D GIN ESI N G C M O (FO M TI VE) O MN RA ASSESSM TS ENA DA P T E D I N P A RT F ROM K . B RA DL E Y , A. L A RE A U, A ND S .P A L MA
OUR DAYEssential QuestionsWhat are common assessments?How do common assessments connect to other powerful instruction and assessment practices?What are the components of a quality common assessment?What are the benefits of using a common assessment to both teachers and students?ObjectivesDifferentiate between and among different types of assessments and their purposesImprove our assessment literacy through deeper understanding of the assessment design processCreate a first draft common assessment for use in grade and/ or content areaReceive tools for evaluating and improving quality of common assessments Outcome Common assessment creation
BEGINNING THE PROCESS… Which standard will you be teaching? What areas of concern do you have based on recent assessments? Why? Design a Common Formative Assessment that will provide you with a laser-like focus to plan precise instruction for students’ needs!
THE POWER OFCOMMON ASSESSMENTS Not standardized tests, but rather teacher- created, teacher owned assessments that are collaboratively scored and that provide immediate feedback to students and teachers.
WHAT ARE COMMON FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS?Assessments for learning administered to all studentsProvides a predictive value of how students are likely to do on the next level of assessment in time for teachers to make instructional adjustmentsItems collaboratively designed by participating teachers; represent common, agreed upon expectationsItems represent priority standards onlyItems aligned to district and state testsResults analyzed in Data Teams in order to differentiate instruction
TASTE TESTINGWhen the cook tastes the soup, that’s formative; when the guests taste the soup, that’s summative. 7
BALANCED ASSESSMENT SYSTEMA VISUAL REPRESENTATION OF RESPONSIBILITY FORMATIVE BENCHMARK/INTERIM SUMMATIVETEACHERPRINCIPALDISTRICT
PRIORITIZING STANDARDSEndurance: Will this standard or indicator provide students with knowledge and skills that will be of value beyond a single test date? Is this knowledge you need in life? Example: Proficiency in writing will endure throughout students’ academic career and professional life.Leverage: Will this provide knowledge and skills that will be of value across multiple disciplines? Example: Reading a graph will help students be successful in math, social studies, science and language arts.Readiness: Will this provide students with essential knowledge and skills that are necessary for success in the next grade level, high stakes test or the next level of instruction? Example: Students’ knowledge of letters and their sounds is essential for learning to read text.
THE TEN STEPS FOR DESIGNING COMMON FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS Laying the Standards Foundation: Steps 1-61. Choose an Important Topic2. Identify Matching Priority Standards3. “Unwrap” Matching Priority Standards4. Create a Graphic Organizer5. Determine the Big Ideas6. Write the Essential Questions
THE TEN STEPS FOR DESIGNING COMMON FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS Creating the Assessment: Steps 7-107. Write Selected Response Items8. Write Constructed-Response Items Match the language9. Write Essential Questions – Big Idea Directions of the standard10. Create Scoring Guides for Constructed-Response Items
THE TEN STEPS FOR DESIGNING COMMON FORMATIVE ASSESSMENTS Laying the Standards Foundation: Steps 1-61. Choose an Important Topic2. Identify Matching Priority Standards
Grade Level AuthorsAssessment Topic Matching Priority Standard Number Grade Specific Standard
The Ten Steps for Designing Common Formative AssessmentsLaying the Standards Foundation: Steps 1-63. “Unwrap” Matching Priority Standards4. Create a Graphic Organizer
Circle the verbs (skills) Number Grade Specific Standard Reading Describe characters in a story (e.g. their traits, Standard for motivations, or feelings) and explain how their Underline the nouns Literature #3 actions contribute to the sequence of events. (concepts) Skills Concepts Describe Characters in a story Explain Actions Contribute Sequence of Events
Number Grade Specific Standard Skills Concepts
TASK DECONSTRUCTION WHAT DO STUDENTS NEED TO KNOW AND BE ABLE TO DO TO BE SUCCESSFUL?Student Know: Know: Know: Do: Do: Do: Character Trait and Story Write to Comprehend Follow feeling events explain story multi-step vocabulary directions A a a a a a a B a ? a a a a C a no a no a no D a no no no no no E ? no no no no no
TASK DECONSTRUCTION WHAT DO STUDENTS NEED TO KNOW AND BE ABLE TO DO TO BE SUCCESSFUL?Student Know: Know: Know: Do: Do: Do: A B C D E
The Ten Steps for Designing Common Formative AssessmentsLaying the Standards Foundation: Steps 1-65. Determine the Big Ideas6. Write the Essential Questions
Big Ideas from “Unwrapped” Priority Standards Authors intentionally create characters with specific traits, motivations and feelings that impact the plot. Understanding a character’s traits, motivations and feelings will allow you to make realistic predictions, and connect to and make inferences about the character, in order to help you better understand what you are reading. Essential Questions Matched to Big Ideas How do a character’s traits, motivations and feelingsEssential questions lead impact the story?students to the big ideas How does understanding a characters traits, motivations and feelings help you better understand what you are reading?
SAMPLE BIG IDEAS AND ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS Essential Questions Big IdeasFacts, opinions, inferences! What’s Knowing the difference betweenthe difference and why should we facts, opinions and inferences helpsknow? you make your own decisions about what you read.What are literary devices? Why do Literary devices enhance andauthors use them? deepen fiction’s impact on the reader.
LET‟S PRACTICE…CHECK OUT THE EXAMPLES…Big Idea:•Essential Question:•
The Ten Steps for Designing Common Formative Assessments Creating the Assessment: Steps 7-10 7. Write Selected-Response Items 8. Write Constructed-Response Items General Guidelines…1. Questions should be written with clear, concise language and be bias- free2. Questions should require students to apply knowledge, rather than recall from memory3. Aim is for 80% of students to get 35-40% of pre-test correct4. Assessment should be a multiple-measure assessment: (selected response, constructed response, essential question)
WRITE SELECTED-RESPONSE ITEMSMain parts: correct and Don‟t use humor – distracters (incorrect, distracts students but plausible) Positive wording, noDistracters reflect negatives(not, never, common except misunderstandings Avoid “all of the above”Clear directions, no or “none of the ambiguity above”“Best” preferable to Vary position of right “correct” answer for answers critical thinking List choices in logical,Answer choices equal in alphabetical or length numerical order we want students to analyze all answer choices
WRITE SELECTED-RESPONSE ITEMSWhich word BEST describes how Jordan feels walking up to Mrs.Radcliff ‟s house?a. excitedb. terrifiedc. hopefuld. confidentWhich line BEST describes why Jordan doesn‟t run away from Mrs.Radcliff ‟s house?a. He knew the bicycle he wanted cost a lot of moneyb. The step creaked. “I can fix that, too.”c. “You are just in time!” said Mrs. Radcliff.d. “I always have hot chocolate this time of day.”
WRITE CONSTRUCTED- RESPONSE ITEMSSet clear and specific context for problem in directionsIndicate what is to be included without “giving it away”Help students perform within time constraints: specify time constraints, acceptable response lengthAlways include a picture in text if mimicking CMT Write sample responses to evaluate question qualityDon‟t confuse writing skills with what you are assessingCritique for bias or possible disadvantage for students Use scoring guide to evaluate student product or performance
WRITE CONSTRUCTED- RESPONSE ITEMS1. What character trait best describes Jordan? Include two events from the text to support your answer.2. What do you think Jordan would do if Mrs. Radcliff acted bossy and crabby? Use two examples from the text to prove your answer.
The Ten Steps for Designing Common Formative AssessmentsCreating the Assessment: Steps 7-109. Write Essential Questions – Big Idea Directions10. Create Scoring Guides for Constructed-Response Items
WRITE ESSENTIAL QUESTIONS How do Jordan‟s traits, motivations or feelings impact the story?How does understanding a characters traits, motivations and feelings help you better understand what you are reading?
QUANTIFY THE FOLLOWING TERMS…Partial (% OUT OF 100)CompleteSomeFewAlwaysOccasionallyAdequate
CREATING A SCORING GUIDEPerformance criteria shared before students begin workContains specific language understood by all: students, teachers, parentsSpecificity is critical – aim for qualitative and quantitative criteriaReferred to frequently during task, then used to assess completed taskClearly linked to standards and assessment itemsTip: Begin by determining goal or proficiency, then increase or decrease levels
CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE SCORING GUIDEScore of 2:• States how Jordan would act (relevant to character traits from text – for example determined or polite)• Includes two specific examples that illustrate Jordan’s character (Examples: “Anything for the bike,” or speaks politely to Mrs. Radcliff, “Yes, ma’am.”)Score of 1:• States how Jordan would act (relevant to character traits from text – for example determined or polite)• Includes one example that illustrates Jordan’s character (Examples: wants a bike, talks nicely)Score of 0:• Irrelevant or inaccurate response
CONSTRUCTED RESPONSE SCORING GUIDEScore of 4: Exceeds Expectations•Score of 3: Meets Expectations•Score of 2: Progressing Towards Expectations•Score of 1: Inaccurate or Incomplete Response•
ANALYZE CFA AND RUBRIC SAMPLESDoes the CFA: Is the rubric language: Contain multi- Specific measures? Measurable Allow you to „see‟ the Observable students‟ thinking? Understandable Highlight concept misconceptions? Matched to task directions Allow you to differentiate instruction?
SHARING GALLERY WALK1) Review each CFA2) Provide feedback: One compliment… Something to consider…
THE TRUE PURPOSE OF ASSESSMENT MUST BE, FIRST AND FOREMOST, TO I NF OR M I NS TRUCTI ONA LD E C I S I ON MAKI NG . L. Ainsworth and D. Viegut, Common Formative Assessments, 2006, p. 21