HIGH Incidence (more than 90% of students with disabilities receiving sped services are ID as having LD< ADHD, EBD, intellectual disability, communication disorders, or autism spectrum). • Learning disabilities, as opposed to other disabilities such as vision impairment or paralysis, are invisible – or considered a hidden handicap. For this reason they tend to be misunderstood and their impact underestimated. • Because learning disabilities cannot be seen, they often go undetected. Recognizing a learning disability is even more difficult because the severity and characteristics vary. • Learning disabilities vary from person to person. One person with LD may not have the same kind of learning problems as another person with LD. • Learning disabilities are real. A person can be of average or above-average intelligence, not have any major sensory problems (like blindness or hearing impairment), and yet struggle to keep up with peers in their ability to learn. • LD is a lifelong disorder that affects people's ability to either interpret what they see and hear or to link information from different parts of the brain. These limitations can show up in many ways--as in the ability to understand or use spoken and written language, mathematical calculations, coordination, self-control, or attention. These difficulties impact academic skills and can impede learning to read or write, or compute. • LD is a neurobiological disorder that affects the brain's ability to receive, process, store, express, and respond to information. • With LD a person's brain works or is structured differently. Differences interfere with a person's ability to think and remember. Learning disabilities can affect a person's ability to speak, listen, read, write, spell, reason, recall, organize information, and calculate. • LD affects many parts of a person's life: school or work, daily routines, family life, and friendships or in social contexts. Overlapping learning disabilities may be apparent in some while others may have a single, isolated mild learning problem that has little impact on other areas of life. • Learning disabilities affect each person differently with characteristics ranging from mild to severe. Sometimes people have more than one learning disability. • Although learning disabilities can occur in very young children, the disorders are not usually recognized until problems are recognized at school
Figure 7.2: The Prevalence of Learning Disabilities for Students 6–21 Years of Age. Engage them with intro that we’ll be talking about this group of kids tonight (and next slide)
a. Three to seven percent of all school-aged children may have ADHD. b. In the school-aged population the number of ADHD males out number females. Males and females exhibit different symptoms and may need different interventions. Young males exhibit more disruptive and aggressive behaviors that may bring them to the attention of the teacher. This has raised questions concerning gender bias in identification and diagnosis, though research is mixed and showing an increase in young females. c. Some types of ADHD seem to have different prevalence levels and there appears to be some variation between subgroups by age, gender, and comorbidity. There has been substantial growth in services to ADHD students during the last decade due to a number of factors.
Learning disabilities constitute a relatively new area of exceptionality that has only recently been identified and defined. In the past students with LD might have been labeled as remedial readers, emotionally disturbed, or even having an intellectual disability/mentally retarded. Perceptual disabilities: visual or auditory Aphasia: communication disorder in which the person has extreme difficulty finding and using words Inconsistency in definitions most likely due to strong interdisciplinary nature of the field of LD. Medicine, Psychology, speech-language, and education fields are all involved in researching LD
Self-Regulation, Impulsivity, and Hyperactivity i. One of the common threads for people with ADHD is the inability to think through one’s actions to see what the consequences will be. This difficulty in self-regulation and self-management is receiving considerable attention as a theoretical explanation for ADHD. ii. Hyperactivity is a primary characteristic that must be present for at least six months and must be of such severity as to cause maladaptive problems. iii. Being over-active seems to affect about half of the children diagnosed with ADHD. This can diminish as the child matures but can also manifest itself into adulthood. b. Social Relations i. Children with ADHD often have difficulties with peer relationships due to aggression, or even anti-social behavior. This leads to low social status among peers that can persist throughout school and can lead to increased criminal activity. ii. Some research suggests that low social status and poor self-regulation make children with ADHD more susceptible to substance abuse. iii. The lack of friends and good social role models can lead to frustration, which can cause unacceptable behaviors to escalate. c. Academic Characteristics - Children with ADHD frequently experience significant challenges in an academic setting. Such problems increase as the child progresses in the educational system and can lead to poor self esteem and avoidance behaviors. Adolescents with ADHD often do not graduate from high school due to low levels of academic achievement unless provided an environment that adapts instruction to his or her needs and abilities.
a. Learning disabilities constitute a relatively new area of exceptionality that has only recently been identified and defined. In the past students with LD might have been labeled as remedial readers, emotionally disturbed, or even having an intellectual disability/mentally retarded. b. Individuals with learning disabilities have above average, average, or near average intelligence but learning disabilities can occur at all intelligence levels. c. Learning-disabled is a generic label that represents a heterogeneous group of individuals with highly variable, complex characteristics and needs, ranging from mild to severe and manifest a highly variable and complex set of characteristics and needs. Even a group of students all with LD, the students will experience different characteristics or impacts of their disability.
As with all areas of LD, research continues to examine the relationship between intelligence levels and LD, but it is generally assumed that people with LD have average or above average intelligence. Remember the “severe discrepancy” clause in the identificaiton criteria. It has long been used as the main way to identify a LD - the discrepancy between intelligence (IQ) and acheivement. Intraindividual differences between skill areas (one child could have marked strengths in one area but major weaknesses in another - even varying degrees of skill level within one academic area like reading comprehension and word recognition or in math like computation and problem solving).
In their book for reference
ADHD is not a separate disability under IDEA but the substantial growth in need for services to students with this condition has resulted in eligibility under the IDEA category of Other Health Impairments.
page 184 for Dx criteria At least 6 of the inattention and/or hyperactivity symptoms must be present.
Journey into dyslexia adhd
Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Chapter 7
4 Corners <ul><li>Think about this week’s assignment from Misunderstood Minds. </li></ul><ul><li>Which simulation activity did you connect with the most? </li></ul><ul><li>Go to that corner. </li></ul>Attention Reading Math Writing
PREVALENCE of ADHD Male: Female 3% to 7% of all school-aged children Variation between subgroups of age, gender, and comorbidity.
What Is a Learning Disability? <ul><li>A disorder of one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Three general “types”: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reading (dyslexia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Written Language (dysgraphia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mathematics (dyscalculia) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other types affect memory, executive functions, and social skills </li></ul></ul></ul>This means it’s neurological.
What is ADHD? <ul><li>Diagnosis characterized by: </li></ul><ul><li>Impulsivity (affecting social as well as academic decisions) </li></ul><ul><li>Self-regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Executive functioning: ability to monitor and regulate one’s own behavior, to exercise impulse control, and to anticipate the consequences of actions. Impacts decision-making skills and making/executing plans. </li></ul>
Activity: TRIOS <ul><li>Model for flexible grouping </li></ul><ul><li>Movement for some </li></ul><ul><li>Stationary for others </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunities for engagement with all classmates </li></ul><ul><li>Fast-paced </li></ul><ul><li>Our topic: “Journey Into Dyslexia” </li></ul>
LEARNING DISABILITIES <ul><li>Learning disabilities can occur at all intelligence levels , although most people with LD have average to above average IQ scores. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning disabled = heterogeneous group of individuals with highly variable, complex characteristics, and needs </li></ul>
Diagnostic Criteria <ul><li>Achievement not commensurate with age and ability, given appropriate educational experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Severe discrepancy” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achievement vs. Potential (IQ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Debate: what is “severe”? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>IDEA no longer requires to show a discrepancy to diagnose </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Response to Intervention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Student response to instructional, research-based interventions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows diagnosis for younger students who may not yet be failing “enough” for severe discrepancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Video clip on wiki </li></ul></ul></ul>
INTELLIGENCE <ul><li>Above average or near average intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Variability between measured intelligence and performance (discrepancy) </li></ul><ul><li>Intraindividual differences between skill areas </li></ul>
ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER <ul><li>People with ADHD may exhibit a variety of characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms may interfere with life activities </li></ul><ul><li>ADHD is a life long condition </li></ul><ul><li>Can exist with other disabilities </li></ul>
DSM IV Criteria, p183 <ul><li>Persistent pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity that is more frequent/severe than typically observed in individuals at a comparable level of development </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms present before age 7 </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms present in at least two settings (e.g., home and school) </li></ul><ul><li>Clear evidence of interference with social, academic, or occupational functioning </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms do not occur exclusively during the course of a pervasive developmental disorder, schizophrenia, or other psychotic disorder and not better accounted for by another mental disorder (mood, anxiety, etc). </li></ul>