Read the directions.Invite participants to share with their table mates once they have completed the prompt.Ask several folks to share.Query the room: How many chose to write a definition? How many chose the explanation? How many chose to write the metaphor?Share with participants that each choice represents one of the three intelligences that Robert Sternberg posits in his Triarchic Theory of Intelligence. He suggests that there are three intelligences: Analytic (school smarts, column 1); Practical (real-life smarts, column 2s); and Creative (creative smarts, column 3). ASK: Why is this important to our work in DI? Suggest that students do not all arrive at a teacher’s goal in the same manner. Thy take different routes, just as they took different routes in the above activity. Maybe differentiation is critical for our student’s continuing success??
This slide should alert the participants that you are moving on in the presentation.Explain to them that we are moving away from the introductory material into the first large chunk of information that has to do with the classroom environment in the differentiated classroom.
Use slides 62-67 as needed to support participants ’understanding that CC standards can be teased apart into Knows, Understands and Dos that are the building blocks of RIGOROUS lesson design.It will be important to make a distinction at this time between Unwrapping standards” and identifying KUDs.At first blush, many participants might think that this is “same-old, same-old.Be sure that they understand that what the classroom practitioner does is finer-grained than either the SDE or central office.AND, it is a critical step in indentifying the learning destination for all students in a differentiated classroom.
Share with participants that we are moving from choice to tiering. Tiering is another strategy practitioners us in the differentiated classroom.Tgiering is different from choice because it responds to a teachers realization that the most critical difference among his/her students is readiness to learn or prior knowledge. This it is different from choice that responds to differences in students’ interests, questions or learning style preferences.It is often referred to as “the meat and potatoes” of the differentiated classroom.
There are many ways to address readiness issues in the classroom.Advise participants that we want to honor all techniques, but will focus on tiering during the remainder of Day 2.We focus on tiering because it is so versatile.
So, what is an operational definition of tiering?Invite participants to consider this one and askAsk: Has anyone heard this term before? If so, in what context?
This picture represents a metaphor for tiering.Explain that we start out on a tricycle, graduate to training wheels, and then finally we are off on two wheels.Invite them to work in pairs or threes to create their own metaphor.Share out.The next slide is layered wedding cake, in case they cannot come up with any additional ideas.
Slides 59-63, dissect the tiering process. As such, it like taking apart the layers of an onion.Walk through the process with them so that they can see that we can adjust curriculum components to increase or decrease the COGNITIVE LOAD for advanced or struggling learners, respectively. The discussion is based upon each participant’s understanding of “representative topic.” A representative topic is specific subject matter that is selected purposefully as a focus for teaching and learning because of the topic’s potential for illuminating the essential concepts, principles, and skills in a related discipline . For example, in LA a representative topic might be a specific short story or poem. In science, it might be a particular planet, plant or animal, etc.The strategies on this slide explain how to DECREASE the cognitive load.
The strategies on this slide explain how to use the representative topic to INCREASE the cognitive loadSay to participants, “Let’s see how these techniques might apply to real-world lessons in fourth grade social studies and kindergarten or 1st grade mathematics.
The strategies on this slide explain how to use the representative topic to INCREASE the cognitive loadSay to participants, “Let’s see how these techniques might apply to real-world lessons in fourth grade social studies and kindergarten or 1st grade mathematics.
Check to make sure participants see that this curriculum goal (KUD) is important in fourth grade. IT is! This slide contains a series of lessons on culture, and the representative topics being used are Latin American cultures.Invite participants to read through the tiered versions of the lesson. Ask them to work with a partner to tease apart how each is slightly different from the other.Make sure to point out that this slide focuses primarily on the curriculum component, CONTENT. (See left-hand column.)Don’t leave this slide until you are comfortable that participants understand how the content was modified/adjusted for students to address readiness to learn.
Review this slide with participants. Did they identify all the differences in their previous conversation?Now you can point our that we did modify a couple of other curriculum components to address readiness or prior knowledge.You can also point out that it is hard to isolate these components because in the real world, we adjust several all at once without really separating them.Share that participants can analyze another example, should they feel the need to do so.Move to the next set of two slide, or go on to other examples, slides 64-92.
The next set of three slides explain for participants how to create their own tiered lesson in a curriculum unit of their choice.Follow the instructions on slides 93-94.Provide participants with large copies of slide 96 which is a template to guide their work.Share with them that they will transfer their work to large pieces of flip chart paper that they can hang up on a wall when they are done.Suggest that each group appoint a reporter who will be able to share out the tiered lesson later in the presentation. Invite participants to keep in mind the questions on slide 95. By answering these questions as they move along, they will help to ensure high-quality teired lessons for all learners, struggling or advanced.
Break participants into small groups to support their work on tiering. They might consider breaking them into grade level teams or content specific teams.Rotate to each group to make sure they have identified the KUDs correctly. Provide support as necessary.Decide whether you will have groups share out or do a Gallery walk.When participants have completed their work (about 30 minutes or so), debrief with them. What was easy? What was hard? Proactive choice for their students?
Differentiation• Read “Sharing” slide• Choose a column and create your definition
1. Pick a column Sharing 2. 3. Write or think silently Be ready to shareWrite a definition Explain to a new Develop aof differentiation teacher what metaphor, analogy that you believe differentiation is in or visual symbol clarifies its key terms of what he/she would be doing in the that you think intent, elements represents and classroom—and why.and principles---in clarifies what’s The definition should other words—a important to help the new teacher definition that understand about develop an image of could clarify differentiation in differentiation thinking in your action school or district 2
Myths About Differentiated Instruction• Individualized instruction a la special education• Chaotic• Homogenous grouping all the time• Tailoring the same suit of clothes• Expecting more of advanced learners and less of struggling learners• New• It’s formulaic; there are a finite number of “correct” strategies that always work 3
Differentiated Instruction Is… A proactive decision-making process that considers critical student learning differences and the curriculum. Differentiated instruction decisions are made by teachers and are based on: (1) formative assessment data, (2) research-based instructional strategies, and (3) a positive learning environment. **Districts should adapt and adopt their own** 4
THE DI DECISION-MAKING PROCESS CONTENT INTRODUCTION INITIAL INSTRUCTION PREASSESSMENT DIAGNOSIS What are the CRITICAL DIFFERENCES in my students?How can I MODIFY one or more of the 10 curriculum components to address difference? CHOICE or TIERING ALTERNATIVES Adjusting the Depth Adjusting the Breadth MANAGEMENT OF FLEXIBLE, SMALL GROUPS POST ASSESSMENT: Impact of DI 5
The Common Sense of Differentiation• Crafting an environment that actively supports each student in the hard work of learning (see Carol Dweck articles)• Having absolute clarity about the learning destination (KUDs)• Persistently knowing where students are in relation to the destination all along the way (assessment)• Adjusting teaching and learning to make sure each student arrives at the destination (and, when possible, moves beyond it. (tiering and/or choice) 6
Unwrapping Standards vs Identifying KUDsUnwrapping Standards Identifying KUDs• Usually done by central • Completed by classroom office personnel/SDE teacher (s) of a targeted unit• Identifies “big ideas” • The process may capitalize on essential questions, and the essential questions and concepts, by grade level large conceptual understandings• May be accompanied by completed by central office/SDE the development of • Takes a “finer-grain” approach common assessments to identifying what students should know, understand and be able to do at the completion of a unit 7
CCSS.7.R.L.9 Integration of Knowledge and Ideas: Compare and contrast afictional portrayal of a time, place, or character and a historicalaccount of the same period as a means of understanding how authors of fiction use or alter history UNDERSTAND DO KNOW 9
CCSS.7.SP.2 Use data from a random sample to draw inferences about a populationwith an unknown characteristic of interest. Generate multiple samples (orsimulated samples) of the same size to gauge the variation in estimates or predictions. For example, estimate the mean word length in a book by randomly sampling words from the book; predict the winner of a school election based on randomly sampled survey data. Gauge how far off the estimate or prediction might be. UNDERSTAND DO KNOW 10
Which ONE Difference Will I Address With Tiering?• Prior Knowledge?• Learning Styles?• Interests?• Readiness to Learn? 11
Ways to Address Readiness• Books, materials/resources at • More/Fewer examples different reading levels • Pacing adjustments• Highlighted texts • Books on tape• Materials in a student’s first • Models of quality at the language student’s level• Small group instruction • Skill-based learning centers• Peer teaching• Varied homework •Tiering assignments • Different vocabulary lists• Provide more/less • Increase/Decrease the background information abstractness • Increase/Decrease the familiarity 12
What is TIERING?• Tiering is a strategy teachers use to increase the match between students’ various levels of learning readiness to the content and instruction of particular lessons• It is NOT TEARING!! 13 13
Another Metaphor for Tiering • Tricycle • Two-wheeler with training wheels • Two wheeled bicycle 14 14
Tiering for Struggling Learners: DECREASING the Cognitive Load • What is the representative topic? – How can I break it down into smaller parts? – Can I change it into something more familiar? – Can I provide more examples to help ensure understanding? – Can I gather reading materials that are at students’ instructional reading level?Instructional reading level: Students recognize between 90%-95% of the words 15Independent reading level: Students recognize more than 95% of the words 15
Tiering for Advanced Learners: INCREASING the Cognitive Load• What is the representative topic? – Make the RT less familiar – Make the RT more abstract – Use the “big idea” in the RT to require students “bridge” across time periods, cultures, disciplines – Require comparison/contrast among two examples of the RT – Require increasingly more difficult thinking skills (e.g., inference-making, synthesis (Learning activity) – Use more challenging reading materials (Resources) 16 16
CT SS Grade 7: World Regional Studies• Standard 1: Content Knowledge 1.3 (Significant events and themes in world history/international studies – (5) Explain how a civilizations/nation’s arts, architecture, music and literature reflect its culture and history• Standard 1: Content Knowledge 1.4 (Geographical space and place) – (9) Identify selected countries and determine the advantages and challenges created by their geography – (10) Examine historical events and factors that help explain historical events and contemporary issues.• Standard 1: Content Knowledge 1.10 (How limited resources influence economic decisions) – (21) Analyze how resources or lack of resources influenced a nation/region’s development 17 17
Designing a Tiered Lesson Plan: Grade 7Curr. Novice Apprentice PractitionerComp.Content Research the internet for Given a variety or Given a variety or information about Mexico, resources on one resources on twoGoal Guatemala, Panama and Latin American different Latin Nicaragua. Specifically, look for culture (maps American cultures information about each culture’s political and (maps political and literature, music, textiles, folklore, resource maps, resource maps, religious traditions, dance and pictures of art pictures of art work, cuisine. Create a Gallery Walk that work, early early civilizations, showcases, in pictures with civilizations, literary selections), captions, the similarities and literary selections), students will compare differences among the cultures of students will and contrast the these two (4) Latin American propose a theory cultures and propose a cultures about why the theory about why the http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_ culture evolved the two cultures evolved American_culture#Central_Americ way it did. differently. a 18
Peeling Back the Tiered Lesson Plan Curr. Novice Apprentice Practitioner Comp.Content Research on two cultures Research on Research two (DECREASE cognitive load) ONE culture cultures; compareGoal Use of Internet (Resources) PLUS develop and contrast, Gallery Walk (Different theory propose theory product) (INCREASE about why cultures cognitive load) evolved differently http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latin_ (Learning (INCREASE American_culture#Central_Am activity) cognitive load erica through content and Primary sources learning activity) (Resources) Primary sources Theory (resources) (Different Theory (Different product) product) 19
New World Explorers: Grade 8Know: Names of New World Explorers Key Events of contribution Principle / GeneralizationUnderstand: Exploration involves risk Exploration involves costs and benefits Exploration involves success and failureDo:Group A: Using a teacher provided list of resources –primary and secondary—and a list of productoptions, show how two key explorers took chances, experienced success and failure, andbrought about both positive and negative change to North America. Provide proof/evidence.Group B: Using reliable and defensible research, as well as primary and secondary sources, develop away to show how the New World explorers were paradoxes. Include and go beyond the unit’sprinciples. 20
New World Explorers: Grade 8 CCSS Standards• STRAND 1.1 – Significant events and themes in United States history. – 1. Analyze how specific individuals and their ideas and beliefs influenced U.S. history. –• STRAND 2.1 Access and gather information from a variety of primary and secondary sources including electronic media, recordings and text. • 1. Gather information from multiple print and digital sources. • 2. Cite specific textual evidence to support analysis of primary and secondary sources. • 3. Determine the central ideas or information of a primary or secondary source and provide an accurate summary. • 5. Analyze how a text makes connections among, and distinctions between, individuals, ideas, or events. • 6. Conduct short and sustained research projects based on focused questions, demonstrating understanding of the subject under investigation. 21
6th Grade VocabularyCC.6.R.I.4 CT.6.R.1Craft and Structure: Determine Vocabulary: Use word origins to determine thethe meaning of words and meaning of unknown words.phrases as they are used in atext, including figurative, CT.6.R.2connotative, and technical Vocabulary: Use abstract, derived root words,meanings prefixes and suffixes from Greek and Latin to analyze the meaning of complex words, e.g., process, procession. CT.6R.3 Vocabulary: Define vocabulary critical to the meaning of content-area texts and use that knowledge to interpret the texts , e.g., property in science or social studies 22
6th Grade Vocabulary EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2Mr. Jenkins pretests his Mr. Forrester pretests his students on thestudents on the required lists required lists of vocabulary words at twoof vocabulary words at two week intervals. Students have a vocabulary notebook in which they write the next tenweek intervals. When words. Each writes the word, a definition,students demonstrate at least and a sentence. Students work in pairs,80% mastery on the list, they correcting each other’s work, which is thendo not have to write out the reviewed by the Mr. Forrester. Peerswords, a definition, and an administer the quizzes. Words missed areaccompanying sentence. He recycled into next week’s list. Repetitionsdoes require all students to help students internalize key spellingtake the posttest at the end of patterns. Students who demonstrate mastery are provided with other words thatthe two week period because emphasize roots and/or students’ ownhe want to make sure everyone personal list of vocabulary words.really knows the words. 23
Algebra, Grade 8 CCSS Mathematics: Standard 8- (Gr. 6-8): Students will understand and apply basic and advanced properties of functions and algebra EXAMPLE 1 Ms. Stanwood introduced this beginning lesson on slope by explainingwhat students would learn: “Today we will learn about slope, which is animportant concept in algebra. We will spend about three weeks on this unitand by the time we are finished with the unit, you will see how civil engineers,builders, surveyors, and landscapers use this concept in their work. She invited students to arrange themselves in groups of four becausethey were about to begin a scavenger hunt about slope (www.quia.com).Small groups were a way of differentiating because they were responsive tostudents’ individual questions. As groups, they were going to use the web tofind the answers to the following questions: – What is slope? – What letter of the Greek alphabet is used to represent slope? – If a line rises from let to right is the slope positive or negative? – What is the slope of a vertical line? Horizontal line? While students were working, she rotated among the groups,responded to questions, and listened to students’ questions. Later in theperiod, Ms. Stanwood assigned them some homework, which she knew wouldhelp students internalize the concept of slope and answer that arose in theirsmall group work.
Algebra, Grade 8 CCSS Mathematics: Standard 8- (Gr. 6-8): Students will understand and apply basic and advanced properties of functions and algebra EXAMPLE 2 Mr. Grenke prepared to begin a 3 week algebra unit on slope with his 8th graders. From pastexperiences, he anticipated that there would be critical differences among his students with respect toconceptual understanding and abstract thinking, so he gathered a variety of resources as he planned histeaching strategies. He would begin with a motivating problem, that could “double” as a hook: “How SteepCan a Ramp Be?” (www.figurethis.org) He would listen carefully to students’ mathematical discourse aboutthe problem to diagnose students’ foundational understanding and misconceptions. Based upon hisdiagnosis, he would initially divide the students into two groups: those who had incomplete or missingfoundational concepts and those who already had some knowledge of the concepts and skills. For the first group, he would scaffold mini-lessons around the concepts students didn’t know. Hemight use a geoboard applet (www.enc.org) that allows students to use virtual elastics and pegs to drawconclusions about rise and run. He would use demonstration, the concept attainment model, Socraticquestioning and feedback to support the first group’s learning. He went on the web and located another real-world problem related to slope that would extend thesecond group’s understanding of slope and rate of change: “The Lost House Keys.”(http://mathcentral.uregina.ca) Working in a small group, he would invite students to discuss and answer aseries of open-ended questions: What is this problem about? What are some of the factors that areimportant when you set up the ladder? What is causing the steepness if the ladder to change? What is therelationship between the amount of vertical distance covered with respect to that covered by the horizontaldistance? How is this problem similar/different to the one done by the whole class? Can rise and run beexpressed mathematically? What new questions do I/we have? He planned to use Socratic questioning andfeedback to support the second group’s learning. Based upon student learning at the outset of this lesson, he would reevaluate group membershipbefore proceeding with the next phase of the lesson, determine their learning needs and the best teachingstrategy to support their learning.
Phy. Fitness and Weight Training Analyze the effects of regular participation in a self-selected program of moderate to vigorous physical activities EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2Mary Trainer, a high school Jean Mee, a PE teacher and coach, was deeply committed to PE teacher and basketball teaching to her PE standards. Equally important, she knew coach, was a strong that her students varied widely on their physical abilities believer in health, fitness and interests. Some girls wanted to look better in jeans; and wellness. She was others wanted to quit eating junk foods. Many of her familiar with her physical young men longing for a “six-pack,” wanted upper body, education standards and torso and abdominal training suggestions. knew that each student needed a wellness plan to support life-long health. With her students’ help, she conducted pre and post assessments to not only ascertain each student’s beginning level of fitness, but also their end point and physical To that end, she insisted wellness growth. Collaboratively with individual and small that all of her students groups of students, she developed wellness plans around: completed prescribed exercises in 4 categories: flexibility, muscular • Aerobic Capacity (running, tread mill programs, stairs,strength/endurance, upper cycling, elliptical training, walking)body strength, and aerobic • Upper Body Muscle Strength and Endurance (Shoulder endurance. She provided girdle exercises, bicep crunches, triceps extensions, chestdifferent proficiency levels presses, lat pulls) for her young men and • Lower Body Muscle Strength and Endurance (ham string women. extensions, compliments of leg presses and extensions) • Flexibility (yoga and general stretching) • Back, Abdominal and Torso Strength and Flexibility 26
Grade 8+: Biology, Mitosis Content Standard: Heredity and Evolution-What processes are responsible for life’s unity and diversity? . EXAMPLE 1 Mrs. Clark began her unit on cell reproduction by asking students to workin small groups. She asked them to write down what they already knew aboutmitosis. She reconvened the class and discovered than some students had moreprior knowledge than others. She decided to form cooperative groups for theduration of the unit. She would place students with more background knowledgestrategically in the cooperative groups to assist those who were less familiar withthe process of mitosis. She then proceeded to introduce key vocabulary (cell, cell division,chromosome, DNA, interphase, prophase, metaphase, anaphase, telophase).Later, she asked students—in small groups—to visitwww.sfscience.com/admin/pdf/6A2_1BLM.htm and complete a worksheet inpreparation for a class discussion. After the class discussion, she had pairs ofstudents visit The Cell Cycle websitehttp://www.biology.arizona.edu/CELL_BIO/tutorials/cell_cycle/cells3.html thatincluded an animated presentation about mitosis. She reconvened the whole classto review their learnings. 27
Grade 8+: Biology, Mitosis Content Standard: Heredity and Evolution-What processes are responsible for life’s unity and diversity . EXAMPLE 2 Ms. Sims knew at the outset of her unit on cell division that her28 students varied widely in prior knowledge. Furthermore, her ELLstudents would need extra support. She began the lesson with anengaging animation, Anatomy of a Splinter, to illustrate how cellsmultiply to help repair injuries. She knew this would make her studentscurious about the topic. She grouped her grade-level learners together into three groupsof seven students. She placed one of her ELL students in each of thegrade-level groups. Each group was responsible for viewing the website,The Cell Cycle:http://www.biology.arizona.edu/CELL_BIO/tutorials/cell_cycle/cells3.html and creating a poster illustrating and explaining two of the phases(controlled choice). Ms. Sims provided her ELL students a vocabularytable that included everyday terms to describe each of the phases. Postermaterials included construction paper that was cut into the shapes ofchromosomes and cells that could be used to graphically reproduce theprocess. . 28
Grade 8+: Biology, Mitosis Content Standard: Heredity and Evolution-What processes are responsible for life’s unity and diversity . EXAMPLE 2 Above-grade level students wereasked to view a University of ArizonaBiology site for on online onion root tipactivityhttp://www.biology.arizona.edu/Cell_BIO/activities/cell_cycle/cell_cycle.htmlStudents were invited to categorize 36pictures of onion root tip cells in variousstages of the cell cycle, categorize themaccording to stage, determine thepercentage of cells at each stage andgenerate an hypothesis about which stagetakes the longest. 29
Mitosis: Key WordsInterphase Prophase Metaphase Anaphase Telophase• Mother • Daughter • Move to the • Separate • Move apart chromosome chromosome center • Divide • Move to• Father • Stick • Line up opposite chromosome together places• Make copies • Combine• Replicate • Condense• Duplicate• Double 30
Sample Teacher Prompts for Stages in Second Language Acquisition Stage Characteristics: Approx. Teacher The student: Time Prompts• Preproduction • Has minimal 0-6 months • Show me… comprehension • Circle the… • Does not verbalize • Who has… • Nods “yes” and • Point to… “no” • Draws and pointsHill, J. D & Bjork, C. L. (2008). Classroom instruction that works with English Language Learners. Alexandria, VA: ASCD 31
Stage Characteristics Approx. Teacher Time Prompts Early • Has limited 6 months- Yes/No questions comprehension. 1 year Either/or questionsProduction • Produces one- or two- Who…? word responses. What…? • Uses key words and How many…? familiar phrases. • Uses present-tense verbs. Speech • Has good 1-3 years • Why…? comprehension. • How…?Emergence • Can produce simple • Explain…? sentences. • Question requiring • Makes grammar and phrase or short- pronunciation errors. sentence answer • Frequently misunderstands jokes. 32
Stage Characteristics Approx. Teacher Time Prompts Inter- • Has excellent 3-5 years • What would happen comprehension. if…?mediate • Makes few • Why do you think…?Fluency grammatical errors. • Questions requiring more than a sentence responseAdvanced • Has a near-native 5-7 years • Decide if… level of speech. • Retell Fluency 33
Fine Arts: Beginning Instrumental Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music. EXAMPLE 1 EXAMPLE 2John Vee, a long-time, high Scott Shuler, a long-time high school music teacher, alwaysschool music teacher, loved auditioned his instrumental students to determine their skill his instrumental music level. Although he assigned students to “chairs” as they classes. He especially progressed through their high school years, he also recognized loved his ensemble group his responsibility to cultivate achievement and talent in all of histhat often played at school students. Thus, he mixed his top students in different sections, and town functions. asking all students to not only carry the melody, but also the He always auditioned his harmony parts. players to ascertain their Furthermore, he often disaggregated his orchestra. For example. skill level and—as they when he knew that the wind players were strong and reasonably progressed through their comfortable with a piece of literature, he excused them from high school years—moved whole group practice. This strategy provided him with more time them through the “chairs” to work with the rest of the orchestra members who needed in the orchestra. His top more intense practice and a smaller teacher-student ratio.students were able to carry the rest of the students, who often “made it” by He used his chamber groups to further differentiate his simply playing along curriculum and instruction. His chamber groups were often co- imitating the section operative clusters of students, and this grouping strategy allowed leaders. Some of his top him tailor the literature to the expertise of the students.students continued to playafter high school, including For his highest level students, Scott always found time to work two students who now with them on solos for school and community based programs. play with the Philadelphia Orchestra. 34
Instrumental Music– Literature • Grouping: (e.g., chamber One critical student ensembles, solos, jazz band) learning difference • Technical demand of the piece – Interest • Complexity of the music notation – Learning Profile • Rhythmic demand • Range of the instrument’s – Readiness/Prior requirements knowledge– Part Assignment – Motivation– Techniques for approaching instruments in each family (e.g., percussion) 35
Guided PracticeFor next time…bring a standard and materials to create a tiered lessonIt will be helpful to preview the slides that follow and read a provided article or visit differentiation central (http://differentiationcentral.com/resources.html) 36
Your Turn• Identify a grade level and select a unit of your choice.• Check your standards to make sure you are “on target.”• Write down the “essential understandings:” facts, concepts and principles (KUDs) related to your unit.• Anticipate ONE critical student difference that might emerge from preassessment data (e.g. prior knowledge, reading, learning rate).• Brainstorm 2-3 different ways to differentiate the unit to attend to the targeted student difference.• Vary the content, teaching strategies, learning activities, resources, and/or products to address students’ readiness levels• Explain in 3-4 sentence why you believe the differentiation will address your targeted student difference. 37
Creating a Tiered Lesson1. Identify grade level and subject2. Target the concepts/principles that may require tiering3. Target the critical students difference to be addressed (e.g., learning rate, prior knowledge, readiness)4. Visualize the differences in prior knowledge for above-grade level, on- grade level and below grade level students5. Vary the content, teaching strategies, learning activities, resources, and/or products to address students’ readiness levels6. Reflect 38
Reflecting On My Tiered Lesson • Did I stick to my concepts/principles? • Is each of the tiers respectful to learners? • Do I have rubrics to share with students? • What resources will I need? • How will my students be grouped? • What other management issues do I need to consider? (e.g. anchor activities, how completed work will be shared?) 39
Designing a Tiered Lesson PlanComponent Novice Apprentice PractitionerGoalTeachingLearningProductResources 40
Creative Tension…Any change comes from creative tension.Creative tension is the differencebetween the vision (where we want tobe) and current reality (where we are). Byharnessing creative tension, we can learnto use the energy it creates to movecurrent reality toward the vision. Our roleis to make sure that there is both anaccurate picture of the current reality anda complete picture of the desired future.Senge, P. (1990). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of The Learning Organization. New York: Doubleday 41
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