OverviewBefore the Industrial Revolution,students learned by watching andlistening to people they knew-Apprenticeship programs becamepopular
Industrial Revolution brought a shift in learningtheories People followed rituals that had proven effective for some students Education focused on “reading, writing, arithmetic” with little to no application.
Throughout the 20th Century many Theoristand theories began to emerge and take shape
BehaviorismB.F. Skinner-1953teacher or instructor rewards or punishedstudents for behavior“The idea is that certain stimuli will producecertain results” (Beers, 2006, p.8)
How does Behaviorism relate to the brain?“[Behaviorism] discounts the activities of the brain. Itdoes not explain how behavior changes and newlearning occurs in the absence of reward andpunishment” (Beers, 2006, p.9)
Social CognitionLev Vygotsky- 1978A student’s learning depends on his surroundingsand his culture.“Focusing on the child without understanding herculture provides only limited information to assist thechild’s intellectual growth” (Beers, 2006, p.9)
Developmental Stages and Cognitive StructuresJean Piaget-1970A child’s cognitive structures depend on the stagesof a child’s development.some experiences reinforce cognitive behavior, whilesome change it
Social Learning TheoryAlbert Bandura- 1977Learning occurs through observation.Four conditions must be present for social learning tooccur: attention, retention, motor reproduction,motivation.
Basic AnatomyThe brain is made of four major lobes 1. Occipital lobe- responsible for vision 2. Temporal lobe- responsible for hearing 3. Frontal lobe- responsible for higher thinking and language development and communication 4. Motor Cortex- controls movement
NeuronSynapses- releaseneurotransmitters that start newelectrical impulsesDendrites- receive informationfrom other cellsAxon- sends messages to othercells
Learning- making connections between thousands ofneuronsMemory- the ability to reactivate a prior makeconnectionThe job of the teacher is to find a way to cement thatconnection.
Recent research in brain function hasmade 4 major findings in the connectionbetween the brain and learning. Theseare as follows:
experience (neuroplasticity) The human brain is “plastic” and can be changed based on what you do with it. What impact does this finding have on the teachers role in the classroom? “Teachers don’t just teach kids, they literally shape their brains” (LEI, 2008) The entire classroom atmosphere impacts learning
#2 The brain seeks meaningful patterns If information is not meaningful to a person, they will not remember-the brain was made to forget. What impact does this finding have on the teachers role in the classroom? The more methods we use, the better students will remember Concrete experience is always the best teaching method.
#3 Emotion is a catalyst for learning“Two small but powerful structures deep withinin each hemisphere called the amygdalaregulate our emotional responses. Theseemotional responses have the ability to eitherimpede or enhance learning” (Wolfe, 2013)What impact does this finding have on theteachers role in the classroom? When motivating and captivating a student through emotion, find a level that is appropriate but not so high that learning shuts down
#4 There are two types of memory1. Procedural Unconscious process; routine Rote rehearsal “Drill and Kill”1. Declarative Episodic; semantic What you can declare
How can these implications impact the classroom teacher? Orchestrated immersion: Learning environments arecreated that immerse students in a learningexperience. (Wilson, 2009) example- When a kindergarten class is studying countries around the world, the teacher may transform the classroom using decorations, toys, music, etc. to immerse students in the new culture.
Relaxed alertness: An effort is made toeliminate fear, while maintaining a highlychallenging environment (Wilson, 2009) Example- Teacher plays soft classical music during a test; Classroom walls are painted light blue; calming scents are used in the classroom “Children are stretched to maximize their cognitive potentials in teaching environments that are supportive, comfortable, and non- threatening.” (Wilson, 2009)
Active processing: Information is intentionallyconnected to prior learning. (Wilson, 2009) Example- Kindergarten teacher teaches skip counting (counting by 2s, 5s, 10s). Third grade teacher pulls from that prior knowledge as she is teaching multiplication.
Our job is not to helpkids do well on tests or in school. Our job is to prepare kids do well in life. (LEI, 2008)
ResourcesBeers, B. (2006). Learning-driven schools: A practical guide for teachers and principals. Alexandria, VA: Association forSupervision of Curriculum and Development.Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2008). The relationship between teaching and learning. TeacherLeadership in the Classroom. Baltimore, MD: Alexander, P.Wilson, Leslie O. (2009). Overview of Brain Based Education .ED 790 - Brain Based Education. Retrieved fromhttp://www4.uwsp.edu/education/lwilson/brain/bboverview.htmWolfe, Patricia. (2013). Brain Research and Education: Fact of Fad? Pat Wolfe, Mind Matters Inc. Retrieved fromhttp://patwolfe.com/2011/09/brain-research-and-education-fad-or-foundation/Images: Schoolhouse-Photo-lo-res.jpg retrieved from http://www.schoolhousevineyard.com learn_mark_brennan_cc-by-nc-sa2_flickr_heycoach-1197947341.jpg retrieved from www.infed.org human-brain.jpg retrieved from www.wisegeek.org