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Reading is the fundamental skill upon which all formal education depends. Research now shows that a child who doesn’t learn the reading basics early is unlikely to learn them at all.Any child who doesn’t learn to read early and well will not easily master other skills and knowledge and is unlikely to ever flourish in school or life. (Moats, 1999)
The International According to the TexasDyslexia Association Educationdefines dyslexia as “a Code, “dyslexia means aspecific learning disorder ofdisability that is constitutional originneurological in origin.” manifested by a difficulty in learning to read, write, or spell, despite conventional instruction, adequate intelligence, and sociocultural opportunity.”
A student identified as dyslexic Social-emotional difficultiesmay display difficulties with: include: phonemic awareness and manipulation frustration single-word decoding slow processing reading fluency organizational spelling difficulties, and reading comprehension, and written expression anxietyDyslexic students may also havedelays in spoken language, poorlistening skills, auditory These factors can furtherprocessing disorders, and complicate the academicdifficulties learning directional success of dyslexic students.components such as up-down, or east-west.
Intervention and specialized reading programs offerindividualized and multi-sensory instruction that specifically meets the needs of each dyslexic student. The overall goal of dyslexia instruction is: Enable dyslexic students to become more confident, accurate, and fluent independent readers.
Instruction focuses on:•Phoneme awareness and Phonics Elements of language including: a. morphology, b. semantics, c. Syntax, and d. pragmatics.•Decoding•Fluency•Reading Comprehension•Writing mechanics•Handwriting skills•Alphabet skills, and•Spelling
“Inexpensive screening measuresidentify at risk children in mid-kindergarten with 85 percent accuracy”Hall and Moats
• Notify parents or guardians of proposal to assess student for dyslexia(§504)• Inform parents or guardians of their rights under §504• Obtain permission from the parent or guardian to assess the studentfor dyslexia• Assess student, being sure that individuals/professionals whoadminister assessments have t•raining in the evaluation of students for dyslexia and related disorders(19 TAC §74.28)
Assessing students for dyslexia must involve these:• Letter knowledge (name and associated sound)• Reading real and nonsense words in isolation (decoding)• Reading fluency (rate and accuracy)•Reading comprehension•Written spelling•Phonological Awareness•Rapid Naming
Accommodations are the way a teacher changes how she presents information,testsstudents, and has students practice new skills so that every child has a chance to succeed.
● Never force them to read aloud● Never call on them unless they volunteer● Make sure your classroom is a safe place to make mistakes● Dont force them to participate in any kind of spelling bee.
● Provide taped texts● Permit shared reading● Have someone read to the student● Pre-teach concepts of vocabulary before the unit
● Provide word banks● Have them learn a few words at a time● Make sure they can read the weekly spelling lists● Dont count off for spelling● Allow them to use spell check
● Accept oral work● Minimize copying from the board● Appoint a note taker for that student● Allow them to use a word processor
● Accept projects● Shorter written assignment● Be specific about expectations● Accept oral work
● Give oral test● Allow the test to be taken in a different environment● Allow more time● Fewer Questions● Discuss the test format ahead of time● Readable review sheet● Make study cards
● Reduce the amount of homework given● Maintain a calendar● Divide long term assignments into stages
● Say something good each day● Watch for signs of progress● Point out they have done well