DNA Daily


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  • mRNA: UAU CGA tRNA: AUA GCU amino acids: Tyrosine Arginine
  • DNA Daily

    1. 1. DNA: Molecular Biology at its Finest
    2. 2. <ul><li>Objectives </li></ul><ul><li>1. Describe the scientific processes that led to the conclusions that DNA is the genetic material and that it is a double helix and defend or judge the actions of researchers involved. (Knowledge, Reasoning - Content Standards A2, F1, G1-G4) </li></ul><ul><li>2. List and recognize the basic parts of DNA and be able to fit them together to form the overall structure of DNA. (Knowledge, Skill - Content Standard C2) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Compare and contrast DNA, mRNA, and tRNA in terms of their structures, functions, and locations. (Knowledge - Content Standard C2)  </li></ul><ul><li>4. Describe in detail how DNA makes you you through transcription and translation, and what other factors make you who you are. (Knowledge, Reasoning - Content Standards C1, C2, E1, E3, F1, Cultural Standard E8) </li></ul><ul><li>  5. Replicate, transcribe, and translate a DNA sequence to determine the sequences of complementary DNA, mRNA, and tRNA+amino acids it will produce. (Skill - Content Standard C2)  </li></ul><ul><li>6. Differentiate between structure and function of DNA in chromosomes and that of DNA in chromatin. (Knowledge - Content Standard C2) </li></ul><ul><li>7. Compare and contrast mutations in body cells vs sex cells and frameshift mutations vs point mutations in terms of heritability & severity of consequences. (Knowledge, Reasoning - Content Standards C1, C2) </li></ul><ul><li>  8. Evaluate the medical, social, and everyday implications of DNA research in general and RNAi research in particular. (Reasoning - Content Standards E1, E3, Cultural Standard B4) </li></ul><ul><li>#9. Be able to link gene expression to the existence of different tissues in the same organism. </li></ul>
    3. 3. <ul><li>Essential Questions </li></ul><ul><li>Why did scientists want to figure out the shape of DNA so much? Who got the credit for doing it? Why? </li></ul><ul><li>All living things have the same genetic material. Is this true, false, or both? How? </li></ul><ul><li>How does DNA make you you? What else makes you you? </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Vocabulary </li></ul>Structure DNA, mRNA nucleotides – sugars: ribose, deoxyribose; phosphoric acid; nitrogenous base complementary pairs hydrogen bonds codons tRNA anti-codons Amino acids Proteins Function Heredity -DNA replication Protein Synthesis -transcription -translation Incidental or review: Complementary Rungs Double Helix Nucleic Acid, Protein Nucleus, Ribosome
    5. 5. Feb 15 <ul><li>Debrief Pre-Test </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipatory Set: </li></ul><ul><li>Quick Fruit DNA Extraction, BBC awesomeness (DNA unraveling clip) </li></ul><ul><li>Instruction: </li></ul><ul><li>Mighty Morphin’ DNA Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-lab Instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Independent Work: </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Extraction </li></ul><ul><li>Closure : </li></ul><ul><li>Discussion: why worked, why didn’t? </li></ul>Learning Log No learning log today! Obj. #6
    6. 6. <ul><li>DNA during Mitosis (cell division): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In chromosome form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tightly coiled around protein beads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inactive (no space to work!) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DNA during Interphase (cell just hangin’ out): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It’s in chromatin form </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All strung out - more disorganized! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Active – replicating, transcribing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(has space to work!) </li></ul></ul>Mighty Morphing DNA! Obj. #6
    7. 7. <ul><li>YOU are going to extract your own DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Any old cell will do. . . Any guesses on what cells of yours we’re going to use? </li></ul><ul><li>What will the DNA look like? </li></ul>DNA Extraction Obj. #6
    8. 8. <ul><li>What will your DNA look like? Remember the onion root tips? </li></ul><ul><li>Will it look like those chromosomes? </li></ul>DNA Extraction Obj. #6
    9. 9. <ul><li>What will the DNA look like? THIS: </li></ul><ul><li>(except you’ll be taking it out of a test tube) </li></ul><ul><li>Is this chromatin or chromosomes d’you think? </li></ul>DNA Extraction Obj. #6
    10. 10. <ul><li>YOUR DNA WILL LOOK LIKE THIS: </li></ul><ul><li>(if you’re lucky) </li></ul><ul><li>How do we get it out of the cells and looking like that? </li></ul>DNA Extraction Obj. #6
    11. 11. <ul><li>How to do it: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Open up notebook </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write title </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write purpose: to see DNA in chromatin form firsthand and practice wet lab techniques! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Write procedures, list equipment, then DO IT: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add 5mL detergent to test tube 1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Swish with salt water (1 minute!) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Spit into cup </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Add detergent + spit to test tube </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>GENTLY cap tube and rock 3 min </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DISCUSS WHY IT WORKED OR DIDN’T AND ANSWER QUESTIONS (next slide) </li></ul></ul>DNA Extraction Obj. #6 6. SLOW: Add tube 1 to ethanol in tube 2 7. Let stand 2 min, observe 8. Capture DNA by twirling glass rod 9. FYI: WRITE DOWN OBSERVATIONS
    12. 12. <ul><li>QUESTIONS: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Was the DNA you saw in </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>chromosome or chromatin form? Inactive or active? Orderly or chaotic? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. How did the detergent help us free the DNA from the cells? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. How did the ethanol help us separate the DNA from the other stuff? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. How does your DNA compare to a fruit’s? </li></ul></ul>DNA Extraction Obj. #6
    13. 13. Feb 16 p.5 Feb 17 p.6 <ul><li>LL Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipatory Set: </li></ul><ul><li>The History of DNA in Under 2 Minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment: </li></ul><ul><li>Research the History of DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Present Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Closure/Instruction/Informal Assessment: </li></ul><ul><li>Transparencies (experiment illustrations) </li></ul><ul><li> Turn in notebooks, open to extraction lab </li></ul>Sketch, label chromosome or chromatin , & tell how you know. a. b. c. d. Obj. #1 Learning Log
    14. 14. Learning Log <ul><li>LL, Pick up NB’s </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipatory Set: </li></ul><ul><li>Movie Prologue </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss Movie Response </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment: </li></ul><ul><li>Watch “The Secret of Photo 51” </li></ul><ul><li>Closure/Assessment: </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss and Write Response </li></ul><ul><li>(Homework) </li></ul>Tell what the illustration below discovered and explain how. Feb 17 p.5 Feb 18 p.6 Obj. #1
    15. 15. <ul><li>In-movie questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why would anyone want to know DNA’s structure? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How did Watson and Crick figure it out? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who else contributed to the discovery? How? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Response: Write one sentence to sum up the movie, then give your impressions of each of the researchers. Explain their attitudes and actions, and evaluate how scientifically rigorous, ethical, and successful each of them were. Defend your evaluations. </li></ul>The Secret of Photo 51 Obj. #1
    16. 16. Learning Log Match the scientists with their accomplishments by writing one sentence about each. <ul><li>LL Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Response Due (Debrief) </li></ul><ul><li>Anticipatory Set: </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Pieces Puzzle </li></ul><ul><li>Assignment: </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Struc & Rep. Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Create DNA & RNA Pieces, start DNA/RNA Packet </li></ul><ul><li>- read, answer questions </li></ul><ul><li>- stop at stars to show models </li></ul>Chargaff Hershey & Chase Ros. Franklin Watson & Crick Feb 19 <ul><li>built the double-helix model. </li></ul><ul><li>produced x-ray image of DNA. </li></ul><ul><li>tracked radioactive DNA from virus to bacteria. </li></ul><ul><li>discovered that A=T, G=C. </li></ul>Obj. #1, 2
    17. 17. Feb 22 <ul><li>LL Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Replication Video </li></ul><ul><li>Continue DNA & RNA Packet </li></ul><ul><li>Create DNA & RNA Pieces </li></ul><ul><li>- read, answer questions </li></ul><ul><li>- stop at stars to show models </li></ul><ul><li>-finish part B by today </li></ul>Each DNA nucleotide is made up of three molecules: 1 ________, 1 ________, and 1 _________. Different kinds of nucleotides have different _________. The four different bases are ___, ____, ____, and ____. In DNA, Adenine matches up with _______ and Guanine matches up with _______. Learning Log Obj. #2
    18. 18. Feb 23 p.5 Feb 24 p.6 <ul><li>LL </li></ul><ul><li>Transcription  Translation Video (up to 1:30) </li></ul><ul><li>Transcription Notes </li></ul><ul><li>FINISH DNA & RNA Packet </li></ul><ul><li>Review Packet/ Self-Assess </li></ul><ul><li>Cracking the Code (if time) </li></ul>Tell three similarities and three differences between DNA and RNA. Learning Log Obj. #3
    19. 19. Feb 24 Feb 25 <ul><li>LL Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Transcription  Translation Video </li></ul><ul><li>mRNA to Protein/ Translation/ Protein Synthesis Notes </li></ul><ul><li>Begin tRNA/ Protein Packet </li></ul>The “m” in mRNA stands for ________ because mRNA carries the code out of the__________ to the __________ where proteins are made. TURN IN FEBRUARY CALENDARS!  Learning Log Obj. #4
    20. 20. March 1 <ul><li>LL Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Doggy DNA vid </li></ul><ul><li>Continue Translation Packet </li></ul><ul><li>Missing work? </li></ul><ul><li>Feb Calendars due </li></ul><ul><li>TAKE MITOSIS TEST P.5: James, Shaquille, Brandon, & Jesus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P.6: Danni, Douane, & Cindy </li></ul></ul>Learning Log <ul><li>What is the process of decoding an mRNA strand into a protein called? (write 1 sentence to answer) </li></ul>Obj. #4
    21. 21. Mar 2 p.5 Mar 3 p.6 <ul><li>LL Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Finish Translation Packet </li></ul><ul><li>Review Packet </li></ul><ul><li>RNAi movie (15 min) </li></ul><ul><li>RNAi discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Feb Calendars? </li></ul><ul><li>TAKE MITOSIS TEST: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P.5: James, Shaquille </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P.6: Douane & Cindy </li></ul></ul>Learning Log <ul><li>DNA sequence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> ATA GCT </li></ul></ul><ul><li>mRNA sequence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>_ _ _ _ _ _ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>tRNA sequence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> _ _ _ _ _ _ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Amino acid sequence: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> ______, ______ </li></ul></ul>Obj. #4
    22. 22. <ul><li>In-movie questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What do the castle, the scribe, the ocean, the cook, the food, the robber, and the cop represent? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What does RNAi do naturally? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How can we use RNAi? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Discussion: What kind of world would it be if we could switch on and off any genes we want using RNAi? Awesome? Scary? Both? Why? How much do our genes determine who we are? </li></ul>RNAi Obj. #1
    23. 23. Mar 3 p.5 Mar 4 p.6 <ul><li>LL Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>RNAi movie debrief </li></ul><ul><li>The Secret Message </li></ul><ul><li>Test study guide (HW) </li></ul><ul><li>Missing work? </li></ul><ul><li>Feb Calendars? </li></ul><ul><li>TAKE MITOSIS TEST: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>P.5: James, Shaquille </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>P.6: Douane, Cindy </li></ul></ul>Learning Log In mRNA, three nucleotides in a row is called a __________. In tRNA, three nucleotides in a row is an __________. Sketch a tRNA molecule and label it tRNA. Obj. #4, 8
    24. 24. <ul><li>Transcriber: go to nucleus, transcribe DNA nucleotide sequence to mRNA sequence, leave nucleus, go to ribosome (in cytoplasm) </li></ul><ul><li>Translator: translate mRNA codons into tRNA anti-codons, turn over correct anti-codon cards for corresponding amino acids/words </li></ul><ul><li>Both: construct protein (sentence), check for mistakes in the sentence (aka mutations in the protein). </li></ul>The Secret Message
    25. 25. March 15 <ul><li>LL Discussion </li></ul><ul><li>Gene Machine </li></ul><ul><li>DNA Practice Quiz </li></ul><ul><li>- DNA & Genes </li></ul><ul><li>- Translation </li></ul>Learning Log Obj. #6 <ul><li>What does DNA and RNA have to do with your everyday life? Your future? Your past? Your society? </li></ul>
    26. 26. Mar 15, per. 5 Mar 16, per 6 <ul><li>Mutations! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutation Notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mutation Mystery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next time: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notebooks due </li></ul></ul>Learning Log What is the basic name for mistakes in copying DNA? What do you think USUALLY happens when these mistakes occur? Obj. #7
    27. 27. <ul><li>Mutation: a change in the sequence of DNA nucleotides (A, G, C, & T) </li></ul><ul><li>What happens to mutations? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usually, immediate repair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Coolness : p53 gene, “angel of the chromosome” </li></ul></ul>Mutations Obj. #7
    28. 28. <ul><li>Two types of cells in your body: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>sex cells - sperm and egg cells; used in reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body cells - non-reproductive cells; have other functions </li></ul></ul>Mutations Obj. #7,9
    29. 29. <ul><li>2 types of cells in your body = 2 different places mutations can happen </li></ul>Mutations Sex cell mutations -get passed on (good or bad?) -can be severe -embryo may die Body cell mutations -not passed on -cell can lose function -if mutations build up or increase cell division? _______ Obj. #7,9
    30. 30. <ul><li>2 different kinds of mistakes = </li></ul><ul><li>2 different kinds of mutations </li></ul><ul><li>Point mutations </li></ul><ul><li>vs </li></ul><ul><li>Frameshift mutations </li></ul>Mutations Obj. #7
    31. 31. <ul><li>Point mutations - change in single base pair; only ONE spot in sequence changed </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: THE FAT C AT ATE THE RAT </li></ul><ul><li>becomes </li></ul><ul><li>THE FAT B AT ATE THE RAT </li></ul>Mutations Obj. #7
    32. 32. <ul><li>Frameshift mutations - addition or deletion of a single base pair </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: THE F AT CAT ATE THE RAT </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes </li></ul><ul><li>THE ATC ATA TET HER AT? </li></ul><ul><li>Is a point mutation or frameshift worse? </li></ul>Mutations Obj. #7
    33. 33. Mar 16 Mar 17 <ul><li>DNA Test! </li></ul>Learning Log No Learning Log Got a notecard? Got your notebook? Got your brain? Good!
    34. 34. <ul><li>Why are different cells in your body so different if they all have the same DNA in them? </li></ul>Gene Expression Obj. #9 Brain cells Liver cells
    35. 35. <ul><li>Why are different cells in your body different if they all have the same DNA in them? </li></ul>Gene Expression Obj. #9 Answer? Differential gene expression. Remember how iRNA could “shut off” certain genes? Your different cells do that all the time – they only use PART of the instructions (DNA) they have.