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Assessing Tanzanian performance in addressing the four major aspects of development: Identifying the relevant indicators for each aspect

Assessing Tanzanian performance in addressing the four major aspects of development: Identifying the relevant indicators for each aspect

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    • iMOSHI UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF CO-OPERATIVE AND BUSINESS STUDIES(MUCCoBS)FACULTY OF COOPERATIVE AND COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT STUDIESPROGRAMME : MASTER OF ARTS IN COOPERATIVE ANDCOMMUNITY DEVELOPMENTCOURSE : CONTEMPORARY CHALLENGES TODEVELOPMENTCOURSE ANTE : CDM 657YEAR OF STUDY : 2012/2013CANDIDATE : ERICK HUMPHREY KIMAMBOREGISTRATION NUMBER : MA-CCD/HD/106/12TASK : WRITING TERM PAPERCOURSE INSTRUCTORS : KIBWANA (MR.) AND KIMARIO (DR.)SUBMISSION DATE : 7THFEBRUARY2013
    • iiContentsContents ........................................................................................................................................................ ii1.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATION .............................................................................................- 1 -2.0 THEORETICAL UNDERPINNING............................................................................................- 3 -2.1 Economic development.............................................................................................................- 3 -2.2 Human development .................................................................................................................- 3 -2.3 Political Development...............................................................................................................- 3 -2.4 Social Development..................................................................................................................- 4 -2.5 Development indicators ............................................................................................................- 5 -3.0 THEORIES ...................................................................................................................................- 5 -3.1 Marxist theories ........................................................................................................................- 5 -3.2 Orthodox theories......................................................................................................................- 6 -3.3 Dependence theories .................................................................................................................- 6 -4.0 METHODOLOGY OF DATA COLLECTION ...........................................................................- 7 -5.0 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION..................................................................................................- 8 -5.1 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT......................................................................................................- 8 -5.2 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT...............................................................................................- 8 -5.3 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT ...............................................................................................- 9 -5.4 HUMAN DEVELOPMENT.....................................................................................................- 9 -5.4.1 Public Expenditures ........................................................................................................- 10 -5.4.2 Donor Resources.............................................................................................................- 10 -5.4.3 The Formal Education Sector .........................................................................................- 10 -5.4.4 Vocational Education and Training ................................................................................- 10 -6.0 CONCLUSION AND WAY FORWARD..................................................................................- 11 -REFERENCE..........................................................................................................................................- 12 -
    • - 1 -Assessing Tanzania’s performance in addressing the four major aspects of development:Identifying the relevant indicators for each aspectBy Erick Humphrey kimamboMoshi University College of Cooperative and Business Studies (A Constitute college ofSokoine University of Agriculture), Department of Cooperative Development andManagement P. O. BOX 474 Moshi Kilimanjaro-Tanzania.1.0 BACKGROUND INFORMATIONAn important feature of development is when goods and services enter into markets. Forexample, we know that people have always eaten, but as they have meals away from home andpay for restaurant services, a restaurant sector grows up. This sector, in turn, is measured as partof the gross domestic product (GDP, the total of all goods and services produced within acountry). The process of development includes this kind of specialization, also known as the―division of labor.‖ As people take on specialized economic functions, the scale of productionincreases and the output of each person rise. This type of organizational change is as important apart of development and technological progress as mechanical invention or scientific discovery.Another key feature of development is poverty. Entire economies can be poor, or they can growbut still leave large sections of their people in poverty. In the second half of the 20th century,economists became acutely aware of the difficulties of a large number of countries in thedeveloping world, most of them former colonies of the industrialized nations. Developmenteconomics became more or less synonymous with the study of how these countries couldprogress out of poverty. Likewise, economic historians, who had long examined how theindustrialized countries achieved their material advances, appreciated that these countries too
    • - 2 -were once ―underdeveloped.‖ As a result, much of economic history became the study ofeconomic development.The countries of the Third World, containing some two-thirds of the worlds population, arelocated in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Politically, they are generally non-aligned. Some aremoving out of their previous situation and may soon join the ranks of industrialized countries.Others, with economies considered intrinsically incapable of development, are at times lumpedtogether as forming a ―fourth world.‖Political instability caused by precarious economic situations is widespread in the Third World.Democracy in the Western meaning of the term is almost completely absent. Both the Westernand the former Soviet blocs have tried to entice the Third World to follow their own examples,but the countries concerned generally prefer to create their own institutions based on indigenoustraditions, needs, and aspirations; most choose pragmatism over ideology. It is debated whetherChina is part of the Third World, with which it once identified itself on racial, cultural, anddevelopmental grounds, proclaiming that the exploited countries should unite against imperialistforces, both Western and Soviet. After the death of Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) in 1976,however, the Chinese attitude moderated.The Third World displays little homogeneity; it is divided by race, religion, culture, andgeography, as well as frequently opposite interests. It generally sees world politics in terms of aglobal struggle between rich and poor countries the industrialized North against the backwardSouth. Some nations, such as those of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries(OPEC), have found ways to assert their economic importance as sources of raw materialsindispensable to advanced societies, and others may follow suit. Widely advocated within theThird World is a so-called New Economic Order, which through a combination of aid and tradeagreements would transfer wealth from the developed to the developing nationsIn Tanzania the countries development is said to rise in approximately 6% per year yet it isevident that the lives of the Tanzanians have not changed. The social development of theTanzanians has steal been low since the people do not have voice. Economically the Tanzanianeconomy is said to rise yet it has not rise in the lives of the people.
    • - 3 -To assess the social, economic, human and political development in Tanzania; and to determinethe indicators of development2.0 THEORETICAL UNDERPINNING2.1 Economic developmentGenerally refers to the sustained, concerted actions of policymaker and communities thatpromote the standard of living and economic health of a specific area. Economic developmentcan also be referred to as the quantitative and qualitative changes in the economy. Such actionscan involve multiple areas including development of human capital, critical infrastructure,regional competitiveness, environmental sustainability, social inclusion, health, safety, literacy,and other initiatives.2.2 Human developmentIs a concept within the scope of the study of the human condition, specifically internationaldevelopment, relating to international and economic development? This concept of a broaderhuman development was first laid out by Amartya Sen, a 1998 Nobel laureate, and expandedupon by Martha Nussbaum, Sabina Alkire, Ingrid Robeyns, and others. Human developmentencompasses more than just the rise or fall of national incomes. Development is thus aboutexpanding the choices people have, to lead lives that they value, and improving the humancondition so that people have the chance to lead full lives. Thus, human development is aboutmuch more than economic growth, which is only a means of enlarging people’s choices.Fundamental to enlarging these choices is building human capabilitiesthe range of things thatpeople can do or be in life. Capabilities are "the substantive freedoms [a person] enjoys to leadthe kind of life [they have] reason to value." Human development disperses the concentration ofthe distribution of goods and services that underprivileged people need and center its ideas onhuman decisions.2.3 Political DevelopmentCan be traced to 1950s when a large number of American political scientists were attempting tostudy the political dynamics of the newly emerging countries of Asia, Africa and Latin America.Huge amounts of statistical and quantitative data on the social, political, economic anddemographic aspects of these nations were collected to analyze their attitudes, values and
    • - 4 -behavior patterns. However, the term is still in the process of evolution and there is hardly anyunanimity among the scholars on the constituent of political development. Such inconsistency ispartly on account of inter-disciplinary focus and partly a manifestation of ethnocentric bases.2.4 Social DevelopmentIs a broad term that describes actions that are taken to build positive outcomes and preventnegative social outcomes that can adversely affect a community. These outcomes include issuesranging from crime, poverty, gang activity, school disengagement, teen pregnancy, addictionsand substance abuse, obesity, and poor health. The aim of social development is to improve theavailability of support systems in the community that prevent negative outcomes before theyoccur or buffer (lessen) their impact. For example, rather than reacting to a crime after it hasalready happened, measures are taken within the community that prevent crime from everoccurring.The objectives of social development can be summarized as ensuring poverty eradication, fullemployment, and social integration. With these three main pillars, social development evolves toinclude the following 10 commitments of the Social Summit:1. Creating an economic, political, social, cultural and legal environment to enable socialdevelopment2. Eradicating poverty in the world3. Promoting full employment4. Promoting social integration based on protection of human rights, non-discrimination,and participation of all people5. Equity between women and men6. Universal education, health; respecting and promoting our common and particularcultures; preserving the essential bases of people-centered sustainable development; andcontributing to the full development of human resources to social development. Thepurpose of these activities is to eradicate poverty, promote full and productiveemployment and foster social integration7. Accelerating the economic, social and human resource development of Africa and theleast developed countries
    • - 5 -8. Ensure structural adjustment programme to include social development goals, inparticular eradicating poverty, promoting full employment, and enhancing socialintegration9. Increase resources allocated to social development10. Improved framework for international, regional and sub-regional cooperation for socialdevelopment(United Nations 1995, pp. 8- 21)2.5 Development indicatorsAre parameters (measures) that can be used to assess whether there is development in a givenarea at a particular time and whether this development is increasing, stagnant or decreasing overtime. Such indicators include macro-economic variables like Gross Domestic Product (GDP);Gross National Product (GNP); inflation rate; levels of investment and national debt. They alsoinclude birth and death rates (measured by infant and maternal mortality rates); morbidity(measured by specific causes of deaths); education levels attained (measured by literacy andnumeracy rates and life skills in a population); housing (measured by the material used forroofing); availability of and accessibility to social services and amenities like hospitals, healthfacilities, safe and clean drinking water, school etc (measured by the distance from humansettlements to the place where these are found); availability of and accessibility to infrastructure– both hard (traditional) like roads, railways, ports, airports, harbors and telecommunication andsoft (modern) like Internet; and life expectancy (measured by number of years that one expectsto live from time of birth). Applicability and interpretation of the indicators will differ from placeto place and time to time. (Ngowi, 2007)3.0 THEORIES3.1 Marxist theoriesThe German political economist and philosopher Karl Marx wrote little that touched directly ondevelopment, but he was certainly an influence on thinking about it—although only throughsome of what he wrote. Marx held that capitalism would help development by breaking down theobstructive pre-capitalist ―modes of production,‖ which he believed prevailed in the colonies.This was part of his stage theory, in which economies inevitably progressed from capitalism to
    • - 6 -socialism to communism. More influential in development thinking were his views on classrelations and exploitation, particularly the extraction of surplus value, or profits, from the laborof workers and the importance of this surplus value to the accumulation of capital.3.2 Orthodox theoriesQuite opposed to these ideas were the standard, or orthodox, views of most Western economists.They believed free, unregulated markets played a mainly positive role in development andargued that developing countries’ policies of interfering with free markets were largely self-defeating. In particular, they argued that attempts to hold agricultural prices down and forcesavings out of farmers (surplus extraction) were destructive of agricultural growth. Orthodoxeconomists pointed to economic history to show that agricultural growth was important forindustrialization.Furthermore they argued that governments in the developing countries were often incapable ofthe tasks they took on. In their view foreign investment helped growth and the transfer oftechnology, and foreign aid supplied the additional savings and foreign exchange that poorcountries could not generate themselves.3.3 Dependence theoriesThere were also less Marxist but still radical views known as ―dependency‖ theories, which wereparticularly prominent in Latin America. Dependency theorists stressed how markets favoredindustrialized countries, which received raw materials cheaply from the developing world. Inaddition, industrialized countries owned the technology that developing countries needed andhad the economic power to admit exports from developing countries only when it suited them.Such views gave a strong bias in the developing world to a belief in the virtues of autonomous(self-sufficient) development. According to the dependency theorists, developing countries couldonly grow behind protective trade barriers that kept out exports from the industrialized world.Dependency theorists also believed that investment by Western multinational corporations wouldmainly harm developing countries and so regarded such investment with suspicion. Since freemarkets alone could not generate adequate growth and structural change, governments had tohave a major hand in planning and promoting the economy, including public sector enterprises toundertake the investments that the market would not provide, for some dependency thinkers even
    • - 7 -foreign aid was suspect, seen by some as a ―neocolonial‖ instrument to preserve the dominanceof the industrial countries and make the world safe for capitalism.4.0 EMPIRICAL REVIEWThe author makes a critical examination of the contribution of political leadership in theeconomic development and change of Tanzania since her 1961 political independence fromBritain. He divides the country’s economic development and change into three more or lessdiscrete time epochs. The first epoch is the period from independence to 1967; the second isfrom the 1967 Arusha Declaration to the mid-1980s and the third is from the mid-1980s reformsto the present time (2007). The outstanding general economic developments and change in eachepoch are identified. A critical analysis on the extent to which the developments and change ineach epoch can be attributed to the political leadership of the time or even of the past is made. Itis found in the work that, the economic developments and change in Tanzania can be highlyattributed to political leadership. Interestingly and contrary to the orthodox understanding andnarrow scope of some analyses, both the political leadership of the day and that of the past arefound to be responsible for economic developments and change in a particular epoch.Interestingly also, it is found that political leadership outside Tanzania, especially among itsneighbors, trade partners and the donor community, has far-reaching impacts in the country’seconomic development and change. It is concluded in the paper that political leadership is animportant factor in a country’s development and change. It is recommended that policy anddecision makers should facilitate a process where adequate political leadership for gooddevelopment and change is established, improved and maintained. Recommendations for furtherstudies include the need to review this work over time and conduct similar ones in othercountries for the purpose of, inter-alia, comparisons and learning lessons.5.0 METHODOLOGY OF DATA COLLECTIONThe information collected was qualitative data. The term paper was conducted by reviewingdifferent documents and reports on social, economic, political and human development. Thiswent hand in hand with review of the different plans on the development of the country. Themethod used is documentary review. The method used was chosen because the time was limited
    • - 8 -to go and choose a case study areas and conduct a formal search of information; thus usingdocumentary review.6.0 FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONThrough the collapse of social and politicalsystems in many poor countries can beattributed toethnic tensions, politicalrivalries and egregious colonial legacies,the fundamental cause in mostinstances hasbeen the failure to provide the majority ofcitizens with even a modicum of hopethattheir lives will improve, that intense andpervasive poverty can be lifted, thatopportunities tolearn bankable skills canand will be made available for childreneager for a better tomorrow, andthatgovernment is a just and honest steward.Building human capacity, therefore, shouldbe seenas the foundation of nation’s future.5.1 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENTDespite a rapidly growing population, Tanzania is exactly 2.5 times larger in size than Japan but,with a population of around 33 million in 2000, has only 26% of Japan’s population. Tanzaniahas more than three times as much cropland per capita as Japan, a higher percentage of thecountry is arable and there are few earthquakes and no winters. Tanzania’s birth rate is projectedto decline from 3.1% from 1975-1997 to 2.3% from 1997-2015 so by that date the populationwill have reached about 47 million compared to 126 million in Japan today.(UNDP, 2000)5.2 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTThe economic developments and change in Tanzania can be highly attributed to politicalleadership. Interestingly and contrary to the orthodox understanding and narrow scope of someanalyses, both the political leadership of the day and that of the past are found to be responsiblefor economic developments and change in a particular epoch. Interestingly also, it is found thatpolitical leadership outside.Countries can progress and reduce the gap between them and more developed countries throughmore rapid economic growth and HRD. As noted in the Tanzania Social Sector Review, a sixyear old Tanzanian child today could, upon retirement at age 56, live in an upper middle incomecountry with a per capita GDP of US$5,891 if growth could be sustained at 7% per annum.
    • - 9 -Tanzania, especially among its neighbors, trade partners and the donor community, has far-reaching impacts in the country’s economic development and change. After independence,Tanzania concentrated on building an independent nation. The economy continued to be mainlywithin the hands of the British colonial masters and Asians. Industries, plantations, mines andrelatively large commercial activities continued to be under the British and Asians. The economycontinued to be basically a market oriented one with private sector capitalism dominating.According to Kaiser (1996), after Tanganyika’s independence, efforts were made to implement aprogramme which depended on foreign investment to support massive, capital-intensiveindustrialization and agricultural development projects.5.3 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTThe role of the political leadership factor in economic development and change in countriesshould receive the attention it deserves in the policy and decision making process. Understandingthat political decision within a country are likely to impact other countries’ economicdevelopment and change both in the long and short run is essential. The need to cooperate andcoordinate relevant political decisions among countries cannot be overemphasized. (Ngowi,2007)Tanzania has experienced three major epochs in its economic development and change processfrom the 1961 independence to 2007. Political leadership has been the key factor in creation ofthe epochs. It has been the main defining factor of the nature and paths of economic developmentand change in each of the epochs. Contrary to the generally held and simplified views, it is morethan the political leadership and decisions in Tanzania that have impacted and influencedeconomic development and change in the country. In this work, some political leadership anddecisions outside and inside Tanzania have been identified as among the key factors that impacton the economic development and change in the country. It is recognized however that there areother factors than political leadership that have impacted, are impacting and will be impacting onthe economic development and change in Tanzania, as is the case for many other countries.5.4 HUMAN DEVELOPMENTTanzania is seeking to implement its National Poverty Eradication Strategy. Shifts in publicspending reflect these efforts and key donors have made the fight against poverty and for humandevelopment the keystone of their development efforts. (UNDP, 2000)
    • - 10 -5.4.1 Public ExpendituresSocial sector achievements of the 1960s and 1970s were seriously eroded because recurrent costsproved to be unsustainable. This remains a major risk today, due to the lack of integration of thedevelopment and recurrent budgets. Sector budgets are too often drawn up without reference toresource limitations, ministries do not know if committed funds will actually be disbursed,diversions of allocated resources are frequent and the majority of audits conducted on sectorministries and district governments receive adverse and qualified rulings by auditors.5.4.2 Donor ResourcesDonors have developed long-term partnerships with government and are working to sustain thenew financial management tools and promote their internalization. While there are long standingdifferences between government and donors regarding aid administration and co-ordination, newvenues for dialogue and debt relief have improved the relationship.5.4.3 The Formal Education SectorThe sector has produced numerous policy statements, master plans, strategies, action plans andstudies. Basic statistics on enrolments, teachers, physical infrastructure and costs are availableand an ambitious school mapping programme funded by UNICEF is providing the kind of micro-data that is needed for effective planning and resource allocation at the local level.5.4.4 Vocational Education and TrainingVocational education has enormouspotential in Tanzania and the need isoverwhelming. TheVocational Educationand Training Authority (VETA), thenational body responsible for thesector, haslost much of the past three years due toserious governance problems and illadvisedfunding priorities. VETA has been unable so far to become the demand-driven service providerthat is expected of it. The training levy paid by private employers is the main source of VETA’sbudget but, as has been recognized, the returns have been low. Unless the organizationalperformance of VETA can be altered and its budget priorities transformed, the governmentshould consider exploring alternatives to maintaining VETA’s monopoly on access to thetraining levy funds and perhaps examine the feasibility of allowing other training providers tocompete directly with VETA for these funds.
    • - 11 -7.0 CONCLUSION AND WAY FORWARDConclusionThe social, economic, human, and political development in Tanzania can be said to haveimproved in the context of national level and not in the individual level. Not all people inTanzania can afford three or more meals, some leave in grass thatched houses while theaffordability of education, health services and security is so said to be an enigma. The economicposition of the individuals is a situation since; they cannot cover at least all of their demands dueto unemployment, inflation and even lower wages and salaries, hence poverty.Way forwardPeople’s living standard to improve there is a need for the government to increase the number offacilities that will ensure the social, economic, human and political development such ascolleges, hospitals, and transportation facilities to create easy movement thus people could beready to invest even in the remote of areas.The country should focus more on industrialization for its forward and backward linkages ratherthan agriculture which results to slow development. This will assist the countries like Tanzaniato develop and become self reliant; the contracts for these ventures should be taken intoconsideration that the government and the country to have more shares so as to carry thedemands of the country on development before the investors.
    • - 12 -REFERENCEKaiser, P. J. (1996). Structural Adjustment and the Fragile Nation: The Demise of Social Unityin Tanzania. The Journal of Modern African Studies; Vol. 34, No. 2Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009; © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights reserved.Ngowi (2007), Political and Managerial Leadership for Change and Development in AfricaUNDP, (2000); Tanzania Human Development Report: The State of Progress in HumanResourceDevelopment.United Nations (1995, April) ―Copenhagen Declaration on Social Development and Programmeof Action of the World Summit for Social Development‖, Report of the World Summit for SocialDevelopment, 6-12 March 1995, Copenhagen