Ericsson Review: Crafting UX - designing the user experience beyond the interface

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There is more to a good user experience than attractive products and services that solve problems and function according to a given set of requirements. Creating products and services that provide …

There is more to a good user experience than attractive products and services that solve problems and function according to a given set of requirements. Creating products and services that provide compelling experiences for users requires planning, resources, and processes for monitoring progress and measuring quality – crafting UX.

Modern users are savvy and demanding, and their expectations are high. They want products and services that provide some level of value. They want their products to be aesthetically pleasing, emotionally satisfying, as well as easy to learn, use, install, maintain and upgrade.

Ericsson is shifting from being driven by technology to being driven by needs and experiences. This shift has manifested itself in the development of a design approach that gets close to the user. Crafting UX is a user experience (UX) framework with roles, responsibilities and guidelines to better understand, define and meet users’ needs.

Designing similar – yet not identical – assets that provide comparable functionality, in different ways for different products, is neither financially justifiable nor good in terms of usability. By reusing common assets and code for similar functionalities, design teams can focus on the important task of creating relevant content and functionality; in other words, content that is useful and usable.

By establishing a shared vision across all groups involved in the development of products and services teamwork becomes more effective and coordinated efforts lead to a greater design and a better user experience.

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  • 1. The communications technology journal since 1924 2013 • 7Crafting UX – designing the userexperience beyond the interfaceMay 31, 2013
  • 2. Designing the user experiencebeyond the interfaceThere is more to a good user experience than attractive products and services that solveproblems a user may have, and which function according to a given set of requirements.Creating products and services that provide compelling experiences for users requiresplanning, resources and processes for monitoring progress and measuring access. Users’ perceptions are alsodynamic and change over time as theirphysical, temporal, mental and socialcontextschange.For example, people at work need tobe able to complete their job tasks effi-ciently and accurately, with minimaltraining, nominal need for documen-tation and with low error margins, allwhile optimizing workflow execution– this is a must for enterprise efficien-cy. The desirability factor is not alwaysa priority when it comes to using anddeveloping enterprise software. Usersgenerally do not to expect to have funwhen using a system for business pur-poses – even if an enjoyment factormightenhancetheirexperience.Understanding which interface ele-ments are needed before trying toimplement them is an essential partof crafting UX, especially as users havediverse characteristics and their con-textsareconstantlyshifting.Otherwise, it will be impossible tocreate user experiences that are mean-ingfulforpeople.BrandasaunitingfactorBrand-design strategy needs to besimple and clear – each time a userencounters a product or service is anopportunity to build recognition.Applying unique, usable and recogniz-able visual elements (as illustrated inFigure 1) to every part of an offeringis essential. Recognition building is notlimitedtothevisualaspectofaproductor service; it can also be applied to thewayfunctionalityisimplemented.In today’s competitive telecom envi-ronment, designing similar – yet notinteractiondefinesUXas:aperson’sper-ceptionsandresponsesthatresultfromthe use or anticipated use of a product,systemorservice.At Ericsson, we believe that UX is notjust a synonym for usability or interac-tion design, and that the definition ofUX is not just semantics. UX is a com-plexfieldthatbringstogetherexpertisefrommanydifferentdisciplines,includ-ing technology, psychology, the arts aswellasbusiness.Thefieldspansgraphicaldesign,howusers interact with a service, and howeffectively and accurately the interfacehelps users to carry out tasks. In thisfield, emphasis is placed on meaning-ful and emotional experiences, withdefined targets for attributes, such asusefulness,usability,efficiency,privacy,security, aesthetics, reliability, charg-ing,playabilityandcosts.Users’ feelings are dynamic andchange over time as their physical,temporal, mental and social contextschange. Users can be traditional con-sumers or subscribers; they differ withvaryingroles,rangingfrombasicusers,tosystemoperators,tobusinessadmin-istrators. And so, different people willexperience the same system in vary-ing ways depending on their role andthe functions that role permits themDIDIER CHINCHOLLE, SYLVIE LACHIZE, MARCUS NYBERG, CECILIAERIKSSON, CLAES BÄCKSTRÖM AND FREDRIK MAGNUSSONBOX A  Terms and abbreviationsGUI graphical user interfaceNPS Net Promoter ScoreOSS operations support systemsSON self-organizing networksSUS System Usability ScaleUCD user-centered designUI user interfaceUX user experienceModern users are savvyand demanding, and theirexpectations are high. Theywant products and services thatprovide some level of value. Theywant them to be aestheticallypleasing, emotionally satisfying,as well as easy to learn, use,install, maintain and upgrade.The need to attract newcustomers and retain existingones in a competitive businessenvironment is pushing telecomoperators towards the creationof products and services thatdeliver intuitive and tailoredexperiences. Similarly, Ericssonis shifting from being driven bytechnology to being driven byneeds and experiences. Thisshift has manifested itself inthe development of a designapproach that gets close to theuser – a user experience (UX)framework including roles,responsibilities and guidelinesthat help to better understand,define and meet users’ needs.WhatisUX?The ISO 9241-210 standard1cover-ing the ergonomics of human-system2ERICSSON REVIEW • MAY 31, 2013Crafting UX
  • 3. identical – assets that provide compa-rable functionality, in different waysfor different products, is neither finan-cially justifiable nor good in terms ofusability.Byadheringtoandexpandinggraphical and interaction guidelines,and reusing common assets and codeforsimilarfunctionalities,designteamscaninsteadfocusontheimportanttaskof creating relevant content and func-tionality; in other words, content thatisusefulandusable.Creatingacommonlookandfeelatadeeper level has the twofold benefit ofreducing time to market and meetingexternalUXdemands.ThestrategyAsillustratedinFigure2,Ericsson’sUXstrategyisthateveryproductshouldbe:useful –dowhatusersneed;usable–efficient,pleasantandeasytouse,learnandremember;andconsistent–intermsoflookandfeel.To implement this strategy, prod-ucts and services need to be devel-oped according to a life-cycle processby teams from a variety of disciplines,and progress needs to be measured ateachphaseofproductdevelopmentandwherefindingsareactedon.DesignlifecycleAt each stage of the product design lifecycle, focus on usefulness, usabilityandconsistencyisparamount.Ericssonusesaproduct-­managementmethodol-ogy, with the proper checks in place, toensure that designs stay synchronizedwithusers’needsandexpectations.Cross-functionalteamsTeams from various parts of the orga-nization have a deep, yet differentunderstanding of users, business goalsand technology possibilities. Cross-functional teams with varied back-grounds and cultures can provide aricherunderstandingoftheuser.Inthisway, it is possible to avoid the commonpitfalls that arise when crafting UX iscarried out in isolation or driven by asingledesigndiscipline.MeasuringresultsIncluding metrics at every phase ofthe design process to monitor UX andmeasure the usefulness, usability andconsistency of products and changesto them over time is the single way toensure that changes made continue toenhancetheuserexperience.MeasuringUXAlthough there are many aspects toUX,successfulproductshaveonethingin common: they elicit an emotionalresponse. Experiences make peoplesmile, they exceed expectations andmake individuals happy, which leadsto user recommendations, sharing andrepurchasing – and all of these actionscanbemeasured.Measurements are the only way tomonitor progress over time and under-stand the impact of a given implemen-tation. Without them, popular opinionmay influence development processes,sending development teams offtrack,asmorevocalpromotersanddetractorsdemandalltheattention.Measurement shows how a productmeets the needs and expectations ofusers, demonstrating whether or notimprovement efforts have hit theirmark.Theabilitytoshowimprovementis a strong motivator for developmentteams; it makes progress tangible andfacilitatesinvestmentprioritization.Measurement needs to happenthroughout the product life cycle,fromconcepttorelease.Measurementsshould be taken as soon as possible andas often as possible. Waiting until theend of the development process willensure maximum cost to rectify errorsmade due to incorrect assumptionsmadealongtheway.Runningremote,onlinetestsandsur-veysisonewaytomeasuretheimpactofachange.Theadvantageofthismethodis that it tends to be relatively quick toset up and cheap to run. The two prin-cipal metrics that Ericsson uses in thedevelopment of its products are theSystem Usability Scale (SUS) and NetPromoterScore(NPS)2.As the most widely used ques-tionnaire for measuring usability,SUS contains 10 questions, that aredesignedtoassessauser’sperceptionofa system in terms of ease of use,FIGURE 1  Design through the SON Policy Manager applicationFIGURE 2  The Ericsson UX strategyUsefulnessStrategy+= +Usability BrandingDesign theright productDesign theproduct rightOne design3ERICSSON REVIEW • MAY 31, 2013
  • 4. DiscoveryphaseAsuserexperiencesarebothsubjectiveand diverse, understanding the physi-cal,temporal,socialandmentalcontextinwhichtheytakeplaceisfundamentalfor designing intuitive products. Somevaluable and meaningful influentialfactors include where a person works,lives and spends their leisure time.Understanding how new or improvedproducts and services can address anindividual’s needs, motivations andaspirations is a key part of the process,and this is where the discovery phaseof the human-centered design processcomesintoplay.This phase is about understandingpeople, business and technology, aswell as the way inspiration, knowledgeand insights can help to create a deep-er understanding of the design or func-tional elements that are needed. It isabout understanding stakeholders andtheir strategies, as well as the needs ofnew and existing customers. Studiesof existing solutions, competitors andresearchcarriedoutinrelatedfieldsarevaluablewhenopportunitiesandlimita-tionsneedtobedefined.Extracting information from poten-tial users is an important part of thediscovery phase. If at all possible,researchers need to get to know thesepeople, talk to them, ask them ques-tions, listen to them and engage withthemonmanylevels.Researchersneedto visit and observe users in their natu-ral environments, and understand thecontextofhowandwherepeoplespendtheir time. Such detailed observationhelps developers to create the steps tosolveagivenchallenge,andprovidesanunderstanding of how people use prod-ucts and technologies in widely differ-ingscenarios.Puttingtheresearchersintheshoesoftheuserinasmanywaysaspossiblehelpsdevelopempathywiththetargetusergroupandimprovestheoddsofdesigninggooduserexperiences.MostofthemethodsusedbyEricssonResearch UX Lab are qualitative3. Thediscovery phase is used to explorethe unknown rather than verifyingassumptions. Ericsson ConsumerLab4carries out quantitative consumerresearch, by studying people’s valuesand behaviors, including what theythink and feel in relation to ICT prod-uctsandservices.Theseinsightshelptocreate a basic understanding of a giventargetgroupforaspecificproductarea.For example, a recent ConsumerLabreport called Young Professionals atWork5states that companies today arenot taking full advantage of the specialskills that millennials (the latest gen-eration to join the workforce) possess,especially when it comes to technolo-gy and their natural talent for collab-oration. ConsumerLab combines suchinsights into a user segmentation mod-el, describing the values and drivers fordifferent consumer characteristics –a model that can provide guidance todevelopers, helping them to prioritizetargetgroups.Thereareanumberoflabandonlinemethodsandexercisesthatcanbeusedforworkshops,brainstormingsessions,and ideation or idea-generation activi-ties,includingfocusgroups,interviews,surveys,bulletinboardsandself-report-ing. These exercises are illustrated inFigure 3. During such creative ses-sions, researchers compile a high-levelUXdescriptiontogetherwithbehavior-alscientists,interactiondesigners,tech-nicalspecialists,programmers,productmanagersandbusinessbuilders.All of this information puts productmanagersinapositiontocreate aprod-uct vision, describing the typical user,their issues, their needs and expecta-tions, and how this product is superiorto other solutions currently available.learnability, cohesiveness, enjoy-ment and confidence. As UX goesbeyond usability, Ericsson has startedto complement SUS with NPS, which isapopularwaytotrackloyalty.Itisasim-ple one-question survey that asks usershow likely they are to recommend [theproduct or company being tracked] toa friend or colleague. The two metricscombinedprovideafastandsimplewaytotrackprogress,compareproductsandassess the impact of improvements oncustomerperception.Ericsson also captures product-specific metrics, which are createdaccording to predefined product goals.For example, a strategic goal for enter-prise applications such as OSS is toreduce operational costs by automat-ing and simplifying interfaces to makethemeasiertolearn.To gain an understanding of whatworks and what can be improved onwhen developing software, Ericssonsupplements surveys with one-on-oneinterviews, measuring success rate(does the application solve the user’sproblem?),timetakentocompleteataskandperception.Some measurements are performedin lab environments, but measuringusageoverlongerperiodsoftimeaswellas in the actual working environmentis critical to attaining accurate results.Byobservingtheevolutionofcustomerperceptionthroughouttheproductlifecycle from the creation of early proto-types to the release of the final productandembeddingUXmeasurementsintothevariousphasesofthedesignprocessfrom discovery, through definition todeliveryUXmaybemaximized.User-centereddesignCarryingoutthedesignofsystemsthatare both useful and usable requires aneffectivedevelopmentprocess,soteamscandeliverhigh-qualitywork.Thispro-cess,calleduser-centereddesign(UCD),focuses on users as early as possible inthe product life cycle and as often aspossible – from the discovery phasethrough to deployment. The UCD pro-cess has four phases – discovery, defini-tion, development and delivery – thatareflexibleanditerativebynature,witheach phase laying the foundation forthenext.FIGURE 3  Self-reporting analysis atEricsson Research4ERICSSON REVIEW • MAY 31, 2013Crafting UX
  • 5. The product vision is the output of thediscovery phases and should be used asinput to the next step, the definitionphase,duringwhichitisalsorefined.DefinitionphaseThegoalinthisphaseistovisualizeanddescribe the target users of the productor service, and the context in which itwillbeused.Usingthisdescription,theUX workflow can be drafted, withoutanyneedtofocusongraphics.Duringthisphase,workingiterative-ly is crucial, as is failing fast. By work-ing in this way, a product proposal canbe refined rapidly, and product-relateddecisionswillalwaysbemadewithuserneedsandexpectationstopofmind.It is often tempting to spend valu-able time building prototypes or writ-ing code parts to test ideas. However,investing that time in getting con-ceptsrightduringthedefinitionphaseresults in significant resource andfinancial savings later on. Time invest-edearlyonresultsinareducedneedforchanges or fixes that need to be imple-mented to improve the UX at a laterstageintheprocess.Clearly,tocreatethebestUX,asmanyideasaspossibleshouldbetestedinrap-iditerationduringthisphase.Telling stories by creating scenar-ios where the context or scene is set,where actors take on the personas ofindividualsinthetargetgroup,isagoodway to initiate discussions, foster ideasandreachconsensusinaprojectgroup.As illustrated in Figure 4, the objec-tive of any given scenario is to identify,clarifyandorganizeinitialfunction-alneeds,andthiscanbevisualizedinseveral ways including text, sketch-es, pictures, movies and comic-bookstyleorWizardofOzdemos.Thebeautyofthisapproachisthata given scenario will generate somesort of reaction in the user, whichallows researchers to check wheth-er or not they are on the right track.Providing users with tangible ideasmakes it easier to discuss new andsometimesabstractconcepts–main-tainingfocusoncoreconceptsratherthandetails.Personas are powerful, as theyhelp people to understand the ratio-nale leading to design-related deci-sions. The personas Ericsson createsforitsproductsaresynthesizedfromdata collected through surveys, eth-nographic research, interviews andcontextualinquiries.The main challenge of the defi-nition phase is to allocate sufficienttime to discuss, assess, define andrefinethevalueofthefutureproductorservice.Takingthetimetoensurethat the product or service will sat-isfy the target audience’s needsand meet its expectations helps toavoid jump-starting the next phase.Ensuring the business value of aproductrequiresadesignwithguar-anteed desirability and usability, tocreateadesirewithinthetargetusergrouptowant,useandpurchasetheproduct – or in the enterprise case,get their procurement departmenttopurchase.DevelopmentphaseCombining the personas de­ve­-l­op­ed in the definition phase with sce-narios leads to the creation of a power-fultoolfordevelopmentteams,whoareabletomatchpersonaswiththeirusersduring sprints. This in turn guides pri-oritization decisions for product back-logandUIdesign.Theagiledevelopmentprocessiscom-monplace in many organizations, as itoffers flexibility and huge benefits forcarryingoutuser-experiencedesign.Byusing iteration instead of the waterfallmodel,wherechangingdesignrequire-mentscannotbecateredfor,continuousimprovements based on user feedbackcan be brought into the developmentprocess,allowingapplicationstoevolve,changeandberefinedovertime.The product vision, together withtheholisticUXworkflow,providesagileteams with an overview of the actualproduct.Catchingissuesearlyonmakesit much easier and faster to implementchanges; making changes once imple-mentation has been completed tendsto be much harder and more cost-ly. Depending on the features design-ers want to validate, prototypes can behand-sketched, drawn using UX proto-typing tools available on the market,or coded in semi-functional prototypesusing HTML/JavaScript/CSS. The keyhere is the ease with which the proto-typecanbemodifiedthroughfreshiter-ationsbasedonfeedbackfromusersandthedevelopmentteam.Suchprototypesareevaluatedinvari-ousways,by:FIGURE 4  Wizard of Oz scenarios5ERICSSON REVIEW • MAY 31, 2013
  • 6. is often split across several teams, eachwith its own backlog of requirementsandupgrades.Userstoriescanbeviewedas small chunks of functionality thatneed to be implemented in just a fewdays. This can make it difficult to keeptrack of the product-development pro-cess as a whole. It is also difficult toconduct user testing ahead of imple-mentation – after all, how can you testaproductthatdoesn’tactuallyexist?Most of Ericsson’s applications arepart of a much larger product portfo-lio. They tend not to be used in isola-tion, but rather in combination witheach other, so the overall user experi-encedependsonhowwelltheyallworktogether. Reaching the point whereall of Ericsson’s applications providean integrated and consistent behav-ior across all the target user groups isa challenge that Ericsson is overcom-ing through guidelines and productassessments.DeliveryphaseThe work delivered by the UX teamsduringthefourthandfinalphaseiscru-cialtoensurethatproductsmeetspecif-ic customer needs and help to achieveactualbusinessgoals.Eventhoughasig-nificant part of the work on the prod-uct has already been completed at thispoint, the aim of this important stepis to fulfill customer expectations andthedevelopmentteammembersandstakeholders;UXexperts–asillustratedinFigure5;andtargetusersthroughusabilitytests.To determine the relevancy of a giveniteration, UX designers want users totellthemabout:theproblemsorissuesencounteredwhenusingtheproduct/solutiontosolveagivenproblemorcarryoutaspecifictask;thesuccessrateofcarryingouttheassignedsetoftasks;thelevelofeffortneeded–forexample,verysimple,quitecomplicatedorfartoocomplex;andtheirreactiontousingtheapplication–forexample,wasitgoodoverall,wasitfun,orwasitboring?Byanalyzingtheanswerstothesetypesofquestions,researcherscandeterminewhich parts of a given interaction arevaluable and meaningful to the targetaudience, offering them a way to cap-ture early UX quality metrics and keepdevelopmentontrack.The agile development process, how-ever, presents UX designers with a fewchallenges.Forexample,tostayaheadofdevelopment,timeneedstobesetasideduring the current sprint to design UXforfuturesprints.Productdevelopmentensurethatthecapabilitiesoftheprod-uct are tailored to fit into the offeredsolution.Ericsson’sexperiencehasshownthatonly a few products meet specific cus-tomer needs exactly when they reachthis phase, and that most of the solu-tionsusuallyneedtobecustomized.It is only once a product is actual-ly launched and put into context thattrueuservaluebecomesapparent.Realusage is the ultimate test. Users havethousands of interactions with theproduct, accomplishing real tasks andadopting or rejecting certain features.Some have good experiences, and oth-ers come across unforeseen obstacles.This is the time to capture UX metrics,throughsurveyssuchasSUSorNPS,andto carry out field studies by observingusersinteractingwithproductsintheirenvironment, to listen to what they saythroughfeedbackchannels,suchascus-tomer support, sales, or services, andto feed that information back into thedesigncycle.Improving the user experiencedoesn’t end with the product launch;in a sense this is just the beginning.We keep on measuring and adjusting,feeding insights into the next productrelease.ConclusionIn large technologically-driven orga-nizations, establishing a user-centricapproachtodesignaswellassettingupmetricstomonitorUXovertime,guide-lines, policies, and multidisciplinaryteamsthathaveanoverviewofallchan-nelsandconsiderallaspectsofthesolu-tiondesigncanbechallenging.At Ericsson, UX is recognized andestablished as an important part of ourorganization’s business and strategy.Our teams – which comprise usabilityengineers, designers, software archi-tects and developers, and businessstakeholders, all working collabora-tively – integrate UX criteria into stan-dardproduct-managementprocessestoensure that product development staysontrack.Byestablishingasharedvisionacrossall groups involved in the developmentof products and services teamworkbecomes more effective and coordinat-ed efforts lead to a greater design and abetteruserexperience.ObserversModerators Expert evaluatorClient underevaluationFeedbackrecordingsAnalystFIGURE 5  Expert evaluation setup6ERICSSON REVIEW • MAY 31, 2013Crafting UX
  • 7. 1. ISO, 2010, Standard 9241-210, Ergonomics of human-system interaction – Part210: Human-centred design for interactive systems, available at: Measuring Usability, 2012, Predicting Net Promoter Scores from SystemUsability Scale Scores, available at: Ericsson Research, User Experience Lab Blog, available at: Ericsson ConsumerLab, home page, available at: Ericsson, 2013, ConsumerLab report, Young professionals at work, available at: Chinchollehas been the global UXlead at Ericsson’sBusiness Unit SupportSolutions since March2012. Prior to this position, he workedas a UX manager at Consumer andBusiness Applications, a solution areawithin Ericsson’s former Business UnitMultimedia. He also worked for almost10 years as a senior interaction designspecialist at Ericsson Research, wherehe was involved in both mobile- andTV-related user-experience research,focusing on concept and productdesign, as well as user-centricmethods. Chincholle also acquired awide variety of skills as an ergonomistat the French aerospace agencyAérospatiale, where he cooperatedwith French astronauts on defining theinterior arrangement of Hermes, theEuropean space shuttle. He alsocollaborated with the French CivilAviation Authority (DGAC) on the GUIof its air traffic control systems. Heholds a master’s of architecture fromthe Strasbourg School of Architecture,France.Cecilia Erikssonhas an M.Sc. ininteraction designChalmers University ofTechnology inGothenburg, Sweden, and is currentlyresponsible for UX design in Ericssoncustomer delivery projects, presalesand demos, working in a multiculturalenvironment with customers fromaround the world. She joinedEricsson’s Business Unit GlobalServices in 2008 as a consultant withinthe Media and Applications area. Shehas extensive experience of workingwith services and content delivery formultiscreen solutions through theEricsson Multi Service DeliveryPlatform (MSDP), and also fromworking with user interfaces for IPTVservices. Her primary interests andexpertise are in creating multiscreensolutions from a consumer perspectivethat transcend the requirements ofboth the operators and users, andprovide a rich subscriber experience.Sylvie Lachizeis a technology andsystems UX manager,responsible for metricsand user research atEricsson’s Business Unit SupportSolutions in Stockholm, Sweden. Shejoined Ericsson in 2010, first leadingthe UX practice in Montreal, Canada,then overseeing the Business UnitNetworks OSS Portfolio UX in Athlone,Ireland, as an operational productmanager/owner. Lachize has 15 yearsof hands-on experience in interactiondesign and has worked extensively as aconsultant with telecom companies,such as Bell Canada and Fido,interviewing and observing hundredsof their customers and translatingresearch findings into online strategiesand designs. As UX director at the adagency CloudRaker, she led thecomplete redesign of the award-winning website in 2006,showing that iterative design based onmetrics and user feedback is a sureway to surpass business objectives.She holds two post-graduate degrees,one in multimedia-hypermedia fromthe National School of Fine Arts/Telecom, Paris Tech, in Paris, Franceand one in cognitive sciences from theNational School of higher studies inSocial Sciences, Paris, France.Claes Bäckströmjoined Ericsson in 2010to run UX for product lineOSS at Business UnitNetworks. He holds amaster’s in cognitive science fromLinköping University in Sweden, andhas spent the past 15 years exploringdifferent aspects and applications inthis field. He has researched dementeddrivers for the Traffic Medicine Centreat Karolinska Institute, the MedicalUniversity in Stockholm, and air forcepilots at the Defense Research Agency(FOI) in Linköping, Sweden. This is alsowhere he assessed the readability ofwarning texts on cigarette packets, aninvestigation for the Swedish NationalBoard of Health and Welfare, whichbecame the basis for the Swedish andEU directives on this matter. During his11 years of employment at Saab, Hepioneered wearable computers andhead-mounted displays incollaboration with MIT Media Lab. Healso researched and developed cockpitdisplays and flight simulators, andmanaged and served as a UX specialistin several projects within civil security.7ERICSSON REVIEW • MAY 31, 2013
  • 8. Telefonaktiebolaget LM EricssonSE-164 83 Stockholm, SwedenPhone: + 46 10 719 0000Fax: +46 8 522 915 99284 23-3204 | UenISSN 0014-0171© Ericsson AB 2013Marcus Nybergis a senior researcher atthe Ericsson ResearchUser Experience Lab. Hismain tasks includeinforming, influencing and inspiringother parts of the organization throughuser-centric activities. His strengths liein the exploration process providing,for example, insights from qualitativeuser research, visualizations ofscenarios, and development ofconcepts. Nyberg has been involved inprojects within areas such as megacitychallenges, visual communication,m-health, and mobile TV. He has alsopublished several papers on these andother topics at internationalconferences. He first started atEricsson Research in 2000, but hasspent a few years outside the companyat Sony Ericsson, and as a consultantat Sigma Information Design beforereturning to the User Experience Labin 2007.Fredrik Magnussonholds a master’s of finearts in industrial designfrom the UniversityCollege of Arts, Crafts andDesign, Stockholm, Sweden. He joinedEricsson in 2010 as brand designmanager. He is responsible fordeveloping and aligning all touchpoints with Ericsson from a visual andbrand-value perspective. Prior tojoining Ericsson, Magnusson workedas design director for the FiskarsGroup in Helsinki, Finland (2007-2010).He founded Propeller, where he alsoworked from 1995-2007. At the timethis was one of the world’s leadingdesign agencies working with clientssuch as GM, Microsoft, Trimble, Ikea,Electrolux and Volvo, as well as withnumerous start-ups around the world.Propeller was acquired by Semcon in2005. Magnusson is a long-term boardmember in numerous innovativecompanies and in the SwedishIndustrial Design Foundation (SVID).He has been awarded more than30 international design awardsand frequently appears as a guestlecturer at design schools andprivate enterprises.