White Paper on      A Project Manager’s Perspective on Changes to the Guide to the Project Management                     ...
A few other processes have changed process groups, for example, “Manage Project Team” is nowan Executing process; and “Man...
Process Flow Diagrams       The old Process Flow Diagrams have been replaced by Data Flow Diagrams in this edition. At fir...
significant headaches later on in the project. Two deliverables worth noting are the              “Stakeholder register” a...
Inputs                                    Tools & Techniques                      Outputs    1. Project charter           ...
Inputs                                       Tools & Techniques                     Outputs    1. Scope baseline          ...
 Estimate Activity Durations  This process was called “Activity Duration Estimating” in the 3 rd edition. The Inputs and ...
Project Cost Management Estimate Costs    The name of this process used to be “Cost Estimating” in the 3rd edition. With ...
Project Quality Management Plan Quality    The “Quality Planning” process has been renamed “Plan Quality” in the 4 th edi...
Project Communications Management Plan Communications    This process has been renamed from “Communications Planning” and...
Inputs                                       Tools & Techniques                           Outputs    1. Risk management pl...
Inputs                                  Tools & Techniques                Outputs    1.    Risk register                  ...
Inputs                                    Tools & Techniques                                 Outputs              1. Scope...
Project Quality Management     Perform Quality Assurance        The Inputs, Outputs, Tools & Techniques in this process h...
In addition, the stages of team development have been expanded in the PMBOK® Guide as   follows: Forming, Storming, Normin...
Techniques, Interpersonal and Management skills were added. There are also a few small            changes in the Outputs s...
Inputs                                  Tools & Techniques                             Outputs    1.    Project management...
Inputs                              Tools & Techniques                                Outputs    1.    Project management ...
Inputs                                Tools & Techniques                              Outputs    1.    Project management ...
Inputs                                  Tools & Techniques          Outputs    1.    Project management plan              ...
Inputs                                  Tools & Techniques                            Outputs              1.    Procureme...
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White paper changes to the pmbok 4th edition

  1. 1. White Paper on A Project Manager’s Perspective on Changes to the Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK® Guide) Fourth Edition Erika Flora, MS, PMP, ITIL Expert - Principal Consultant, Beyond20, erika.flora@Beyond20.com I. INTRODUCTION On December 31, 2008, the Project Management Institute (PMI®) released the 4 th edition of the PMBOK® Guide, the foundational book used to study and prepare for the Project Management Professional (PMP) exam. On July 1, 2009 the exam changed over to the 4th edition, and project management professionals world-wide now use this new edition to prepare for the PMP exam. So, what has changed? The good news is that many of the core concepts and order of project activities performed are the same as in the 3rd edition. If you took and passed the 3rd edition exam, what you have learned is still valid. If you have studied the 3rd edition material, but have not yet taken the exam, you will, unfortunately, have a lot of process Inputs, Outputs, Tools & Techniques to re- learn and memorize. Overall, the refresh of the new text mainly consolidates and clarifies previously confusing concepts and includes additional concepts that today’s Project Manager deals with. This white paper outlines these changes, in chronological fashion and in line with how projects are actually being performed (i.e. in order of each of the five process groups - Initiating, Planning, Executing, Monitoring and Controlling, and Closing). Thus, it takes a slightly different slant from other white papers on the subject. For a list of changes according to each of the nine Knowledge Areas, see the Preface to and Appendix A of the Fourth Edition in the PMBOK® Guide (pages XXII-XXIII and 349- 357).II. OVERVIEW OF CHANGES General The two prevailing themes with the PMBOK® Guide 4th edition changes are that of “clarity” and “consistency”. In teaching 3rd edition classes, students in every class always had some confusion around conflicting definitions and have lots of questions around why some documents are mentioned and why others weren’t as an Process Inputs, Outputs, Tools or Techniques. The 4 th edition seems to do a good job of addressing and alleviating these types of issues. Project Management Processes First, there are now 42 processes detailed in the fourth edition of the PMBOK® Guide, as compared to 44 processes in the 3rd edition. Two new processes have been added, two have been removed, and four other processes have been combined into two, specifically within Project Procurement Management, as detailed below: New Removed Consolidated Identify Stakeholders Develop Preliminary Plan Purchases and Acquisitions and Collect Requirements Scope Statement Plan Contracting > Plan Procurements Scope Planning Request Seller Responses and Select Sellers > Conduct Procurements Page 1 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  2. 2. A few other processes have changed process groups, for example, “Manage Project Team” is nowan Executing process; and “Manage Stakeholders” is now a Monitoring and Controlling process.Also, to improve readability and consistency throughout, all 42 processes are now in verb-nounformat. For example, “Scope Definition” has been renamed as “Define Scope”. Since ProjectManagers are performing these activities within their projects, it makes sense that the processeswould be written this way. For those of us used to the process names as they are written in the 3 rdedition, it takes a little practice to get the names straight in the 4 th edition. However, long term,this is a much more intuitive way to refer to the processes we perform.Portfolio, Program, and Project ManagementIn chapter 1 of the PMBOK® Guide 4th edition, there is additional information on the differencesbetween managing a Portfolio, Program, and Project as many project managers are now findingthemselves managing programs and even portfolios; and it is important to understand and be ableto communicate the differences between them. I find this is a common question from teammembers and other non-Project Managers in many organizations.Enterprise Environmental Factors and Organizational Process AssetsFurther, there is a clearer differentiation between Enterprise Environmental Factors (EEFs) andOrganizational Process Assets (OPAs). These are detailed in the table below. Also, EEFs and OPAsserve as inputs (and outputs) to more processes in the 4th edition and closer line up with real life. Enterprise Environmental Factors Organizational Process Assets Any or all external environmental factors Any or all process related assets, from and internal organizational environmental any or all of the organizations involved in factors that surround or influence the the project that are or can be used to project’s success. These factors are from influence the project’s success. These any or all of the enterprises involved in the process assets include formal and project, and include organizational culture informal plans, policies, procedures, and and structure, infrastructure, existing guidelines. The process assets also resources, commercial databases, market include the organizations’ knowledge conditions, and project management bases such as lessons learned and software. historical information.Project Initiation and Planning documentsThere have been some changes involving the Project Management Plan, Project Charter, andProject Scope Statement. Namely, the Project Management Plan and its subsidiary plans havebeen more clearly defined and separated out. There has also been a clearer distinction betweenplans and other Project documents (see page 350 in the PMBOK® Guide for a list of these items). Inaddition, there is a clearer distinction between the components of the Project Charter and theProject Scope Statement (the Preliminary Project Scope Statement has gone away). Thedifferences are detailed on page 351 of the PMBOK® Guide 4th edition.Requested Changes, Corrective and Preventive Actions (CAPA), and Defect RepairsWhereas, these items were separated in the 3rd edition, these have all been consolidated under theheading of “Change Requests”. Rather, the PMBOK® Guide defines different types of requests. Page 2 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  3. 3. Process Flow Diagrams The old Process Flow Diagrams have been replaced by Data Flow Diagrams in this edition. At first glance, they look complex and a bit scary, but they actually contain a lot of helpful information. I highly recommend taking a look at them at the beginning of each chapter. Interpersonal and Other Skills In Chapter 1 of the PMBOK® Guide, the characteristics needed by a Project Manager have been pared down and clarified from five to three as follows: Knowledge (of project management), Performance (the PM is able to accomplish what they set out to do in a project), and Personal (leadership, etc.). Also, more information has been added to the PMBOK® Guide in Appendix G on the interpersonal and other soft skills needed and carried out by Project Managers. The 3rd edition did not contain a lot of information on topics like leadership, persuasion, communication, etc. Thankfully, the 4th edition expands on these “soft” skills regularly employed by Project Managers. Additional new and expanded concepts are also detailed throughout this white paper, in the appropriate section below.III. INITIATING PROCESS GROUP This is the stage of a project where a Project Manager is assigned, and the PM is responsible for obtaining approval for the project and determining who needs to be involved. In the 4 th edition, the process entitled “Develop Preliminary Project Scope Statement” is removed. Previously, understanding the difference between this document and the Project Charter was somewhat confusing. As a result, the authors have done away with the Preliminary Scope Statement. In addition, they have added the process “Identify Stakeholders”. This activity was implied in the 3 rd edition and is now officially called out. Changes to the specific process are detailed below. Project Integration Management  Develop Project Charter This process has changed somewhat. The concept of a “Business Case” is a new input, and the Tools and Techniques have been pared down to only include “Expert Judgment”. Below is the process as it appears in the 4th edition. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project statement of work 1. Expert judgment 1. Project charter 2. Business case 3. Enterprise environmental factors 4. Organizational process assets Figure 4-2: Develop Project Charter: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Project Communications Management  Identify Project Stakeholders This is a new process in the 4th edition and is pictured below. I really like that this has been added as its own process because this is a significant activity early on and can avoid Page 3 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  4. 4. significant headaches later on in the project. Two deliverables worth noting are the “Stakeholder register” and “Stakeholder management strategy”. The Stakeholder Register is similar in nature to the Risk Register and details, for example, the names of project stakeholders, their interests, influence, communications strategy, and documents they should receive. This is kind of a cool addition to the PMBOK® Guide. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project charter 1. Stakeholder analysis 1. Stakeholder register 2. Procurement documents 2. Expert judgment 2. Stakeholder 3. Enterprise environmental management factors strategy 4. Organizational process assets Figure 10-2: Identify Stakeholders: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.III. PLANNING PROCESS GROUP One the project is approved, the Project Manager can now begin planning project details. In this process group, most of the processes have remained the same. Typically only the name has changed. The two Procurement processes have been combined into a single process and refined to give clarity around these activities. Details on the specific planning processes are detailed below. Project Integration Management  Develop Project Management Plan The Inputs and Tools & Techniques have been updated and simplified to include the elements below. Extraneous information like the Project Management Information System (PMIS) and PM Methodology has been removed from this process. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project charter 1. Expert judgment 1. Project 2. Outputs from planning management plan processes 3. Enterprise environmental factors 4. Organizational process assets Figure 4-4: Develop Project Management Plan: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Project Scope Management  Collect Requirements The name of this process was changed from “Scope Planning” in the 3rd edition to better align with verb-noun format. In the 4th edition, the Inputs have been simplified; however, there are a number of new Tools & Techniques and Outputs introduced that are worth investigating further (see below). Page 4 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  5. 5. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project charter 1. Interviews 1. Requirements 2. Stakeholder register 2. Focus groups documentation 3. Facilitated workshops 2. Requirements 4. Group creativity management plan techniques 3. Requirements 5. Group decision traceability matrix making techniques 6. Questionnaires and surveys 7. Observations 8. Prototypes Figure 5-2: Collect Requirements: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Define Scope The name of this process has also been updated, from “Scope Definition”. In this process, the Inputs, Outputs, Tools & Techniques have changed somewhat. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project charter 1. Expert judgment 1. Project scope 2. Requirements documentation 2. Product analysis statement 3. Organizational process assets 3. Alternatives 2. Project document identification updates 4. Facilitated workshops Figure 5-4: Define Scope: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Create WBS This process has also been pared down and simplified in the 4 th edition (see below). Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project scope statement 1. Decomposition 1. WBS 2. Requirements documentation 2. WBS dictionary 3. Organizational process assets 3. Scope baseline 4. Project document templates Figure 5-6: Create WBS: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Project Time Management Define Activities The name of this process has been updated from “Activity Definition” in the 3 rd edition. The Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs for this process have been pared down and simplified in the 4th edition as shown below. Page 5 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  6. 6. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Scope baseline 1. Decomposition 1. Activity list 2. Enterprise environmental 2. Rolling wave planning 2. Activity attributes factors 3. Templates 3. Milestone list 3. Organizational process assets 4. Expert judgment Figure 6-3: Define Activities: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Sequence Activities This process was called “Activity Sequencing” in the 3rd edition. In this process, the Inputs, Outputs, Tools & Techniques have changed somewhat as shown below. The Arrow Diagramming Method (ADM) has gone away as a Tool & Technique. With the advent of tools like Microsoft® Project, ADM is hardly ever used in real life, so I was glad to see it go. In addition, the Inputs and Outputs for this process have been simplified. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Activity list 1. Precedence diagramming 1. Project schedule 2. Activity attributes method (PDM) network diagrams 3. Milestone list 2. Dependency 2. Project document 4. Project scope statement determination activities 5. Organizational process 3. Applying leads and lags assets 4. Schedule network templates Figure 6-5: Sequence Activities: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Estimate Activity Resources This process has been updated to be in verb-noun format, from “Activity Resource Estimating” in the 3rd edition. Some of the Inputs for this process have also changed. For example, Resource Calendars has taken the place of “Resource availability”, and Project Management Plan has been removed as an Input. The Outputs have also been simplified (from five outputs to three). Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Activity list 1. Expert judgment 1. Activity resource 2. Activity attributes 2. Alternatives analysis requirements 3. Resource calendars 3. Published estimating 2. Resource 4. Enterprise environmental data breakdown factors 4. Bottom-up estimating structure 5. Organizational process 5. Project management 3. Project document assets software updates Figure 6-8: Estimate Activity Resources: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Page 6 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  7. 7.  Estimate Activity Durations This process was called “Activity Duration Estimating” in the 3 rd edition. The Inputs and Outputs of this process have changed slightly with the 4th edition. The “Project Management Plan” is no longer an Input; and the Output “Activity attributes (updates)” is now called “Project document updates”. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Activity list 1. Expert judgment 1. Activity duration 2. Activity attributes 2. Analogous estimating estimates 3. Activity resource 3. Parametric estimating 2. Project document requirements 4. Three-point estimates updates 4. Resource calendars 5. Reserve analysis 5. Project scope statement 6. Enterprise environmental factors 7. Organizational process assets Figure 6-10: Estimate Activity Durations: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Develop Schedule This process name has been updated from “Schedule Development” in the 3 rd edition. Further, under Inputs, “Enterprise Environmental Factors” has been added, and the “Project Management Plan” has been removed. In Tools & Techniques, “Project Management Software” has been renamed as a “Scheduling Tool”, and “Adjusting Leads and Lags” is now called “Applying leads and lags”. Under Tools & Techniques, the “Scheduling Model” and “Applying Calendars” have been removed. The Outputs have been significantly pared down (from eight outputs to four) as shown below. As with the 3rd edition, this remains as one of the longer processes with a number of process elements contained within. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Activity list 1. Schedule network 1. Project schedule 2. Activity attributes analysis 2. Schedule baselines 3. Project schedule network 2. Critical path method 3. Schedule data diagrams 3. Critical chain method 4. Project document 4. Activity resource 4. Resource leveling updates requirements 5. What-if scenario analysis 5. Resource calendars 6. Applying leads and lags 6. Activity duration estimates 7. Schedule compression 7. Project scope statement 8. Scheduling tools 8. Enterprise environmental factors 9. Organizational process assets Figure 6-12: Develop Schedule: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Page 7 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  8. 8. Project Cost Management Estimate Costs The name of this process used to be “Cost Estimating” in the 3rd edition. With the 4th edition, the Inputs of this process have significantly changed. With the exception of EEFs and OPAs, all Inputs are new. The Tools & Techniques have changed somewhat. “Expert judgment” and “Three-point estimates” are new. “Project Management software” has changed to “Project management estimating software”, and “Determine resource cost rates” has gone away. Outputs have been simplified (from four outputs to three). In the 3rd edition, the three deliverables - Project scope statement, WBS, and WBS dictionary - were all called out as separate Inputs to this process. In the 4th edition, however, these have been consolidated into a single “Scope baseline” Input. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Scope baseline 1. Expert judgment 1. Activity cost 2. Project schedule 2. Analogous estimating estimates 3. Human resource plan 3. Parametric estimating 2. Basis of estimates 4. Risk register 4. Bottom-up estimating 3. Project document 5. Enterprise environmental 5. Three-point estimates updates factors 6. Reserve analysis 6. Organizational process 7. Cost of quality assets 8. Project management estimating software 9. Vendor bid analysis Figure 7-2: Estimate Costs: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Determine Budget The name of this process was “Cost Budgeting” and is now “Determine Budget”. For the Inputs, “Project scope statement”, “WBS”, and “WBS dictionary” have been consolidated into a single Input, the “Scope baseline”. The “Cost management plan” has been removed, and a few Inputs were renamed slightly. Organizational Process Assets (OPAs) were added. In Tools & Techniques, “Parametric estimating” has been removed, and “Expert judgment” & “Historical relationships” has been added. Last, the Outputs have been simplified (from four outputs to three). Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Activity cost estimates 1. Cost aggregation 1. Cost performance 2. Basis of estimates 2. Reserve analysis baseline 3. Scope baseline 3. Expert judgment 2. Project funding 4. Project schedule 4. Historical relationships requirements 5. Resource calendars 5. Funding limit 3. Project document 6. Contracts reconciliation updates 7. Organizational process assets Figure 7-4: Determine Budget: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Page 8 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  9. 9. Project Quality Management Plan Quality The “Quality Planning” process has been renamed “Plan Quality” in the 4 th edition. Also, there are now four Cost of Quality types as “Failure Costs” has been divided into “Internal Failure Costs” and “External Failure Costs”. In the process Inputs, Only “Enterprise environmental factors” and “Organizational process assets” are the same. All other Inputs are new for this process. In Tools & Techniques, many of these T&Ts are new (five elements have increased to nine). Whereas, the Outputs have been simplified (six outputs have been reduced to five). Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Scope baseline 1. Cost benefit analysis 1. Quality 2. Stakeholder register 2. Cost of quality management plan 3. Cost performance baseline 3. Control charts 2. Quality metrics 4. Schedule baseline 4. Benchmarking 3. Quality checklists 5. Risk register 5. Design of experiments 4. Process 6. Enterprise environmental 6. Statistical sampling improvement plan factors 7. Flowcharting 5. Project document 7. Organizational process 8. Proprietary quality updates assets management methodologies 9. Additional quality planning tools Figure 8-2: Plan Quality: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Project Human Resource Management Develop Human Resource Plan This process was previously called “Human Resource Planning” in the 3 rd edition. Within this process, “Roles and responsibilities”, “Project organization charts”, and “Staffing management plans” were all listed as outputs in the 3rd edition. These, however, have been consolidated into the “Human resource plan” in the 4 th edition. Outside of the process, the number of project interfaces contained in the PMOBOK Guide® increased from three to five to include: Organizational, Technical, Interpersonal, Logistical (new), and Political (new). Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Activity resource 1. Organization charts and 1. Human resource requirements position descriptions plan 2. Enterprise environmental 2. Networking factors 3. Organizational theory 3. Organizational process assets Figure 9-2. Develop Human Resource Plan: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Page 9 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  10. 10. Project Communications Management Plan Communications This process has been renamed from “Communications Planning” and has been slightly expanded in the 4th edition. “Stakeholder register” and “Stakeholder management strategy” are new Inputs. Whereas, “Project scope statement” and “Project Management plan” have been removed as Inputs. “Communication models” and “Communication methods” are new Tools & Techniques; and “Project document updates” is a new Output. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Stakeholder register 1. Communication 1. Communications 2. Stakeholder management requirements analysis management plan strategy 2. Communication 2. Project document 3. Enterprise environmental technology updates factors 3. Communication models 4. Organizational process 4. Communication methods assets Figure 10-6. Plan Communications: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Project Risk Management Plan Risk Management This process was changed from “Risk Management Planning”. Other than the name change, only the Inputs of this process have changed. The “Project Management plan” was removed; and the Inputs “Cost management plan”, “Schedule management plan”, and “Communications management plan” have been added as pictured below. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project scope statement 1. Planning meetings and 1. Risk management 2. Cost management plan analysis plan 3. Schedule management plan 4. Communications management plan 5. Enterprise environmental factors 6. Organizational process assets Figure 11-2. Plan Risk Management: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Identify Risks This process was previously called “Risk Identification” in the 3 rd edition. In this revised process, there are significantly more Inputs and Tools & Techniques. As a result, this has become a large process with numerous elements. Page 10 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  11. 11. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Risk management plan 1. Documentation reviews 1. Risk resister 2. Activity cost estimates 2. Information gathering 3. Activity duration estimates techniques 4. Scope baseline 3. Checklist analysis 5. Stakeholder register 4. Assumptions analysis 6. Cost management plan 5. Diagramming techniques 7. Schedule management plan 6. SWOT analysis 8. Quality management plan 7. Expert judgment 9. Project documents 10. Enterprise environmental factors 11. Organizational process assets Figure 11-6. Identify Risks: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis The only thing different about this process is the new name (previously named the “Quality Risk Analysis” process) and the addition of “Expert judgment” as a Tool & Technique. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Risk register 1. Risk probability and 1. Risk register updates 2. Risk management plan impact assessment 3. Project scope statement 2. Probability and impact 4. Organizational process matrix assets 3. Risk data quality assessment 4. Risk categorization 5. Risk urgency assessment 6. Expert judgment Figure 11-8. Perform Qualitative Risk Analysis: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis In this process, the name (previously called “Quantitative Risk Analysis”) and Inputs have changed slightly. The Inputs “Project scope statement” and “Project Management plan” have been removed; and additional plan documents, namely “Cost management plan” and “Schedule management plan” have been added as new Inputs. Also, there are now two Tools & Techniques listed under “Data gathering and representation techniques” (versus three in the 3rd edition), and “Expert judgment” has been added as a separate Tool & Technique. The “Decision tree analysis” has also been removed as a Tool & Technique. Page 11 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  12. 12. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Risk register 1. Data gathering and 1. Risk register updates 2. Risk management plan representation 3. Cost management plan techniques 4. Schedule management plan 2. Quantitative risk analysis 5. Organizational process and modeling techniques assets 3. Expert judgment Figure 11-11. Perform Quantitative Risk Analysis: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Plan Risk Responses The name of this process has changed from “Risk Response Planning”. In addition, the Tool & Technique “Strategy for both threats & opportunities” has been removed. “Expert judgment” has been added as a Tool & Techniques. Last, “Project document updates” has been added as a new process Output as pictured below. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Risk register 1. Strategies for negative 1. Risk register updates 2. Risk management plan risks or threats 2. Risk-related contract 2. Strategies for positive decisions risks or opportunities 3. Project 3. Contingent response management plan strategies updates 4. Expert judgment 4. Project document updates Figure 11-17. Plan Risk Responses: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. In addition to the process changes, Acceptance has been added a new positive risk response. In the PMBOK® Guide 3rd edition, Acceptance was only seen as a negative response.Project Procurement Management Plan Procurements This process has been consolidated from two processes (“Plan Purchases and Acquisitions” and “Plan Contracting”). Thus, this has become a very detailed and robust Project Management process. Also, the term Contract SOW has changed to Procurement SOW in 4th edition. “Evaluation Criteria” has been renamed “Source Selection Criteria” and additional detail has been included around the different criteria. Page 12 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  13. 13. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Scope baseline 1. Make-or-buy analysis 1. Procurement 2. Requirements 2. Expert judgment management plan documentation 3. Contract types 2. Procurement 3. Teaming agreements statements of work 4. Risk register 3. Make-or-buy 5. Risk-related contract decisions decisions 4. Procurement 6. Activity resource documents requirements 5. Source selection 7. Project schedule criteria 8. Activity cost estimates 6. Change requests 9. Cost performance baseline 10. Enterprise environmental factors 11. Organizational process assets Figure 12-2. Plan Procurements: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.IV. EXECUTING PROCESS GROUP Once all planning activities have been completed, the project is kicked off and enters the Execution phase. Many of the process in this process group have changed to verb-noun format, and two processes have moved to this process group from the Monitoring and Controlling process group. Detailed changes to the specific processes during project execution are detailed below. Project Integration Management  Direct and Management Project Execution The Inputs of this process have been pared down from the 3 rd edition (from seven Inputs to four. Preventive & Corrective Actions and Defect repairs have been consolidated into “Change Requests”); and EEFs and OPAs have been added as Inputs. Under Tools & Techniques, “PM methodology” has been replaced by “Expert judgment”. The process Outputs have also been pared down from seven to five as detailed below. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Expert judgment 1. Deliverables 2. Approved change requests 2. Project management 2. Work performance 3. Enterprise environmental information system information factors 3. Change requests 4. Organizational process 4. Project assets management plan updates 5. Project document updates Figure 4-6. Direct and Manage Project Execution: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Page 13 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  14. 14. Project Quality Management  Perform Quality Assurance The Inputs, Outputs, Tools & Techniques in this process have been pared down significantly (particularly the Inputs) in the 4th edition. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Plan Quality and Perform 1. Organizational 2. Quality metrics Quality Control tools and process assets 3. Work performance techniques updates information 2. Quality audits 2. Change requests 4. Quality control 3. Process analysis 3. Project measurements management plan updates 4. Project document updates Figure 8-8. Perform Quality Assurance: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Project Human Resource Management  Acquire Project Team In this process, the Inputs have been consolidated to include only EEFs, OPAs, and the Project Management Plan. Under Outputs, “Staffing management plan (updates)” has been renamed “Project management plan updates”. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Pre-assignment 1. Project staff 2. Enterprise environmental 2. Negotiation assignments factors 3. Acquisition 2. Resource calendars 3. Organizational process 4. Virtual teams 3. Project assets management plan updates Figure 9-7. Acquire Project Team: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.  Develop Project Team Within this process, the input “Resource Availability” was renamed as “Resource calendars”. In the Tools & Techniques, “General management skills” was renamed “Interpersonal skills”. Last, “Enterprise environmental factors” has been added as a process Output. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project staff assignments 1. Interpersonal skills 1. Team performance 2. Project management plan 2. Training assessments 3. Resource calendars 3. Team-building activities 2. Enterprise 4. Ground rules environmental 5. Co-location factors updates 6. Recognition and rewards Figure 9-9. Develop Project Team: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Page 14 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  15. 15. In addition, the stages of team development have been expanded in the PMBOK® Guide as follows: Forming, Storming, Norming, Performing, and Adjourning (new). Manage Project Team I like that this process has been moved from the Monitoring and Controlling process group into Executing. The PMBOK® Guide states that it did this because, “the activities are now more proactive to ensure project performance if optimized”. Further the process Inputs have been pared down from nine to five, which make it easier to digest and remember. Under Tools & Techniques, “Interpersonal skills” has been added. In Outputs, “Enterprise environmental factors updates” has been added; and “Change requests” has replaced Corrective Action and Preventive Actions (CAPA). Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project staff assignments 1. Observation and 1. Enterprise 2. Project management plan conversation environmental 3. Team performance 2. Project performance factors assessments appraisals 2. Organizational 4. Performance reports 3. Conflict management process assets 5. Organizational process 4. Issue log 3. Change requests assets 5. Interpersonal skills 4. Project management plan updates Figure 9-11. Manage Project Team: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Project Communications Management Distribute Project Information This process has been renamed from “Information Distribution” in the 3 rd edition. Further, all of the Inputs for this process are new. The Tools & Techniques have been pared down, from four to two; and the only Output remaining is “Organizational process assets updates”. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Communication methods 1. Organizational 2. Performance reports 2. Information distribution process assets 3. Organizational process tools updates assets Figure 10-9. Distribute Information: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Manage Stakeholder Expectations This process was also renamed (from “Manage Stakeholders”) and moved from the Monitoring and Controlling process group into Executing. The PMBOK® Guide states that this change was made to reflect that, “the activities are now more about doing than recording/reporting”. In this process, the Inputs have been expanded from two to five to include: Stakeholder register, Stakeholder management strategy, PM plan (which contains the Communications plan), Issue log (moved from T&T), and the Change log. In Tools & Page 15 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  16. 16. Techniques, Interpersonal and Management skills were added. There are also a few small changes in the Outputs section. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Stakeholder register 1. Communication methods 1. Organizational 2. Stakeholder management 2. Interpersonal skills process assets strategy 3. Management skills updates 3. Project management plan 2. Change requests 4. Issue log 3. Project management 5. Change log plan updates 6. Organizational process 4. Project document assets updates Figure 10-11. Manage Stakeholder Expectations: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Project Procurement Management  Conduct Procurements This process has been consolidated from two 3rd edition processes, namely “Request Seller Responses” and “Select Sellers”. It combines numerous elements from these two processes and is, as a result, one of the longer processes in the 4 th edition (as pictured below). Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Bidder conferences 1. Selected sellers 2. Procurement documents 2. Proposal evaluation 2. Procurement 3. Source selection criteria techniques contract award 4. Qualified seller list 3. Independent estimates 3. Resource calendars 5. Seller proposals 4. Expert judgment 4. Change requests 6. Project documents 5. Advertising 5. Project 7. Make-or-buy decisions 6. Internet search management plan 8. Teaming agreements 7. Procurement updates 9. Organizational process negotiations 6. Project document assets updates Figure 12-4. Conduct Procurements: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.V. MONITORING AND CONTROLLING PROCESS GROUP In the Monitoring and Controlling process group, about half of the processes have been renamed in verb-noun format. Also, two processes that were in this group in the PMBOK® Guide 3rd edition have been moved to the Execution process group in the 4th edition. Project Integration Management  Monitor and Control Project Work There have been significant wording changes to this process. Page 16 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  17. 17. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Expert judgment 1. Change requests 2. Performance reports 2. Project 3. Enterprise environmental management plan factors updates 4. Organizational process 3. Project document assets updates Figure 4-8. Monitor and Control Project Work: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Perform Integrated Change Control This process has been renamed (from “Integrated Change Control) and has been significantly pared down as an overall process in the 4th edition. In Tools & Techniques, “Change control meetings” is a new element. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Expert judgment 1. Change request 2. Work performance 2. Change control meetings status updates information 2. Project 3. Change requests management plan 4. Enterprise environmental updates factors 3. Project document 5. Organizational process updates assets Figure 4-10. Perform Integrated Change Control: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Project Scope Management Verify Scope This process was previously named “Scope Verification” in the 3 rd edition. In addition, some of the Inputs and Outputs for this process have been renamed and/or changed. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Inspection 1. Accepted 2. Requirements deliverables documentation 2. Change requests 3. Requirements traceability 3. Project document matrix updates 4. Validated deliverables Figure 5-11. Verify Scope: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Control Scope The “Control Scope” process has been renamed (from “Scope Control”) and has also been pared down (for example, numerous Inputs were consolidated under the “Project Management plan”). Page 17 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  18. 18. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Variance analysis 1. Work performance 2. Work performance measurements information 2. Organizational process 3. Requirements assets updates documentation 3. Change requests 4. Requirements traceability 4. Project management matrix plan updates 5. Organizational process 5. Project document assets updates Figure 5-13. Control Scope: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Project Time Management Control Schedule The “Control Schedule” process has been renamed (from “Schedule Control”). In addition, The Inputs, Outputs, and Tools & Techniques have slightly changed in the 4th edition. In particular, in Tools & Techniques, there are a number of new elements, i.e.: Resource leveling, What-if scenario analysis, Adjusting leads and lags, and Schedule compression. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Performance reviews 1. Work performance 2. Project schedule 2. Variance analysis measurements 3. Work performance 3. Project management 2. Organizational information software process assets 4. Organizational process 4. Resource leveling updates assets 5. What-if scenario 3. Change requests analysis 4. Project management 6. Adjusting leads and lags plan updates 7. Schedule compression 5. Project document 8. Scheduling tool updates Figure 6-15. Control Schedule: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Project Cost Management Control Costs “Control Costs” used to be called “Cost Control” in the 3 rd edition. There are some additional changes to the “Control Costs” process itself as well with the 4th edition. For example, in Tools & Techniques, “Performance measurement analysis” has been renamed “Earned value management”; and “To-complete performance index” is introduced as a new Tool & Technique (and includes, for example, BAC and EAC). Page 18 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  19. 19. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Earned value 1. Work performance 2. Project funding management measurements requirements 2. Forecasting 2. Budget forecasts 3. Work performance 3. To-complete 3. Organizational process information performance index assets updates 4. Organizational process 4. Performance reviews 4. Change requests assets 5. Variance analysis 5. Project management 6. Project management plan updates software 6. Project document updates Figure 7-7. Control Costs: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Project Quality Management Perform Quality Control There are some small wording changes in this process with the 4th edition. Note: This is one of the larger, more complex processes contained in the PMBOK® Guide. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Cause and effect 1. Quality control 2. Quality metrics diagrams measurements 3. Quality checklists 2. Control charts 2. Validated changes 4. Work performance 3. Flowcharting 3. Validated deliverables measurements 4. Histogram 4. Organizational 5. Approved change requests 5. Pareto chart process assets 6. Deliverables 6. Run chart updates 7. Organizational process 7. Scatter diagram 5. Change requests assets 8. Statistical sampling 6. Project management 9. Inspection plan updates 10. Approved change 7. Project document requests review updates Figure 8-10. Perform Quality Control: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Project Communications Management Report Performance This process has been renamed (was previously “Performance Reporting” in the 3rd edition) and its elements have been pared down in the 4th edition (as shown below). In addition, the Tools & Techniques terminology is, for the most part, new. Page 19 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  20. 20. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Variance analysis 1. Performance reports 2. Work performance 2. Forecasting methods 2. Organizational information 3. Communication methods process assets 3. Work performance 4. Reporting systems updates measurements 3. Change requests 4. Budget forecasts 5. Organizational process assets Figure 10-13. Report Performance: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Project Risk Management Monitor and Control Risks This process used to be named “Risk Monitoring and Control” and has been updated to the verb-noun format in the 4th edition. The process elements are pretty much the same as they appear in the 3rd edition, with some small wording changes. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Risk register 1. Risk reassessment 1. Risk register updates 2. Project management plan 2. Risk audits 2. Organizational 3. Work performance 3. Variance and trend process assets information analysis updates 4. Performance reports 4. Technical performance 3. Change requests measurement 4. Project management 5. Reserve analysis plan updates 6. Status meetings 5. Project document updates Figure 11-19. Monitor and Control Risks: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.Project Procurement Management Administer Procurements This process was renamed from “Contract Administration” in the 3 rd edition. Wording of process elements, however, is very similar to the 3rd edition. There have been only some minor changes made. Page 20 of 21 www.Beyond20.com
  21. 21. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Procurement documents 1. Contract change control 1. Procurement 2. Project management plan system documentation 3. Contract 2. Procurement 2. Organizational 4. Performance reports performance reviews process assets 5. Approved change requests 3. Inspections and audits updates 6. Work performance 4. Performance reporting 3. Change requests information 5. Payment systems 4. Project 6. Claims administration management plan 7. Records management updates system Figure 12-6. Administer Procurements: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved.VI. CLOSING PROCESS GROUP As seen with the 3rd edition, there are two processes contained within the Closing process group. The wording of both processes has been revised. Process specific changes are detailed below. Project Integration Management  Close Project or Phase This process was renamed from “Close Project” in the 3rd edition. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Expert judgment 1. Final product, service, 2. Accepted deliverables or result transition 3. Organizational process 2. Organizational process assets assets updates Figure 4-12. Close Project or Phase: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Project Procurement Management Close Procurements This process used to be called “Contract Closure” in the 3 rd edition and has been updated to follow the verb-noun format. Inputs Tools & Techniques Outputs 1. Project management plan 1. Procurement audits 1. Closed procurements 2. Procurement 2. Negotiated settlements 2. Organizational documentation 3. Records management process assets system updates Figure 12-8. Close Procurements: Inputs, Tools & Techniques, and Outputs A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge-Fourth Edition (PMBOK® Guide). ©2008 Project Management Institute, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Page 21 of 21 www.Beyond20.com

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