Introduction to m e lit

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  • 1. Arabic and Persian Literature A taste of the Middle East
  • 2. Why is this study important?• 6th Century Islam expanded from Persia and Arabia (Modern day Saudi Arabia, Iran, Iraq, Oman, Jordan, Syria, Yemen, Israel, Pakistan, Afghanistan)• Islam is a powerful and misunderstood culture• Islam brought modern mail service, banking, astronomy, navigation, medicine, math, and literature across Africa and Europe.
  • 3. Pre-Islamic Influence of Persia 1000 BC-642 AD• Nomadic people• Zoroaster founder of Persian religion (Zoroastrianism)• Military Power Cyrus the Great (showed mercy, an example of Zoroastrianism influence)• Cambyses II expanded Persia• Darius I introduced roads, coinage, and weights to promote trade• 490 BC GreeksBattle of Marathon• 331 BC Alexander the Great• 224 BC Persia regains power• 651 AD Arabs defeat Persia Islam is introduced
  • 4. Spread of Islam• Persians: Established major center of Islamic learning: Famous Poets Ferdowsi, Omar Khayyam, Rumi, Sadi• Arabs: Nomadic people (camel herders), spread Islam all the way to Spain• Mecca established• Persian Culture looses influence
  • 5. Arabic Traditions: After 570 AD• Abraham• Desert nomads farmers and traders• Oases• Prophet Muhammad: Angel Gabriel• Islam: “submission to Allah’s will”• 640 AD Allegiance• Caliphs• Abbasid Dynasty: 762-1258 (Baghdad)
  • 6. Persia and the Islamic Empire• The Samanids Islamic renaissance Bukhara
  • 7. The People of Islam• Nomads Bedouins warriors• Rulers break of theocracy emits, Sultans, Shahs• Lower class  taxed for not being Muslim, no slavery• Merchants/traders bazaars• Educated House of Wisdom (Caliph al Ma’mum• Mystics dervishes or fakirs (Sufism)• Women  their rights improved (equals in the eyes of Allah)
  • 8. LiteraturePre-Islamic: oral traditionselaborate odes (qasidas)AvestaIslamic Influence: Koran Sufism poetry Golden Age (753 AD)Encouraged great works of art