Cooperative Extension Program Design, Implementation & Evaluation


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Master Gardener Program Design, Implementation and Evaluation Practices

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  • Late 1800s - higher education is private (think Yale, Harvard) and education realized is of no immediate importance to many (Philosophy, History, Literature).
  • Rep. Francis “Frank” Lever and Sen. Michael Hoke Smith
  • Agriculture and Natural Resources
    Family and Consumer Sciences
    4-H and Youth Development
    Community Viability
  • The Land-Grant University system was Established by the Morrill Land-Grant Colleges Acts of 1862 and 1890. In 1887, the Hatch Act was passed into law, to provide funds to states and commonwealths for the establishment of a series of agricultural experiment stations under the direction of each state’s land-grant college, as well as pass along new information gleaned from research.
    Subsequently, the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 was passed into law, and established a system of Cooperative Extension Services connected to land-grant universities.
    Virginia boasts two land-grant universities: Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, founded in 1872 as the Virginia Agricultural and Mechanical College.
    Virginia’s second land-grant university, Virginia State University, was originally founded in 1882 as The Virginia Normal and Collegiate Institute, a school for teachers.
    As Land-Grant Institutions, both share a three-fold mission of teaching, research and continuing education.
  • There was a true genius behind the creation of the Cooperative Extension Service. Cooperative Extension was designed to bring knowledge from the land grant university and turn it into ‘know-how” for the large majority of the population – when the Smith-Lever Act of 1914 established the Cooperative Extension Service, easily 80% of the U.S. population was employed in Agricultural Industry.
    Congress created the extension system nearly a century ago to address exclusively rural, agricultural issues. At that time, more than 50 percent of the U.S. population lived in rural areas, and 30 percent of the workforce was engaged in farming. Extension's engagement with rural America helped make possible the American agricultural revolution, which dramatically increased farm productivity:
    For example:
    In 1945, it took up to 14 labor-hours to produce 100 bushels of corn on 2 acres of land.
    By 1987, it took just under 3 labor-hours to produce that same 100 bushels of corn on just over 1 acre.
    In 2002, that same 100 bushels of corn were produced on less than 1 acre.
    That increase in productivity has allowed fewer farmers to produce more food.
    Today, fewer than 2 percent of Americans farm for a living, and only 17 percent of Americans now live in rural areas.
    When the Extension Service was established, it was the “only show in town”. There was no television, internet, proliferation of magazines and newspapers as means to disseminate and receive information. Nor were there the array of service providing agencies and organizations offering instruction and practical information. There was no welfare system, W.I.C. (a Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children), neither adult education programs nor pest control advisors. For the youth, largely rural at the beginning of the last century, 4-H was just about the only organized diversion. It served dually as an extension method to farmer parents. The 4-H centennial was celebrated in 2002. The Girl Scouts were founded 1912, and the Boy Scouts were founded in 1910.
    The local farm and home advisor was not only a source of powerful information that people could use to improve their economic lot in life, but was also a personal connection to the larger world. In these smaller communities, the agent was often a local resident who was not only a technical expert, but also, a friend. He truly extended the world into the lives of farming communities.
    The early days are best described as a time when everyone recognized Cooperative Extension, commonly known as the Agriculture Extension or County Agent. Other than doing their jobs well, there was little need for additional efforts to publicize Cooperative Extension. The likelihood was high that any member of a Board of Supervisors, or County Commissioners, was also a farmer who personally relied on the services of Cooperative Extension.
    Those days of easy recognition are gone. Cooperative Extension has survived through major economic and social transformations. We’ve gone from an Agrarian economy to an Industrial economy to a Service-driven economy. In each situation, Cooperative Extension has found important new roles to play as well as adapting the traditional farm, nutrition and youth programs to the changing needs of clientele. Although Cooperative Extension has continued to serve, fewer an fewer people know about the existence of Cooperative Extension, and the value it brings.
  • Life experiences; what we learn from acquaintances, family, friends; not curriculum based. Driven by conversation and informed by certain values and commitments.
  • Situation Analysis aids in determining the needs of people on the communities served. It involves assessing the situation and circumstances influencing the lives of people in Norfolk.
    Collaboration with Learner Groups is essential, and should include advisory committee members, community leaders and representatives of the audiences served. Collaboration is vital to program success.
    Collaboration ensures that audiences are identified, and that programs address highest priority needs of those audiences.
    Collaboration also provides participants with a sense of ownership, which results in stronger learner motivation, participation and strengthens of programs.
  • Needs Assessment: An analysis of the specific audience targeted to identify current circumstances or conditions, and determine what may or should be possible. This process will aid in providing direction in development of program objectives.
    Needs assessment methods may include direct interviews, random surveys of targeted audiences, observations by extension professionals as well as other collaborating individuals or groups.
    Analysis of available data, including census information, use of advisory boards, focus groups, assessment teams may all be useful in assessing needs.
    Analysis of critical incidents, such as accidents, expert consultation, meeting minutes and evaluation results may also be utilized to assess needs.
  • Lesson Content is the information needed by the learner(s). It may be elementary or highly complex, depending on the identified needs of a targeted audience, and assessed level of knowledge.
  • Learning Experiences should enhance the educational process, by involving emotions and senses.
  • Learning experiences may involve social interaction, practice, recitation, dissection and construction.
  • Home Gardening and Urban Horticulture also include the Master Gardener program and its many participants. Here we will want to develop program content addressing common gardening concerns, as well as more perplexing challenges facing our environmental resources.
  • Programming areas here may include training, appropriate species selection, pesticide and fertilizer run-off prevention, efficient water use, all important considerations in the management and conservation of resources in urban areas, near water bodies.
  • Program objectives, which may be viewed as desired outcomes or “Behavioral Objectives,” are desired changes for the targeted audience, based on identified needs.
    Well written program objectives answer four essential questions: “how”, “when”, “who” and “what”.
  • Waiting to be called upon.
  • Calling upon the masses!
  • Evaluation is a critically important component of the learning system, and should be ever-present as a continuous process. Evaluation methods vary with audiences served, and may take any number of forms, including observation, testimonials from program participants, interviews and surveys.
  • This stage should reflect upon changes in both the learner and the overall situation, as well as adjustments that must be made in the learning system in order to continue to provide needed and relevant information. The objectives, content, learning strategies and delivery methods that form a program delivery system will likely need continuous modification and adjustment in order to provide proactive, up-to-date educational opportunities for learners.
  • Cooperative Extension Program Design, Implementation & Evaluation

    1. 1. Becoming A Steward Program Design, Implementation and Evaluation Eric Stormer Virginia Cooperative Extension VCE - Norfolk 1
    2. 2. MORRILL LAND GRANT ACTS 1860 – 1890 Sen. Justin Morrill (VT)
    3. 3. COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SMITH-LEVER ACT (1914) Sen. Michael Smith (GA) Rep. Francis Lever (SC) “Do not go where the path may lead, go instead where there is no path and leave a trail.” Ralph Waldo Emerson
    4. 4. COOPERATIVE EXTENSION SMITH-LEVER ACT (1914) Virginia Cooperative Extension is an educational outreach program of Virginia’s land-grant universities:
    5. 5. VIRGINIA COOPERATIVE EXTENSION MISSION Virginia Cooperative Extension enables people to improve their lives through an educational process that uses scientific knowledge focused on issues and needs.
    6. 6. Programming (Curriculum) Areas 6
    7. 7. 7
    8. 8. 8
    9. 9. 9
    10. 10. The Agent’s Role(s) 10
    11. 11. Programming Process “Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?” “That depends a good deal on where you want to get to.”… (Alice in Wonderland, Chapter VI, P64; Carrroll, 1960) 11
    12. 12. VCE Programming Process Situation Situation Analysis Analysis Working with Working with Stakeholders Stakeholders Educational Educational Program Design Program Design & & Implementation Implementation Program Evaluation Program Evaluation And And Reporting Reporting 12
    13. 13. Programming Process 13
    14. 14. 14
    15. 15. 15
    16. 16. 16
    17. 17. Types of Education 1. Formal Education 2. Non-formal Education 3. Informal Education Which one does VCE esteem most? 17
    18. 18. Formal Education Instruction with predetermined learning objectives and goals. Generally takes place in a formal classroom environment, over an extended period of time, as part of a larger curriculum. 18
    19. 19. Non-formal Education May or may not occur in a formal (classroom) learning environment. Typically involves workshops, community courses, conference style seminars. Is not recognized within a larger curriculum or syllabus framework. 19
    20. 20. Attributes Educational Systems Formal Education Non-Formal Education • • • • • • • • • • • • • Compulsory Curriculum-based Teacher-Directed Set Times Ages 5- 18 Classrooms Learning Assessments Voluntary Personal Interest Self-Directed All ages; lifelong learning Ubiquitous No tests or grades 20
    21. 21. Informal Education 1. Assess what’s going on. 2.Engage in conversation. 3.Raise questions. 4.Considers those questions in relationship to what helps humans flourish. 5. Develop a response. 21
    25. 25. LESSON CONTENT • Lesson Plan Procedure • Instructor’s Component • Learner Activities • Learning Assessments
    26. 26. EXPERIENCES
    27. 27. EXPERIENCES
    28. 28. Fundraising/Solicitation 28
    29. 29. ENVIRONMENTAL HORTICULTURE That “branch of horticulture that deals with the production of plants for ornamental use in constructed environments, both indoors and outdoors.” • Floriculture and Nursery Management • Turf Grass • Landscape Management • Home Gardening/Urban Horticulture
    34. 34. GARDENING
    36. 36. PROGRAMMING, ETC.
    37. 37. PROGRAMMING, ETC.
    40. 40. Setting Goals and Objectives Goals: statements about general aims or purposes of education, that are broad, longrange intended outcomes and concepts; e.g., “clear communication”, problem-solving skills”. Objectives: brief, clear statements that describe desired learning specific outcomes of instruction; i.e., skills, values and attitudes students should exhibit, that reflect broader goals. 40
    41. 41. Setting Goals – Some Questions • • • • • • What do you want to see happen? Who will be changed? In what time frame will this change occur? How will this change be maintained? Are the desired conditions measurable? Are your goals realistic? 41
    42. 42. Types of Objectives • Cognitive – what you want learners to know • Affective – what you want learners to care or think about • Behavioral – what you want learners to be able to do 42
    43. 43. Learning Outcomes • Statements that describe significant what learners will know and be able to do at the end of a program. • Describe knowledge gains, skill gains, values acquisition. 43
    44. 44. Objectives vs. Outcomes • Objectives describe intended results and/or consequences; what students are expected to demonstrate at the end of instruction (learning indicators) • Outcomes constitute achieved results and/or consequences; describe what the student should learn (describe desired behaviors which result from new knowledge, skills and abilities) 44
    45. 45. Outcomes • Are aligned with VCE’s mission, vision, values and goals • Clearly describe and define expected abilities, knowledge, values and attitudes of participants • Allow for accurate and reliable data to be collected • Are clearly written, simply stated 45
    46. 46. Outcomes • Allow for more than one measurement method to be used • Can be used to identify areas to improve • Use action verbs to specify definite, observable behaviors • Describe student behaviors • Describe learning outcomes 46
    48. 48. Program Delivery Methods Individual Contact • • • • Office visits Home visits Personal letter Telephone call 48
    49. 49. Program Delivery Methods Mass Media • • • • • • Publications Newsletters Newspaper Radio Television Social Media 49
    50. 50. Program Delivery Methods Group Contact • • • • • • • • Clinic Workshop Short Course Seminar Contests Field Trip/Tour Demonstrations Exhibits 50
    51. 51. Sustainable Landscape Management (SLM) Educational Programming Levels • Developed by Cooperative Extension to help VCE-MGs understand the varying levels of commitment which will allow them to initiate a program. • Helps VCE-MGs achieve results that they can be proud of, and that are meaningful to others. • Programming at each level is independent of programming at other levels, but is not mutually exclusive 51
    52. 52. SLM Educational Programming Level 1 – Creating Awareness through information dissemination • • • • • Most basic level Reactive approach Goal is to raise awareness of issue(s) Responds to individual’s needs Least amount of energy, time, planning, and effort required • Often takes the form of an informal educational effort 52
    53. 53. SLM Educational Programming Level 1 – Reactive Dissemination 53
    54. 54. SLM Educational Programming Level 2 – Participants establish personal roles and responsibilities • More “active” than Level 1 • Involves outreach efforts to inform community • Not only creates awareness; increases knowledge and personal commitment of community members • May involve giving presentations to groups who demonstrate interest (school classes, gardening groups, civic groups, writing for local paper, etc.) 54
    55. 55. SLM Educational Programming Level 2 – Dissemination – Outreach Engagement to Create Awareness Presentations to people who demonstrate interest Children/School Gardens Mass Media 55
    56. 56. SLM Educational Programming Level 3 – Enable people to act using personal skills, knowledge • Involves greater planning and participation than previous 2 levels by both VCE-MG and Community Members • Increases knowledge and skills by demonstrating techniques on a large scale, with a time-frame, through one-time events (field day, workshop, demonstration, etc.) • Open to public; are publicized, more “lengthy”; may provide “hands-on” learning opportunities • No further action required 56
    57. 57. SLM Educational Programming Level 3 – Community Education, e.g. Demonstrations, Site Visits, Field Days, Short Courses, Forums Demonstration Small Group Session Site Visit Field Day Forum 57
    58. 58. SLM Educational Programming Level 4 – Behavioral Change • Attributes include an organized educational program, accompanied by community action, and a documented behavioral change • Requires long-term efforts (programming), much planning, often involves many people and different agencies, and results in committed change in behaviors in community members • Includes activities and resources used in Level 1, 2 and 3 programming 58
    59. 59. SLM Educational Programming Level 5 – Behaviors are generally accepted practices; become institutionalized • The “Ultimate Goal” of SLM programming • Draws on community support efforts at some, or all, of the previously defined levels • Program becomes a permanent fixture in the community, with continued volunteer support and community involvement, even after VCEMG Stewardship leadership is removed, allowing VCE-MGs to move onto other efforts. 59
    60. 60. Five Levels of SLM Programming 60
    61. 61. Program Evaluation 61
    62. 62. EVALUATION