Quantifying Emissions Right

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A holistic approach to assessing the climate-positive effects of ICT.

A holistic methodology is necessary for assessing the potential reduction of CO2
e emissions. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a well-established method and can be used for comparing emissions created in different scenarios. Standardized LCA methods can be used to identify solutions with the lowest CO2e emissions.

They provide society as a whole with the methods to assess a large number of possible solutions, to quantify the magnitude of potential reductions, and to show where these reductions could take place.

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Quantifying Emissions Right

  1. 1. a holistic approach to assessing the climate-positive effects of ICT A holistic methodology is necessary for assessing the potential reduction of CO2 e emissions. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is a well-established method and can be used for comparing emissions created in different scenarios. Standardized LCA methods can be used to identify solutions with the lowest CO2 e emissions. They provide society as a whole with the methods to assess a large number of possible solutions, to quantify the magnitude of potential reductions, and to show where these reductions could take place. ericsson White paper 284 23-3193 Uen | February 2013 Quantifying emissions right
  2. 2. Quantifying emissions right – A holistic transformation 2 Climate change is one of the major global challenges of our time. To prevent it from severely impacting almost every facet of life in the world, scientific consensus points to a need to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) – measured in terms of CO2 equivalent (CO2 e) – by as much as 80 percent by 2050. Often the focus has often been on making incremental reductions to CO2 e emissions in areas where levels are at their highest, without it having a negative impact on the economy. But there is also an important – and to large extent still untapped – opportunity to drive economic growth by implementing transformative solutions. To achieve the scale of reductions needed to slow climate change, we must replace traditional methods, processes and systems with smarter, more efficient ones. In many instances, these solutions are enabled by the ICT sector, and broadband constitutes the foundation of a resource-efficient infrastructure that can deliver many different services in a low-carbon way. Unless we take a holistic view, however, we risk of ending up with ineffective solutions for climate mitigation. A holistic transformation Collect data Define processes and boundaries Assess CO2e impacts Figure 1: Overview of the process of assessing climate-positive solutions.
  3. 3. Quantifying emissions right – A holistic transformation 3 The first step in quantifying emissions is to determine where they occur and to understand their current levels. Once emissions levels and the areas where reductions could be made have been identified and assessed, it is possible to change operating models, support systems and behaviors. It is here that the ICT sector plays an important role. Figure 1 shows a scale.The message conveyed by this illustration is that the same function can be delivered either in a new way, which has the potential to transform society and its carbon dependence (represented by the light scale pan), or based on traditional services (represented by the heavy scale pan) with emissions that are reduced only in an incremental way. A holistic methodology is needed to understand the complexity of large industrial systems and user behaviors, and ultimately for assessing the potential reductions of CO2 e emissions. The LCA methodology constitutes a well-established methodology for assessing potential CO2 e emissions, and can be used for comparing the emissions originating from different scenarios. Particularly, it could be used for comparing a situation involving the adoption of ICT with a reference situation – that is, when using existing conventional systems. Ericsson considers LCA to be an excellent tool for identifying opportunities to improve environmental performance and for understanding the potential impact of new solutions. In contrast, LCA is not suitable for quantitative product benchmarking and product performance legislation.This is because of uncertainties in data and modeling – which are an intrinsic part of the methodology – due to the complexity of the reality this methodology is used to assess. This paper acknowledges the importance of LCA – especially its ability to provide an understanding of the carbon abatement potential of ICT solutions by presenting: how standardized LCA methods offer a holistic approach to assessing the potential reduction of future CO2 e emissions to identify solutions with low CO2 e emissions that can replace traditional solutions the results of two case studies. The holistic approach offered by LCA is especially useful for evaluating the potential of ICT solutions to reduce CO2 e emissions in other sectors not traditionally associated with ICT. Indeed, the LCA-based case studies are used to illustrate how the introduction of an ICT solution can reduce CO2 e emissions. Potential of ICT to reduce overall CO2 e By replacing physical products with services, and by helping people to use resources more efficiently, ICT-based solutions can improve basic services while reducing CO2 e emissions. Within the realm of ICT, broadband provides the most effective foundation for a resource- efficient infrastructure that can deliver many different services in a low-carbon way – for instance, via machine-to-machine, machine-to-human or human-to-human communication. The SMARTer 2020 ICT industry study [1], published in December 2012 by the Global e-Sustainability Initiative (GeSI), estimates that ICT-enabled solutions have the potential to reduce annual emissions of GHGs by 16.5 percent (9.1Gt CO2 e) by 2020. In economic terms, ICT-enabled energy efficiency translates into potential savings of about USD 1.9 trillion. ICT-enabled carbon efficiency can be introduced through a variety of solutions, such as: virtual meetings smart buildings cloud computing e-health (health care informatics over the internet) and m-health (mobile e-health) smart grids smart logistics and intelligent transport systems e-learning (technology-enhanced learning) and m-learning (mobile e-learning) dematerialization
  4. 4. Quantifying emissions right – taking a holistic view 4 Historically, several methods have been used to analyze the effect of introducing ICT solutions to replace traditional services and thereby reduce CO2 e emissions. However, few studies have been designed to include all possible aspects of potential impacts and reductions. In many cases, stakeholders have tended to focus only on particular stages and activities of the life cycle of the assessed ICT solution – for example, the electricity consumption of products during operation. Furthermore, many studies have included only user equipment and left out the impact caused by the network infrastructure. Scenario-based studies have however demonstrated that comprehensive LCAs are, in fact, necessary to enable a thorough understanding of the environmental impact of ICT solutions. During the past year, the availability and quality of methods used in LCAs of ICT applications have much improved as prominent standardization organizations have produced standards designed to provide guidelines on performing LCAs of ICT-based products, networks and services (in this paper, all of these are referred to as ICT solutions).These initiatives, which are supplementary to the International Organization for Standardization’s ISO 14040 [2] and ISO 14044 [3] standards, include: the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) standard ETSI EE TS 103 199 Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of ICT equipment, network and services; General methodology and common requirements [4] the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Recommendation L.1410 Methodology for the assessment of the environmental impact of information and communication technology goods, networks and services [5]. These standards include requirements on how to assess the first order environmental impact of an ICT solution (that is, the impact stemming from activities associated with the actual manufacture and use of a product, network or service) as well as its second order environmental impact (that is the changes in impact of traditional services which are enabled by the ICT solution). Since these standards are now in place, the industry should increase the use of comprehensive LCAs to help the stakeholders of the society gain a deeper understanding of the potential of ICT- based solutions to reduce CO2 e emissions. The adoption of holistic LCA methodologies: enables companies to prioritize between ICT solutions based on their impact on sustainability enables and guides policy makers to support balanced decisions regarding sustainability provides a means of making comparisons between ICT-based solutions and other kinds of solutions helps to place the focus on the total level of energy usage and CO2 e emissions and to highlight the potential for CO2 e reductions in business cases, thereby showing the benefits of investing in ICT. Taking a holistic view
  5. 5. Quantifying emissions right – Assessing the potential of ICT 5 To quantify the potential of ICT solutions to reduce CO2 e emissions, it is necessary to assess, from a life cycleperspective,theenvironmentalimpactofboththeICTsolutionandtheconventionalsystemofwhich it reduces the impacts (hereafter called the reference system). For instance, an ICT solution such as video conferencing may reduce the need for travel. In our studies, we have found it important to include the potential impact of network infrastructure when making such assessments. Access to ICT has a direct and measurable impact on society, the environment and economic development. In some cases – depending on the ICT solution – it might be necessary to consider both fixed and mobile broadband to analyze the total environmental impact of the solution. The standardized LCA methodology provides a systematic approach to the assessment and comparison of the cumulative environmental impacts of two different systems.The assessment includes: the definition of a system’s goal and scope, functional unit and system boundaries; inventory and data collection (LCI); and impact assessment (LCIA). Finally, it includes the comparison of the systems and interpretation of results, see Figure 21 . This paper briefly describes the main activities involved in an assessment, but the reader is encouraged to refer to the previously mentioned standards for more details. 1 In Figure 2 the term “ICT based system” is used to denote the assessment target, which could be an ICT product, network or service (in other words, an ICT solution). Assessing the potential of ICT Figure 2: Calculation procedure for the comparative assessment. (Source: ETSI TS 103 199 [4]. ITU-T L.1410 [5] includes a similar figure) Comparision interpretation Reference system • Definition of goal and functional unit • Definition of scenario Definition of system boundaries LCI LCIA LCI LCIA Definition of system boundaries ICT based system
  6. 6. Quantifying emissions right – Assessing the potential of ICT 6 Definition of goal, functional unit and system boundaries The first thing to do is to define the goal and the functional unit applicable to the assessment. The functional unit is a reference unit for the results of the LCA – for example, results could be presented per meeting or per year of operation.The functional unit needs to be applicable to both the ICT system and the reference system. The next step is to define both the ICT system and the reference system with respect to the processes and boundaries.The assessment boundaries are made up of the processes and boundaries of the ICT solution to be analyzed and the reference system it impacts.To set the scope of the analysis it is necessary to understand the changes in use of other services that result from implementing the ICT solution. The scope of the assessment includes the emissions from the use of the new ICT solution as well as its embodied emissions. In the same way, both direct (operational) and embodied emissions associated with the reference systems should be considered if possible. For instance, for a travel- and transport-based system, the assessment includes processes such as extraction, production and distribution of fuels, production of vehicles, and operation of infrastructure for all travel and transportation associated with the solution – for example, airport operation. Life cycle inventory (LCI) and definition of scenario for the ict solution When assessing the ICT system a number of areas need to be considered. Some examples are given below. When assessing a mobile-broadband solution, it is important to take into account: the volume of associated data traffic user profiles and behavior, including types of mobile devices being used the characteristics of mobile-network access the core or transmission network and specified data centers. Fixed broadband has many different user profiles with individual types of PCs, modems, or home-network setups. Access sites and data traffic may be aggregated to form a total or average ICT solution user profile for all users or for an entire company, organization or region. By comparing the amount of data associated with a specific ICT solution and the total amount of data handled by the network, a fair share of the network’s impact could be allocated to the solution and included in the assessment. For data centers, this kind of allocation is appropriate. For some equipment, such as PCs and mobile phones, the use time is a more relevant basis for allocation. This table presents some examples of elements to consider for user equipment. Another important activity to consider is the impact of the operator’s business activities (network operation and maintenance). Important elements to consider Comments Type of user equipment (PC, smartphone) This information is needed to model manufacturing impact and operation characteristics Use time and standby operation This is used to determine electricity consumption. The actual performance depends on user behavior Electricity consumption for network access The type of access and the use time are used to quantify network access. Data traffic cannot be used because most electricity consumption relates to network access standby Electricity mix in the region studied All electricity consumption during the use stage can be related to the specific region Table 1: Important elements to consider when assessing the CO2 e emissions of user equipment.
  7. 7. Quantifying emissions right – Assessing the potential of ICT 7 LCI of the reference scenario – CO2 e emissions profiles for travel, transport and the use of buildings Figure 3 outlines the CO2 e emissions related to travel and use of buildings based on published data, and illustrates specific kinds of impacts related to such activities. The distribution of emissions for car travel is valid for most kinds of road transport, but the contribution made by manufacturing varies with vehicle lifetimes. In the same way, the profile for air freight is similar to that given for air travel2 . However, compared with air travel, less of the impact of airport operation and construction can be allocated. The profiles presented here are generalized. To make more specific assessments, one needs to know the type and amount of energy that is consumed by the reference system and so on. Data collection and calculation Data for both systems is collected from a variety of sources, such as LCA databases, field studies and statistics published via outlets such as government-agency websites. In order to compare different systems, it’s crucial to collect real-world data relating to the use of the assessed service in the reference system as well as when ICT is adopted. If real-world data is not available, the systems could be modeled based on similar solutions. Also, scenarios are useful for enabling a deeper understanding of how service usage impacts the climate. The availability of published LCA data for the infrastructure of reference systems – for example, the production of cars and construction of factories and roads – is limited. Also, there is little published data available on road infrastructure (such as street lighting, gas and service stations, car dealers, and parking facilities) that can be linked to road transport. In some cases it may therefore be necessary to consider the full life cycle of the ICT solution, but only the use stage of the reference system – in other words, the fuel consumed by a car and so on. With this approach, the estimated saving potential when applying the ICT solution may be underestimated. 2 In the diagram, the bar “Others” for air travel represents the uncertainty that exists with regard to various other GHG emissions and their uncertain effects attributed to aircraft, including high-altitude emissions and their effects. /pkm (/tonne*km)/pkm (/tonne*km) 100100 PercentPercent High uncertaintyHigh uncertainty ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? ?? High uncertaintyHigh uncertainty High uncertaintyHigh uncertainty Car travelCar travel Car manufacturing Car manufacturing Road infrastructure Road infrastructure OthersOthersFuel supplyFuel supply 00 2020 4040 6060 8080 /m2 (/person)/m2 (/person) 100100 PercentPercent Building operation Building operation Energy supplyEnergy supply Building construction Building construction Renovation etc.Renovation etc.Fuel supplyFuel supply 00 2020 4040 6060 8080 /pkm (/tonne*km)/pkm (/tonne*km) 100100 PercentPercent Air travelAir travel Airport operation and ground transport Airport operation and ground transport Aircraft and airport construction Aircraft and airport construction OthersOthersFuel supplyFuel supply 00 2020 4040 6060 8080 Figure 3: Average CO2 e emissions related to car and air travel, as well as emissions related to use of buildings.
  8. 8. Quantifying emissions right – Assessing the potential of ICT 8 For the ICT solution, some LCA data about mobile- and fixed-broadband networks and products has already been published. For example, for quite some time, Ericsson has performed LCAs relating to communication networks (including mobile phones), and there are also studies published on PC assessments, for example. It is recommended for assessments to include the fuel- and energy-supply chains – in other words, the stages of extraction, production and distribution. The same models and data could be used for both the reference system and the ICT solution. Life cycle impact assessment (LCIA) If data is available only in the form of figures relating to energy, fuel consumption and so on, recalculation into CO2 e emissions is done using well-founded emission factors. Comparison of systems After the CO2 e assessment for each system is complete, it is possible to compare the two scenarios and evaluate the potential of the ICT solution to reduce CO2 e emissions. The total results of the analysis give the potential reduction in CO2 e between the systems, which could be expressed as a reduction ratio. The reduction ratio represents the direct and embodied CO2 e emissions from the ICT solution, set in relation to the potential savings in direct and embodied emissions that the ICT solution enables. To fully understand the results and what they imply, the effects of uncertainties introduced by the data, adjustments, allocations and scope limitations must be analyzed.
  9. 9. Quantifying emissions right – conclusion 9 One of the most significant ways of achieving substantial reductions in CO2 e is by shifting from a high-carbon physical infrastructure to a low-carbon virtual infrastructure based on the evolving information society and smart technology – what we call ICT. Much of the focus to date has been on reductions in sectors with high-carbon emissions, such as energy and transport. However, it is just as important to understand how rollout of low-carbon solutions and their enabling infrastructure could affect CO2 e emissions. Investments in broadband, for example, are paving the way for ICT solutions, such as the increased use of virtual meetings to enhance teleworking; the rollout of telemedicine services; and smart homes, where energy management plays a central role in replacing traditional high-carbon solutions. To support the transition to a low-carbon Networked Society, it is necessary to understand the extent to which new solutions will reduce CO2 e emissions. This paper stresses the importance of taking a holistic view based on LCA methodology when assessing CO2 e emissions, and acknowledges the usefulness of the ICT-specific LCA standards which have been developed by ITU-T [2] and ETSI [1] for this purpose. Ericsson has studied several services, calculating the potential of ICT solutions to reduce CO2 e emissions compared with traditional solutions. Armed with data from such holistic assessments and the standardized methodologies now available, society can finally begin to: assess a large number of solutions understand the magnitude of reductions (including infrastructure changes over time) understand where these reductions could take place. Conclusion
  10. 10. Quantifying emissions right – case studies 10 Connected buses in Curitiba, Brazil Solution In the 1970s Curitiba, one of Brazil’s largest cities, decided to invest in a Bus RapidTransit (BRT) system to improve its public transport infrastructure. The BRT system included dedicated bus lanes, platforms to enable level boarding, payment before travel, fewer stops, communication with a central transit authority, and coordination with traffic symbols. Now, Curitiba is transforming its BRT system by embedding mobile-broadband modules in city buses and bus stops, connecting them directly to an HSPA network.This is interesting from an environmental perspective because the benefits that this brings to passengers may help to attract more people to the BRT system – people who have used private vehicles to date. Further, the optimization of the traffic flow of the system – for example, avoiding using buses where not needed, as well as being able to support eco-driving – also leads to lower fuel consumption. Scope In this case study, an LCA of the CO2 e emissions related to the BRT system in Curitiba was conducted.The assessment covered both the environmental impact of the ICT solution, as well as of the service it potentially replaces. To refer back to the holistic approach outlined in this paper, the BRT system with the embedded mobile-broadband modules is the ICT solution studied, and the BRT system without this ICT solution applied is the reference system. The ICT solution has just been introduced and its effects can therefore not be measured at this stage. “What if…?” scenarios of the ICT-enabled efficiencies are therefore investigated to gain a better understanding of their abatement potential. For the reference system, it is estimated that commuters complete on average 2.3 million trips per working day, riding the 1,928 BRT buses that are on the road.The operation of each vehicle produces approximately 100 tonnes of CO2 e of direct emissions annually, which equals a total direct emission level for the bus fleet of about 200,000 tonnes. Additionally about 30,000 tonnes of embodied CO2 e from fuel extraction, production and distribution is considered in the assessment. The cars driven in Curitiba (there are about 850,000 of them), produce about 1,500,000 tonnes of direct CO2 e each year, and their fuel supply is estimated to add another 300,000 tonnes CO2 e. The embodied emissions of buses, cars and road infrastructure were not considered in the assessment. The analysis of the ICT solution included the impact of the ICT modules located on each bus and in bus stop equipment, as well as in the centrally located ICT system. The ICT solution on each bus – which includes a computer, reader, validator and console – consumes an average of 20 watts (0-40W). The central ICT solution (including employees, data centers, servers and so on) consumes on average about 4,750W.The central ICT solution operates on low-carbon (mainly hydro) electricity, but the ICT module in each bus operates on diesel-generated electricity. One important assumption is that the embodied impact for the ICT solution is estimated based on the impact caused by similar reference electronic equipment and products. The total ICT solution is estimated to emit about 500 tonnes CO2 e annually including both the direct and embodied emissions (see Figure 4). If the bus operation of the reference system can be made 1 percent more efficient in terms of fuel use (and CO2 e), the potential direct CO2 e savings would be about 2,000 tonnes CO2 e per year or 2,300 tonnes CO2 e per year if embodied emissions are also taken into consideration. Furthermore, if car travel in the reference systems can be reduced by just 0.1 percent, the potential related direct reduction of CO2 e would be about 1,500 tonnes per year or about 1,800 tonnes CO2 e if embodied fuel-supply emissions were also considered. The graph in Figure 4 shows the impact of the ICT solution and the savings it could enable in other sectors according to the assessed scenario. The table also shows the impact of the ICT solution but compares it to the impact of the bus operation and car travel in the reference scenario. Case studies
  11. 11. Quantifying emissions right – case studies 11 Result In this case study a potential reduction scenario for CO2 e is studied for the city of Curitiba’s Bus RapidTransit (BRT) system, which creates a transformative solution by embedding mobile-broadband modules in city buses and bus stops, and connecting them directly to an HSPA network. The total impact for the ICT solution is estimated to be about 500 tonnes CO2 e annually, including both direct and embodied emissions. If the bus operation of the reference system can be made 1 percent more efficient (1 percent less fuel used for the same amount of passengers), or if car travel in that system can be reduced by 0.1 percent or even 1 percent, reduction ratios of 1:4, 1:3 and 1:30 respectively would be experienced. Mobile money in Kenya Solution In rural areas in developing markets such as Kenya, the banking infrastructure is limited.This makes it necessary to travel to the nearest town to pay for water and electricity and to refill a mobile-phone prepaid account. Making a loan repayment requires a day- long expedition to the nearest bank – 12km away – if the money sent from relatives abroad has arrived. With mobile money, all this can be achieved without leaving home, making it unnecessary to travel. The three main use cases are: money transfer, local payment and bank services. When the study was made, there were 6,5 million subscribers who carried out 10 million banking transactions a day, with an average total value of USD 20.These figures have increased since then. Bus operationBus operation “What if buses can operate 1% more efficiently?” “What if buses can operate 1% more efficiently?” Embodied ICT Direct (operation) Fuel supply Embodied ICT Direct (operation) Fuel supply “What if car travel can be reduced by 1%?” “What if car travel can be reduced by 1%?” ICT solutionICT solution Car travelCar travel 1,0001,000 500500 00 -500-500 -1,000-1,000 -1,500-1,500 -2,000-2,000 -2,500-2,500 -3,000-3,000 DirectDirect ICT solution Bus operation Car travel ICT solution Bus operation Car travel 200,000 1,500,000 200,000 1,500,000 500 230,000 1,800,000 500 230,000 1,800,000 Direct and embodied Direct and embodied Tonne CO2eTonne CO2e Total absolute emissions: tonne CO2eTotal absolute emissions: tonne CO2e Figure 4: “What if…?” scenarios for connected buses in Curitiba
  12. 12. Quantifying emissions right – case studies 12 Scope In this case study, the ICT solution includes the use of the mobile network and mobile phones to perform the transactions required in the different use cases. The application software is assumed to be deployed in a data center, including power, cooling, building infrastructure and so on. The same applies to the back-office call center. The reference situation means that individuals are forced to travel from rural areas to more central villages and bank offices in the cities in order to make payments and carry out other bank transactions. Typical transactions include money transfers and bill payments, among others. The primary enabling effect of mobile money solutions is that there is a reduced need for bus travel (or car travel, which is undertaken in some cases, but is not considered in this study). Even though banking is usually a coordinated effort from the village (one individual may make the trip to handle banking errands for several other people), this results in extensive travel and also security risks. Secondary enabling effects include the potential reduction in the number of buses needed because fewer trips will be required. A related effect is also that the road system will last longer and that extensions of capacity can be limited. By spreading the use of the mobile money solutions and similar ICT solutions, the need to have cash in circulation would be drastically reduced, as would other aspects of the bank-related infrastructure like bank offices, ATMs and so on. However not all the potential secondary effects have been included in the case because we considered an implementation in one operator network. On a larger scale and with a longer-term perspective, they would warrant consideration. The result of the case study is based on a mix of secondary and modeled data. The following assumptions were made: money transfer: one to two transactions a month per subscriber 1,000 agents travel to town on behalf of subscribers; one person normally handles money for five people in the reference scenario local payment: one payment a month made using the mobile solution for three to four bills (distance to local town or agent for utility, water phone company on average 2km each way, traveling by bus); normally a payment takes half a day bank service: one bank service every six months (loan payment, microfinance) bank branches: one per 1,000km2 ; on average, 12km away, bus travel. Result Altogether, the impact of the reference system may be reduced by up to 22kg of CO2 e emissions per subscriber a year for the three use cases of the ICT solution, while only adding 0.34kg of CO2 e per subscriber a year for the solution itself.The absolute reduction would be about 140 tonnes CO2 e per year if adopted by 6.5 million subscribers in Kenya, while only 2.1 tonnes would be added emerging from the ICT solution itself. The potential reduction of the assessed scenario corresponds to a reduction ratio of 1:65 – in other words, for each kg of CO2 e added by the solution, a 65kg CO2 e reduction potential is enabled. Sender in townSender in town Local agentLocal agent Village peopleVillage people Money transfer using local agent Bank service Local payment Money transfer using local agent Bank service Local payment DistanceDistance Figure 5: Mobile money use cases. ICT solutionICT solution Bus travelBus travel 35,00035,000 00 -35,000-35,000 2,1002,100 -140,000-140,000 -70,000-70,000 -105,000-105,000 -140,000-140,000 Tonne CO2e/yearTonne CO2e/year Figure 6: The potential impact of mobile money solutions.
  13. 13. Quantifying emissions right – glossary 13 GLOSSARY CO2 carbon dioxide CO2 e carbon dioxide equivalent ETSI European Telecommunications Standards Institute GeSI Global e-Sustainability Initiative GHG greenhouse gas ISO International Organization for Standardization ITU International Telecommunication Union ITU-T ITU Telecommunication Standardization Sector LCA life cycle assessment LCI life cycle inventory LCIA life cycle impact assessment
  14. 14. Quantifying emissions right – references 14 References 1. SMARTer 2020: The Role of ICT in Driving a Sustainable Future, Global e-Sustainability Initiative, GeSI, 2012, available at: http://gesi.org/portfolio/project/71 2. ISO 14040, Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Principles and framework, International Organization for Standardization, 2006, available at: http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=37456 3. ISO 14044, Environmental management – Life cycle assessment – Requirements and guidelines, International Organization for Standardization, 2006, available at: http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=38498 4. ETSI TS 103 199 – Environmental Engineering (EE), Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of ICT equipment, networks and services; General methodology and common requirements, European Telecommunications Standards Institute, 2011, available at: http://www.etsi.org/deliver/etsi_ts/103100_103199/103199/01.01.01_60/ts_103199v010101p.pdf 5. L.1410 – Methodology for the assessment of the environmental impact of information and communication technology goods, networks and services, International Telecommunication Union Telecommunication Standardization Sector (ITU-T), 2012, available at: http://www.itu.int/ITU-T/workprog/wp_item.aspx?isn=7291

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