powder Keg Archduke Franz Ferdinand, heir to the NO Austrian throne, visited Bosnia’s capital Sarajevo with his wife Sophie. Gavrilo Princip, a member of the Black Hand Serbian DE A? nationalist OO DI group, G shot Franz and Sophie as they drove through the city.
  10. 10. ASSASSINATION In the Powder Keg Austria-Hungary Germany Belgium Britain Serbia Russia France Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia in retaliation. It would have been a short, small-scale, country to country war if not for the Alliance System already in place. Germany supported Austria-Hungary by declaring war on Russia. France was an ally of Russia so Germany went after them too. Then, Germany invaded Belgium, which ticked off the British so they declared war on Germany and Austria-Hungary. THE GREAT WAR BEGAN.
  11. 11. Allies: DIVISIONS Australia, Belgium, British Colonies, Canada & Newfoundland, France, French North Africa & French Colonies, Great Britain, Greece, India, Italy, Japan, Montenegro, New Zealand, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, South Africa, United States. Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, Ottoman Empire
  12. 12. THE FIGHT BEGINS Germany’s Schlieffen Plan: 1. Hold Russian Front 2. Take Belgium quickly and move into France 3. After Paris, combine forces and go after Russia.
  13. 13. INTO THE TRENCH Trench Warfare: bloody, often inconclusive form of fighting during WWI. FRONT LINE TRENCH: called “Saps” which were shallower and located in “no man’s land.” Machine guns, grenade-throwing positions, and observation posts located here. SUPPORT TRENCH: Communication trenches that connected the first to the third. RESERVE TRENCH: third and farthest line of the trench system where artillery fire was located. Cannons would strike before an infantry assault. “NO MANS LAND”: 25 yards to a mile stretch of muddy and crater-filled space between the two front lines. Soldiers would become tangled in barbed wire, then mowed down by enemy machine gun fire, before being blown to smithereens by artillery shells. (See pg. 582 illustration) Trench battles would last for months and the scale of slaughter could total over a million (Britain lost 60,000 during the first day of the First Battle of Somme).
  15. 15. Americans Question Neutrality A Country Divided Most Americans saw no reason to get involved. They had opinions, sure, but did not feel threatened enough. Many Americans felt a close connection to the interests of Europe since many recently emigrated there. When Germany attacks Belgium, many Americans are quick to offer sympathy. Photographs and video showing civilian attacks, obliterated villages, cathedrals, and libraries along with broken down hospitals inspired Germany’s new nickname: “the Bully of Europe”
  16. 16. Americans Question Neutrality The Nature of Trade America’s economic ties with the Allies were far stronger than the Central Powers. In fact, our trade with Britain and France was double what we had with Germany. Allies demanded war supplies from American manufacturers such as dynamite, submarines, and armored cars.
  17. 17. Americans Question Neutrality The British Blockade Britain blockaded the German coast to prevent military weaponry from getting through. They called these good contraband Soon, British forces included food in the definition of contraband and intercepted all food shipments. They also extended the blockade over neutral ports and cut off the entire North Sea from Germany. IMPACTS: American ships carrying goods for Germany refused to challenge Britain’s blockade and therefore hardly ever reached Germany. Germany found extreme difficulty in keeping up with the much needed foodstuffs and fertilizer for crops. In 1917, the country was deep in famine. An estimated 750,000 Germans died. German’s had no choice but to resort to violence in the SEA!
  18. 18. Americans Question Neutrality The Lusitania Germans counterblockaded with U-Boats (Unterseeboot) Any British/Allied boat would be attacked, sometimes without warning MAY 7th, 1915 Off the coast of Ireland TRAGEDY STRIKES! The Lusitania, a British Liner takes a hit Out of almost 2,000 deaths, 128 of them were American GERMANY! Explain yourself!
  19. 19. Americans Question Neutrality The Lusitania Germany explained that they had merely targeted another ammunitions carrier. In fact, it was common practice to transport weaponry aboard passenger ships. The Lusitania actually had bombs onboard, but American sympathies still rested with the civilians who lost their lives.
  20. 20. Democrat: Woodrow Wilson Slogan: “He kept us out of war” ELECTION of 1916 WILSON’S IN FOR A SECOND TERM!!! Republican: Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes Focused on the freedom of the seas, but wished to Go easy on the Germans, which lost him supporters Wilson WON by a narrow margin
  21. 21. The UNITED STATES DECLARES WAR German Provocation Although Wilson asked for peace, Germany ignored him and continued using U-Boats in hopes of Britain’s defeat. Still, Wilson hesitated ZIMMERMANN NOTE British Agents intercepted a telegram from Germany to Mexico that offered alliance as well as support should Mexico declare war on the US in order to win back territory in Texas, New Mex, and Arizona.
  22. 22. The UNITED STATES DECLARES WAR German Provocation Germans also sank 4 merchant ships 36 dead Russia became a representative democracy after toppling its oppressive monarchy. Since the US was already an ally, now they could claim WWI as a war between democracy and oppressive regimes. April 2nd, 1917: The US declares WAR
  23. 23. The UNITED STATES DECLARES WAR UNPREPARED The United States was not ready for WaR. We had only 200,000 trained men SELECTIVE SERVICE ACT Required men to register with the government in order to be randomly selected (Sounds like the DRAFT right?) 24 million registered 3 million were called
  24. 24. The UNITED STATES DECLARES WAR Limitations CIVIL RIGHTS: 400,000 African American men served They had to serve in segregated units - BOO WOMEN’S RIGHTS: Women were reluctantly accepted into The Army Corps of Nurses But were denied pay, rank, or benefits Some 13,000 also served as secretaries and telephone operators with full military rank
  25. 25. THE UNITED STATES DECLARES WAR MASS Production of NAVY The army had to SAFELY transport men, food, and equipment 1) Shipyard workers were exempted from Draft 2) U.S. Chambers of Commerce campaigned the importance of shipyard work. Ex. Urged automobile owners to carpool with shipyard workers 3) Standardized Parts: shipped into the yard and assembled in order to create efficiency 4) Gov’t took hold of commercial/private ships and converted customized them for war
  26. 26. THE UNITED STATES DECLARES WAR MASS Production of NAVY The army had to SAFELY transport men, food, and equipment CONVOY SYSTEM A heavy guard of destroyers escorted merchant ships inside a safe zone
  27. 27. THE UNITED STATES DECLARES WAR GENERAL JOHN J. PERSHING and his AMERICAN EXPEDITIONARY FORCE (AEF) Pershing led the AEF or “doughboys” into dangerous battles because he believed in aggressive strategy. ________________________________________ He was able to stop the German advance in France and capture key enemy positions. ________________________________________ He became General of the Armies of the United States after WWI
  28. 28. NEW WEAPONRY TANKS: Used to mow down barbed wire and soldiers. Could traverse trenches and craters AIRPLANES / ANTIAIRCRAFT GUNS: Planes began dropping bombs and Zeppelins dropped poison gas Machine guns mounted in front allowed for “dogfights” POISON GAS: Yellow-green chlorine fog sickened, suffocated, burned, and blinded Gas masks became standard issue MACHINE GUNS: Improved guns shot 600 rounds a minute Showered bullets on “No Man’s Land” literally mowing down men
  29. 29. NEW FILTHY: HAZARDS Lice, rats, and polluted water Dysentery, infection, and the dreaded trench foot and trench mouth SMELLY: Poison gas inhalation resulted in approximately million deaths Raise your hands if you want to smell dead bodies 24/7! SHOCKING: Constant bombing caused injury and the inability to sleep “Shell shock” became a common effect of artillery bombardment MEDICAL AID: Nurses were in the thick of battle and endangered their own lives Many suffered fatigue from the never-ending number of injured men
  31. 31. WAR AT HOME WAR FINANCE USA spent 35.5 billion dollars on the war effort New taxes: income, war-profit, and higher tax on tobacco, liquor, and luxuries Bonds: Liberty Loan and Victory Loan COMMITTEE on PUBLIC INFORMATION Propaganda Agency ************* • Set up the promote the war • Former muckraker George Creel was in charge • Highly Effective!
  32. 32. WAR AT HOME ANTI-IMMIGRANT Many immigrants lost their jobs Orchestras refused to play Mozart, Bach, Beethoven, and Brahms = music of the enemy Violent attacks were common. Tar and feathers galore! ESPIONAGE and SEDITION ACTS FINE: 10,000 SENTENCE: 20 years in jail For “interfering” in the war effort. Aka saying anything disloyal, profane, or abusive SAY GOODBYE TO THE 1st AMENDMENT
  33. 33. WAR AT HOME THE GREAT MIGRATION Large-scale movement of hundreds of thousands of African Americans into northerly cities. They were attempting to escape the JIM CROW LAWS of the South THE FLU EPIDEMIC 30 million deaths believed worldwide It was a catalyst for the END of the war America hoped WWI was the “WAR TO END ALL WARS”
  34. 34. Americans Help End It • RUSSIA pulled out in 1917 so Germany focused on the western front (France) • Some Americans, like hero Alvin York, sought exemption as a conscientious objector. He referred to the Bible: “Thou shalt not kill” • York eventually agreed to fight claiming he fought with just cause • He became one of the more famous WWI heroes
  35. 35. GERMANY COLLAPSES • Austria-Hungary surrendered on Nov 3, 1918 • On the same day, German sailors mutinied The mutiny spread everywhere! • Socialist leaders established a German Republic In Berlin and Kaiser Wilhelm II was dethroned. • ELEVEN! - On the 11th hour - Of the 11th day - Of the 11th month GERMANY ORDERED A CEASE-FIRE And signed an ARMISTICE (truce)
  36. 36. OUTCOMES of WWI Bloodiest war in HISTORY 22 million deaths (more than half were civilians) 10 million refugees $ Cost: approx. 338 billion dollars USA: 48,000 dead, 62,000 diseased 200,000+ were wounded IS THERE ANY CHANCE FOR PEACE!?
  37. 37. You are Invited to the PARTY at the PALACE The Place: Palace of Versailles (outside Paris, France) The Date: January, 1919 (we aim to party all month) Honorary Guests: Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenseau, David Lloyd George, Vittorio Orlando, Ho Chi Min, the Armenians, Jews, Ukrainians, Poles, and YOU NOT INVITED: The Stupid Germans The Commie Russians
  38. 38. THE FOURTEEN POINTS PARTY RULES: 1. NO secret treaties 2. Freedom of the seas 3. Foster free trade by abolishing high tariffs 4. Reduce your arms/demilitarize 5. Consider the interests of your colonial powers 6-13. Change up your borders 14. Lets make a forum where we can discuss our problems without resorting to war called the LEAGUE of NATIONS.
  39. 39. Georges Clemenseau David Lloyd George (France) (Britain) THE “BIG FOUR” Woodrow Wilson Vittorio Orlando (USA) (Italy)
  40. 40. THE PARTY POOPERS David Lloyd George (Britain) “No more “Make invasions!” Germany Pay” Georges Clemenseau (France) They both REJECT Wilson’s Plan They Demand Revisions
  41. 41. The TREATY of VERSAILLES PROVISIONS: •••••••••••••••••••••••• New Nations: Poland, Czechoslovakia,and Yugoslavia Ottoman Empire: carved up and distributed to England and France as mandates (temporary colonies) Germany: no more army, return the land you stole from France, and pay reparations = 33 billion dollars
  42. 42. The TREATY of VERSAILLES WEAKNESSES: •••••••••••••••••••••••• War-Guilt Clause: Forced Germany to take full responsibility for starting WWI. There was also no way Germany could pay all the reparations. :( The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: Fought with the Allies for 3 years, suffered the most casualties, and then lost the most land (more than Germany). Colonies: Ignored the plea for self-determination (independence) especially in Vietnam. :(
  43. 43. League of Nations DEBATE: •••••••••••••••••••••••• Henry Cabot Lodge: suspicious of joint economic and military action against aggression. Woodrow Wilson: Refused to change a thing! Even though he was wicked ill, he went on an 8,000 mile tour to promote the League. He suffered a stroke and lost his powerful voice. The Senate: Refused to pass Wilson’s uncompromising legislation. The USA never joined the League.
  44. 44. The LEGACY of the WAR Warren G. Harding: He became president after Wilson and joined the country in the desire for a return to “normalcy” USA: WWI strengthened the US military and the power of its government. It also excelled social change: women’s rights, African American equality. Russia: became the first Communist state Fascism: took hold of Italy, Spain, and Germany Seeds of WWII: Although WWI was dubbed “the war to end all wars” it was anything but. Germany would rise again
  45. 45. The LEGACY of the WAR “It cannot be that two million [Germans] should have fallen in vain. . . No, we do not pardon, we demand - VENGEANCE!” - Adolf Hitler