Bulbs – Fall is For Planting!
Eric Stormer
Virginia Cooperative Extension
Norfolk, Virginia
T. kaufmanniana in its native
southern Kazakhstan.
Tulip in the desert of the Aral Sea
region, Kazakhstan
Tulipa agenensis sharonensis, Dor-Habonim Beach, Israel
T. agenensis, Jerusalem
T. gesneriana
The colorful Schrenck's Tulip, T. schrenckii
Commercial tulip production, The Netherlands
Japan
Table Cape, Tasmania
Washington State, USA
The Amaryllis Family
Amaryllidaceae
Ornamental Onion, Allium spp.
A . aflatunense, ‘Purple Sensation’
Allium giganteum
Allium christophii
Snowdrops, Galanthus nivalis
Galanthus elwesii
Amaryllis
Hippeastrum X hybrida
Star Flower
Ipheion uniflorum
Red Spider Lily
Lycoris radiata
Magic Lily, Resurrection Lily
Lycoris squamigera
Narcissus
Division 2 – Large Cup
Narcissus
Division 3 – Small Cup
Narcissus, ‘Barrett Browning’ Narcissus, ‘Pooka’
Narcissus
Division 4 – Double Flowered
Narcissus ‘Thalia’
Division 5 - Triandrus
Narciccus ‘Jetfire’
Division 6 - Cyclamineus
Narcissus, ‘Bell Song’
Division 7 - Jonquilla
Narcissus ‘Silver Chimes’
Division 8 - Tazetta
Autumn Daffodil
Sternbergia lutea
The Colchicum Family
Colchicaceae
Autumn Crocus, Meadow Saffron
Colchicum autumnale
C. autumnale, var. alboplenum
Autumn Crocus
Colchicum cilicicum
Autumn Crocus
Colchicum ‘The Giant’
The Iris Family
Iridaceae
Dutch Crocus, Giant Crocus
Crocus vernus vernus
Tomasini’s Crocus
Crocus tommasinianus
Sieber’s Crocus, Cretan Crocus
Crocus sieberi
Silvery Crocus
Crocus biflorus cvs.
C. biflorus, ‘’Blue Pearl’ C. biflorus, ‘Prins Claus’
Snow Crocus
Crocus chrysanthus, ‘Cream Beauty’
Cloth-of-Gold Crocus
Crocus angustifolius
Fall Crocus
Crocus goulimyi
Saffron/Autumn Crocus
Crocus sativus (Autumn flowering)
Crocus speciosus, ‘Conqueror’
(Autumn flowering)
Ligurian Autumn Crocus
Crocus medius, syn. C. ligusticus
Iris histrioides
Reticulated Iris
Iris reticulata
The Lily Family
Liliaceae
Glory-of-the-Snow
Chiondoxa
Crown Imperial
Fritillaria imperialis, ‘Flava’
Fritillaria imperialis
(native habitat)
Spanish Bluebell
Hyacinthoides hispanica
Oriental (Dutch) Hyacinth
Hyacinthus x orientalis
English Bluebell
Hyacinthus non-scripta
English
Bluebell
Asiatic Lily
Trumpet
Lily,
L. longiflorum
Oriental Lily
Orienpet Lily Hybrids
Grape Hyacinth
Muscari armeniacum
Grape Hyacinth
Muscari azureum
Muscari neglectum
Muscari neglectum
Striped Squill
Puschkinia scilliodes,
var. libanotica
Siberian Squill, Scilla siberica
Emperor Tulip
Tulipa fosteriana hyb.
Tulipa ‘Exotic Emperor’
Tulipa fosteriana in its native Uzbekistan
Tulipa griegii hybrids
Tulipa griegii, ‘Orange Sunset’
Tulipa griegii, ‘Queen Ingrid’
T. griegii
Tulipa kaufmaniana hybrids
Tulipa kaufmanniana, ‘Gluck’
T. kaufmanniana, ‘Shakespeare’
T. kaufmanniana, ‘Kiev’
Tulipa kaufmanniana in its native Turkestan
Single Early Tulip
Tulipa, ‘Diana’
Tulipa, ‘Candy Prince’
Darwin Hybrids – lineage
Tulipa fosteriana, ‘Red Emperor’ –
male parent
T. gesneriana, ‘Anthony Roosen’
Intro. 1892 (One o...
Darwin Hybrid Tulips
Tulipa, ‘Pink Impression’
Triumph Hybrid Tulips
Tulipa ‘Apricot Beauty’
Species Tulips
Tulipa clusiana
The Primrose Family
Primulaceae
Cyclamen coum
Cyclamen coum
Cyclamen coum
Cyclamen hederifolium
Cyclamen hederifolium
The Buttercup Family
Ranunculaceae
Grecian Windflower
Anemone blanda
Crown Anemone
Anemone coronaria
Winter Aconite
Eranthis hyemalis
The End
Questions?
Bulbs for Autumn Planting
Bulbs for Autumn Planting
Bulbs for Autumn Planting
Bulbs for Autumn Planting
Bulbs for Autumn Planting
Bulbs for Autumn Planting
Bulbs for Autumn Planting
Bulbs for Autumn Planting
Bulbs for Autumn Planting
Bulbs for Autumn Planting
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Bulbs for Autumn Planting

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A selection of Spring and Summer bulbs for Autumn planting

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  • Turkestan experiences a  desert climate  ( Köppen   BWk ) with short, cold winters and long, dry, very hot summers. The vast majority of the annual precipitation falls between late autumn and late spring.
  • Tulipa agenensis
  • The Steppe biome is a dry, cold, grassland that is found in all of the continents except Australia and Antarctica. The Steppe biome is usually found between the desert and the forest. If it got more rain, it would become a forest. If it got less rain, it would become a desert.  Steppe has warm summers and really cold winters. There is often a lot of snow in the northern Steppes. All the Steppes experience long droughts and violent winds. Sometimes the summers are so hot that the grasses catch on fire.  The temperature between summer and winter varies a lot. Summer temperatures of the steppe aren't much different from the dry savanna. Both are grasslands, and both can reach temperatures of 104° F, and have heavy thunderstorms. In the winter, however, there are no clouds to keep heat from escaping into the upper atmosphere. The land gets colder and colder. Winter temperatures of -40° F are not uncommon. There are no trees to block the wind, so it howls. The combination of low temperatures and dry winds make it a very harsh place to live. Kazakh steppe The  Kazakh steppe  ecoregion is the world’s largest dry steppe region. Formerly being a continuous belt, stretching from the Ural river to the Altai foothills. The relief is either flat low plain or gentle hilly plain plateau, the altitudinal differences barely exceed 200 m. Most of the area is occupied by steppe and dry steppe, with desert steppe being less common. These formations are dominated by compact turf plants, primarily feathergrasses  Stipa , but also cushion-like plants, ephemers and ephemeroids, like tulip  Tulipa  and lily  Gagea , and ‘perekati pole’ or tumbleweed. Steppe occupies plateaus, except depressions and gullies. During the growing season there are 6-12 waves of growth and flowering, during which different species replace each other. A particular species is abundant during only one wave, whereas almost undetectable during the rest of the season. Therefore a steppe’s appearance changes dramatically during the season.
  • The Netherlands devotes over 10,000 hectares (25,000 acres) to tulip cultivation. Concentrated in the northern part of the Netherlands, the majority of tulips are grown seasonally outdoors, so that production peaks in Spring. Other times of the year, countries in warmer climates provide us with tulips, such as Chile, or we turn to greenhouses located in cooler climates.
  • Flower Characteristics     perianth of 6 parts, usually identical (i.e., 6 tepals)   stamens  6   ovary inferior and epigynous with 3 fused carpels   placentation axile (3 locules) note: flowers are very similar to the Lily Family, but with inferior ovaries (considered an advancement) flowers often have a corona (a vertical extension of the floral tube) inflorescence often scapose (flowers borne on a leafless flowering stalk, a scape) or in an  umbellate inflorescence (Hutchinson put umbellate Liliaceae and Amaryllidaceae into the same group)  Vegetative Characteristics     perennial herbs from rhizomes, bulbs, or corms   leaves basal Other Points of Interest   family of 86 genera with worldwide distribution economic value as ornamentals ( Amaryllis ,  Agave ,  Narcissus , etc.) Agave  is source of hemp fiber and its sugary exudate is fermented to produce tequila and   mezcal ( Agave  has 275 species!) Representatives   Daffodil ( Narcissus ) Amaryllis ( Amaryllis ) Agave ( Agave )
  • Ornamental onions blooms in late spring and early summer, growing best in full sun, on well-drained soils.
  • One of the first bulbs to flower after mid-winter, bearing nodding white flowers. Grows taller as days lengthen, performing best in sun or partial shade on moist soil that does not dry out in summer. Associates well with winter aconite, Eranthis hyemalis . Can be difficult to establish, but will form good clumps and self-seed in time.
  • May be grown outdoors in tidewater, where soil does not freeze, provided that bulbs are beneath the soil and mulched. Often grown as a houseplant. Numerous cultivars exist.
  • Sub-Family: Alliaceae Zone: 5 to 9 Native Range: Uruguay, Argentina, Chile Height: 0.25 to 0.5 feet Spread: 0.25 to 0.5 feet Bloom Time: April Bloom Color: Blue, White, Lavender Bloom Description: Pale to dark blue Sun: Full sun to part shade Water: Medium Maintenance: Low Flowers: Showy Flowers, Fragrant Flowers Leaves: Fragrant Tolerates: Clay Soil, Black Walnuts Uses: Cut Flower, Will Naturalize Culture Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Wide range of soil tolerance. Plant bulbs 2-3” deep and space 2-4” apart in fall. Naturalizes rapidly by bulb offsets and self-seeding, and is considered to be one of the easiest bulbs to grow. Plants go dormant by late spring. Problems No serious insect or disease problems. Garden Uses Mass in border fronts or rock gardens, along walks or paths, in semi-wild areas or under trees or in front of shrubs. Also can be naturalized in lawns.
  • Common Name: spider lily Native Range: Japan Height: 1 to 2 feet Spread: 1 to 1.5 feet Bloom Time: August to September Bloom Color: Red Sun: Full sun to part shade Water: Medium Maintenance: Medium Flowers: Showy Flowers Uses: Will Naturalize Culture Winter hardy to USDA Zones 5b-10 where bulbs may be grown in organically rich, medium moisture, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Best flowering is in part shade. Plant bulbs 9” apart in fall with the top 1/4" of the neck of each bulb exposed. Plants appreciate even moisture during their growing season, but may be best sited in areas where soils remain relatively dry during the summer dormant season. Plants will naturalize by bulb-offsets and form small colonies over time. Plants are best left undisturbed in the soil. Bulbs should be planted in a sheltered location to prevent winter freezing of their foliage which emerges in fall and remains evergreen throughout winter before dying back in late spring.   It should be noted that standard Lycoris culture requires that bulb necks be above ground level for floral bud development in the bulb, so burying the bulbs below ground level will discourage flowering. Noteworthy Characteristics Red spider lily is a late summer-blooming bulb of the amaryllis family. Strap-like grayish-green leaves appear in fall only after bloom is finished. Leaves overwinter and remain in the landscape before eventually disappearing in late spring. Naked flower scapes emerge from the ground in late summer to early fall, each bearing an umbel of 4-6 showy coral-red flowers. Each flower (to 2” long) has significantly reflexed tepals and exceptionally long stamens resembling spider legs, hence the common name. Scapes typically rise to 1-2’ tall. Leaves reappear in fall after the flowers bloom. Plants of this species have a short flower tube resulting in the sometimes-used common name of short tube lycoris. Plants in the genus  Lycoris  are sometimes commonly called resurrection flower, surprise lily, magic lily or naked ladies because the leaves disappear in summer with the flower spikes seemingly rising from the dead in late summer. Genus name comes for the name of the Roman mistress of Marc Antony. Specific epithet from Latin means "spoke" in reference to the spreading flower tepals. Problems No serious insect or disease problems. 
  • Common Name: Resurrection lily Family: Amaryllidaceae Zone: 5 to 9 Native Range: Japan Height: 1.5 to 2 feet Spread: 1.5 to 2 feet Bloom Time: August to September Bloom Description: Rose pink tinged with lilac Sun: Full sun to part shade Water: Medium Maintenance: Low Flowers: Showy Flowers, Fragrant Flowers Uses: Will Naturalize Culture This is the most cold hardy of the species of  Lycoris  available in commerce today. It is easily grown in organically rich, medium moisture, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Plant bulbs 5-6” deep and 6” apart in fall. Mulch in winter. Naturalizes by bulb-offsets. Needs only moderate water during summer after the leaves die back and before the flowering stems emerge. Noteworthy Characteristics Late summer-blooming bulb of the Amaryllis family. Strap-like grayish-green leaves (to 12” long and 1” wide) in spring. Leaves die back in summer. Thick naked flower scapes rise to 2’ tall in late summer, each bearing 4-7 funnel-shaped, rose-pink tinged with lilac flowers that are quite fragrant. Plants in the genus Lycoris  are sometimes commonly called resurrection flower, surprise lily or magic lily because the leaves disappear in summer with the flower spikes seemingly rising from the dead in late summer. Problems No serious insect or disease problems. Garden Uses Borders or containers. Also effective in open woodland gardens, meadows or wild areas where the messy late spring foliage is not a concern.
  • The term  Large Cup  refers to the cup (corona) of the daffodil. (In Division 2, the cup isn't as long as the trumpet of Division 1, Trumpet Daffodils), but it is longer than the cup of Division 3 Daffodils ( Short Cup Daffodils ).This is by far the most popular of all the divisions.  Over 40% of all daffodil varieties cultivated are Large Cup Daffodils . These daffodils have: the full color range: white, and every possible shade of yellow, pink, orange, and red a wide variety of cup shapes: ruffled, trumpet-like or flat extreme weather-tolerance repeated years of vital blooming (i.e. they come back year after year) every possible use: good for beds, borders, as cut flowers, for indoor forcing, and for showing wide availability: in nurseries, by mail order, on-line, in hardware stores, and in supermarkets Common Name: large-cupped daffodil Zone: 3 to 8 Height: 1.5 to 2 feet These bold, weather-tolerant narcissi are known by their large cups which are ruffled, colorfully-edged, trumpet-like or flat. They offer a tremendous color diversity and promise repeat years of vital blooming. Horticultural zones 3-7. (Horticultural narcissus classification: R.H.S. Division 2.) Spread: 1 to 1.5 feet Bloom Time: April Sun: Full sun to part shade Water: Medium Maintenance: Low Flowers: Showy Flowers, Fragrant Flowers Tolerates: Drought, Deer, Rabbits Culture Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Prefers moderately fertile loams. Bulbs prefer a neutral to slightly acid soil. Plant bulbs 4-6” deep and to 6” apart in fall. Light fertilizer may be applied in spring after shoots emerge. After flowers have bloomed, foliage should not be cut back until it begins to yellow. Flowers usually face the sun, so bulbs should be grown with any shade areas at the rear of the planting. Propagation by bulb division is easiest. Clumps may be divided when flowering declines or clumps become too crowded. Problems No serious insect or disease problems. Bulb rot may occur in poorly-drained soils. Garden Uses Best in beds, borders, rock gardens, wild gardens, open woodland areas, in front of shrubs or massed under trees. Best planted in quantity, i.e., from smaller groupings of at least 6 bulbs to large sweeping drifts. Large, naturalized plantings in informal areas (meadows or open woodlands) can be spectacular. Mixes well with other spring-flowering bulbs.
  • As the name implies, these daffodils have cups (i.e. trumpets) that are relatively small and shallow. This group of daffodils is noted for their brilliant colors: the cups can be snow white, golden yellow, lime green, salmon, coral, orange, or vermillion red. They are a wonderful addition to any cut flower arrangement. Short Cup Daffodils are also very good naturalizers ; in other words, they will come back year after year and gradually multiply. Short Cup Daffodils are sometimes commercially not as widely available as other varieties of daffodils. If you have difficulties finding them, try some of the on-line catalogues Common Name: small-cupped daffodil Type: Bulb Family: Amaryllidaceae Zone: 3 to 8 Height: 1 to 1.5 feet Spread: 0.5 to 1 feet Bloom Time: April Bloom Description: Yellow petals and orange-red cup Sun: Full sun to part shade Water: Medium Maintenance: Low Flowers: Showy Flowers Tolerates: Drought, Deer, Rabbits Culture Easily grown in average, medium moisture, well-drained soils in full sun to part shade. Good soil drainage is essential. Best in organically rich loams. Soils should be kept uniformly moist during the growing season. Plant bulbs in early to mid fall. Planting depth depends upon bulb size. Each bulb should be planted 2 to 3 times as deep as the bulb, with at least 3” of soil over the top. Space bulbs from 4-10” apart (larger bulbs are planted further apart than smaller ones). Larger spacing may look sparse in early years, but the spaces will fill in over time and division will be needed less. In general, most bulbs will be planted 3-6" deep and 4-8” apart. After the flowers have bloomed in spring, the top portion of each flower stem may be removed, as practicable, to prevent seed formation, but foliage should not be cut back until it begins to yellow. Flowers usually face the sun, so bulbs should be grown with any shade areas at the rear of the planting. Bulbs can be left undisturbed for a number of years. If bloom quality and quantity decline over time, clumps may be divided by digging just after the foliage dies back. Noteworthy Characteristics Blooms in late season. Narrow, strap-shaped, green leaves in clumps. Problems No serious insect or disease problems. With proper soil and culture, daffodils are noted for being almost pest-free. Bulb rot may occur in poorly-drained soils. Infrequent insect pests include narcissus bulb fly, narcissus nematode, slugs and snails. Bulb scale mite may occur. Narcissus yellow stripe virus is an infrequent problem. Garden Uses Unlike tulips, daffodils keep blooming year after year. They are best sited in beds, borders, wild gardens, open woodland areas, in front of shrubs or massed under trees. They are best planted in quantity, i.e., from smaller groupings of at least 6 bulbs to large sweeping drifts. They mix well with other spring-flowering bulbs.
  • The term  double  means that extra petals are present. Sometimes a daffodil will have a doubled trumpet; sometimes it will have doubled petals (i.e. perianth segments), and sometimes doubles of both. As a result, Double Daffodils may resemble carnations or even gardenias rather than daffodils. Needless to say, this can look VERY impressive. As if this were not enough, some Double Daffodils are  floriferous  (i.e. have more than one blossom per stem). As well, many have wonderful fragrances. Common Name: double daffodil Type: Bulb Family: Amaryllidaceae Zone: 3 to 8 Height: 1 to 1.5 feet Spread: 0.5 to 0.75 feet Bloom Time: March Bloom Color: varies with cultivar Bloom Description: white outer petals with double apricot-pink centers Sun: Full sun to part shade Water: Medium Maintenance: Low Flowers: Showy Flowers Tolerates: Drought, Deer, Rabbits Uses: Cut Flower Culture Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soil in full sun to part shade. Plant bulbs 5-6" deep in fall. Bulbs prefer a neutral to slightly acidic, sandy loam . After the flowers have bloomed, the top portion of each flower stem may be removed to prevent seed formation (optional), but foliage should not be cut back until it begins to yellow. Flowers usually face the sun, so bulbs should be grown with any shade areas at the rear of the planting. Bulbs can be left undisturbed for a number of years. Propagation by bulb division is easiest. Problems No serious insect or disease problems. Bulb rot can be a problem in poorly drained soils. Garden Uses This daffodil grows well in border fronts, near shrubs or trees, in wild gardens or in naturalized areas. Best planted in quantity: from smaller groupings of at least six bulbs to large masses in long, sweeping drifts. Mixes well with other spring bulbs.
  • Triandrus Daffodils are normally  floriferous ; that is, they have more than one blossom per stem. The blossoms are somewhat pendant; i.e. the heads nod or droop slightly. As well, the petals are slightly reflexed  (swept-back). Several  miniature  varieties of Triandrus Daffodils have been developed which are particularly suitable for rock gardens, Fairy Chimes and Hawera, to name two of the most popular. Common Name: triandrus daffodil Type: Bulb Family: Amaryllidaceae Zone: 4 to 8 Height: 0.5 to 1 feet Spread: 0.25 to 0.5 feet Bloom Time: April Bloom Color: White Bloom Description: White Sun: Full sun to part shade Water: Medium Maintenance: Low Flowers: Showy Flowers, Fragrant Flowers Tolerates: Drought, Deer, Rabbits Uses: Cut Flower Culture Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soil in full sun to part shade. Plant bulbs 4-6" deep in fall. Bulbs prefer a neutral to slightly acid soil. Propagation by bulb division is easiest. After flowers have bloomed, foliage should not be cut back until it begins to yellow. Flowers usually face the sun, so bulbs should be grown with any shade areas at the rear of the planting. Noteworthy Characteristics A triandrus narcissus (Division V). This miniature daffodil rises to 8-12" tall and features 3-5, very fragrant, nodding, bell-like, pure white flowers per scape. Bulbs are easily grown, multiply rapidly and can be left undisturbed for a number of years. Problems No serious insect or disease problems. Bulb rot can be a problem in poorly drained soils. Garden Uses This daffodil grows well in intimate groupings in rock gardens, in border fronts, near shrubs or trees, in wild gardens or in naturalized areas. Mixes well with other spring bulbs.
  • Cyclamineus Daffodils have blossoms with a straight slender trumpet and flared-back ( reflexed ) petals. Sometimes the petals are bent back so far back that the  flower looks windswept .Some varieties strongly  resemble a cyclamen , for which the division is named. Cyclamineus Daffodils are among the very first hybrid daffodils to bloom in the spring. In addition, they tolerate shade and heavy, damp soil better than most other daffodils do. However, as they are not particularly tall, they should be planted closer together for a more impressive display. They are excellent for rock gardens, and for indoor forcing. Common Name: cyclamineus daffodil Type: Bulb Family: Amaryllidaceae Zone: 4 to 8 Height: 0.5 to 1 feet Spread: 0.25 to 0.5 feet Bloom Time: March to April Bloom Color: Yellow Bloom Description: Golden yellow Sun: Full sun to part shade Water: Medium Maintenance: Low Flowers: Showy Flowers Tolerates: Drought, Deer, Rabbits Uses: Cut Flower Culture Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soil in full sun to part shade. Plant bulbs 4-6" deep in fall. Bulbs prefer a neutral to slightly acid soil. Propagation by bulb division is easiest. After flowers have bloomed, foliage should not be cut back until it begins to yellow. Flowers usually face the sun, so bulbs should be grown with any shade areas at the rear of the planting. More shade tolerant than most daffodils. Forces well. Noteworthy Characteristics Cyclamineus narcissus (Division VI). This early to mid-blooming miniature daffodil rises to 8-12" tall and features a golden yellow flower with a long, narrow trumpet and extremely reflexed petals and sepals. Bulbs are easily grown, multiply rapidly and can be left undisturbed for a number of years. Problems No serious insect or disease problems. Bulb rot can be a problem in poorly drained soils. Garden Uses This miniature daffodil grows well in intimate groupings in rock gardens, in border fronts, near shrubs or trees, in wild gardens or in naturalized areas.
  • The daffodils of this group are noted primarily for their  scent : the most fragrant daffodils of the  Narcissus  genus are found in this division.These daffodils are also  floriferous ; in other words, they normally produce more than one flower per stem. On average, a Jonquilla Daffodil will have two to six blossoms per stalk. They are also known for being exceptionally durable. The bulbs  naturalize  (i.e. come back year after year, gradually multiplying) extremely well. Unlike some daffodils, which prefer a cooler climate, Jonquils do very well in the Deep South, and appreciate a hot summer sun. However, the pink-cupped varieties should be planted in semi-shade or filtered sunlight to maintain their rosy cup colour. All sweetly fragrant, Jonquilla Narcissi have slender foliage bearing from two to six flowers with small cups. They are ideal for both cutting and naturalizing! Prolong the flowering season with these late-flowering beauties. Pink-cupped varieties prefer semi-shade or filtered sunlight. Height: 6" to 24" depending on the variety. Bloom time: May. Plant 6" deep and 6" apart. Horticultural zones 5-9. (Horticultural narcissus classification: R.H.S. Division 7.)
  • Tazettas are  floriferous  or  bunch flowering  daffodils: they produce several blossoms per stem, at a minimum three or four. However, clusters of eighteen or even twenty are not rare.They are particularly good for planting in the  warmer zones , such as in the Deep South, where many other types of daffodils will not flourish. Here they make excellent perennials (i.e. they come back year after year). In addition, Tazetta Daffodils almost always have a very sweet, musky  fragrance , for which they are deservedly prized. A vigorous, multi-flowering strain with several stems per bulb, Tazetta Narcissi are very fragrant and are ideal for southern climates. Tazetta Narcissi are a bit tender and require winter protection farther north. They are great forcers! Bloom time: April. Plant 6" to 8" deep and 6" apart. Horticultural zones 5-9. (Horticultural narcissus classification: R.H.S. Division 8.)
  • Resistant to deer and voles. Named for the Austrian botanist, Count Kaspar von Sternberg. Normally occurs on stonyhillsides, scrub and pine forests of Southern Europe from Spain to Afghanistan. Grow in full sun. Establish best in alkaline soils. May be increased by division, but best not to disturb until the clump fails to flower.
  • Habit and leaf form.  Herbaceous Perennial ; with a basal aggregation of leaves, or with neither basal nor terminal aggregations of leaves;  cormous, or rhizomatous ( Gloriosa ) . Self supporting, or climbing; climbers stem twiners and tendril climbers.  Leaves   alternate ;  spiral (usually), or distichous ; petiolate (rarely), or sessile;  sheathing ; simple.  Lamina  entire; linear, or lanceolate;  parallel-veined ;  without cross-venules . Lamina margins entire. Formerly of the Lily Family. Perianth   of ‘tepals’ ; 6(–8); free, or joined; 1 whorled (commonly in Australian genera, e.g.  Wurmbea ), or 2 whorled (usually 3+3?); isomerous;  petaloid ; without spots, or spotted;  similar in the two whorls (in size and form) ; white, or purple, or red, or yellow.
  • Grow in well drained soil, in full sun. In summer or early autumn, plant corms. Grey mold and slugs may be a problem. This species grows in the sub-alpine meadows of Europe. Each corm produces 1-6 goblet shaped lavender-pink flowers. Good choice for naturalizing!
  • This species is a large, honey-scented, free-flowering Colchicum with up to 25 bright purplish pink flowers that deepen in color at the tips. Vigorous and easy to grow.
  • A hybrid which produces a succession of up to 5 large purplish-violet flowers, each with a typical goblet shape. Typically 8” high x 8” wide. In spring, a clump of broad, deer-proof leaves emerges, stays awhile, and vanishes by midsummer. We plant the bulbs in front of shrubs, among vigorous perennials, and at the grassy foot of a fence. Colchicums prefer well-drained soil that doesn't dry out in summer and the need shade where summers are hot.   'The Giant' is one of the tallest and most free-flowering of the Colchicums. The pinkish-lavender flowers are white at the base. Heirloom, pre-1926.
  • Named for Iris, Greek Goddess of the Rainbow. Characteristics of this Plant Family: Leaves, Stem & Roots :  The members of this family are herbaceous and have storage organs (rhizomes, corms or bulbs). The leaves are long and thin, usually arranged in two rows and forming a fan shape. Flowers : The flowers may be single and almost stemless (Crocus), or they may occur as spikes at the top of a branched or unbranched stem. There are six petals in two rings of three. Each ring or whorl may be composed of petals of the same or different shape and size. The typical Iris flower has three outer petals spreading horizontally, while the inner three petals stand upright . There are three stamens opposite the three outer petals . Seeds:  The seed pod in this Family forms behind the flowers, on the stalk side. It is composed of three chambers each with two rows of fairly large seeds. Members of this Family usually have: Bulbs or other storage organs  Long, thin leaves  Six petals in two rings  Three stamens   Seed capsule which forms behind the flower Note:  Members of this Family have several things in common with other bulbous plants in the Lily and Amaryllis Families. Here are some points of difference which might help tell them apart: Liliaceae  ~ 6 stamens, superior ovary (inside the flower)  Iridaceae  ~ 3 stamens, inferior ovary (behind the flower)  Amaryllidaceae  ~ 6 stamens, inferior ovary (behind the flower) 
  • Mixed about equally from 6 large-flowered hybrids. Colors include purple, yellow, white, lavender, and stripes.  Dutch crocus is an ideal bulb to naturalize in grass. The flowers appear from spring to early summer but during mild winters they can bloom as early as February. When naturalizing in grass, leave the grass uncut for six weeks after flowering to encourage self-seeding. Plant the bulbs 8cm to 10cm (3in to 4in) deep in autumn in a sunny position. C. vernus can tolerate poor to moderate soil as long as it is well drained. Most forms are good garden plants in areas with summer rainfall.  
  • Flowers late winter to early spring. Blossoms vary from pale silvery lilac to reddish-purple. On dull days, the slender flowers are not highly visible, but in sun they open to create a wonderful display. Well suited to naturalizing in grass. Easy in garden conditions avoiding waterlogged places. Tolerant of some shade. Resistant to squirrels and chipmunks! Researchers at Cornell found mice and voles loved to eat all tulips. They fed on hyacinth, crocus, allium, scilla, and Dutch iris when hungry. However, they avoided daffodil, camassia, chinodoxa, muscari, fritillaria, and snowdrops. So, if vole damage is a concern, either protect susceptible bulbs with cages or place crushed oyster shells in the hole at planting time. Or just stick with the mice-and vole-resistant bulbs.
  • Small early blooming plant well suited to naturalizing (i.e. come back year after year and slowly multiply) extremely easily to cultivate. Tolerant of summer moisture in well drained soil; In cultivation this is a more difficult plant to maintain, requiring a drier summer rest.  
  • Well drained soil, preferably alkaline. Sun. How to grow Sunlight Full sun Aspect South-facing, North-facing, West-facing or East-facing Exposed or Sheltered Cultivation Grow in a gritty, poor to moderately fertile soil Soil Well-drained Acid, Alkaline or Neutral Chalk, Clay, Sand or Loam City/Courtyard Gardens, Flower borders and beds, Gravel Garden, Patio/Container Plants or Rock Garden Corms are vulnerable to mice, voles and squirrels Diseases Generally disease free, corms may rot in storage
  • 'Cream Beauty' is a perennial corm producing its leaves after the fragrant flowers which are cream with a yellow tinge and deep yellow throat, brownish-grey towards base outside. How to grow Sunlight Full sun Aspect South-facing, West-facing or East-facing Exposed or Sheltered Cultivation Grow in a gritty, poor to moderately fertile soil Soil Well-drained Acid, Alkaline or Neutral Sand, Clay, Chalk or Loam Banks and Slopes, City/Courtyard Gardens, Coastal, Cottage/Informal Garden, Flower borders and beds, Gravel Garden, Patio/Container Plants or Rock Garden Corms are vulnerable to mice, voles and squirrels Diseases Corms in storage may be subject to rots and moulds
  • An easy and reliable garden plant over many years in a free draining soil. C. angustifolius  is a perennial corm with narrow leaves and scented, bright deep yellow flowers, strongly feathered with dark mahogany on the outside Other common names Cloth-of-gold crocus Synonym(s) Crocus   susianus Crocus   susianus  'Cloth of Gold' Crocus  'Cloth of Gold‘ How to grow Sunlight Full sun Aspect South-facing, North-facing, West-facing or East-facing Exposed or Sheltered Cultivation Grow in a gritty, poor to moderately fertile soil. Prefers to be on the dry side during dormancy Soil Well-drained Acid, Alkaline or Neutral Chalk, Clay, Sand or Loam Propagation Propagate by seed, sown in pots in a cold frame when ripe or remove cormlets when dormant Suggested planting locations and garden types City/Courtyard Gardens, Flower borders and beds, Gravel Garden, Patio/Container Plants or Rock Garden How to care Pruning No pruning required Pests Corms are vulnerable to mice, voles and squirrels Diseases Generally disease free, corms may rot in storage
  • Warm, well drained soil.   Dry summer rest best. C. goulimyi  is a cormous perennial, flowering as the leaves appear in autumn. Flowers rather small and almost globose, with a long tube, lilac with a white throat, the inner tepals paler and slightly shorter. How to grow Sunlight Full sun Aspect South-facing, West-facing or East-facing Exposed or Sheltered Soil Well-drained Acid, Alkaline or Neutral Sand, Clay, Chalk or Loam Propagation Propagate by seed sown in containers in a cold frame when ripe or remove cormlets when dormant Suggested planting locations and garden types Banks and Slopes, City/Courtyard Gardens, Coastal, Cottage/Informal Garden, Flower borders and beds, Gravel Garden, Patio/Container Plants or Rock Garden Corms are vulnerable to mice, voles and squirrels Diseases Corms in storage may be subject to rots and moulds
  • Warm, dry summer rest needed for flowering. Deep planting and rich soil (or feeding) assist in building and maintaining flowering size corms A cultigen (origin unknown) cultivated for over 4,000 years, the dried stigmas have been used as a seasoning and coloring agent in various cuisines. As each plant bears only a few, and they must be harvested by hand, this is the most expensive spice in the world.
  • Easy, but prone to flopping over and easily damaged by bad weather.   This shortcoming can be overcome to some extent by planting in grass, although late summer grass cutting must be done with caution!   Increases by producing many small cormlets. C. speciosus  has silvery lilac-blue flowers in autumn, with darker veins and a white throat; leaves developing after the flowers Sometimes called the Large autumn crocus. How to grow Sunlight Full sun Aspect South-facing, North-facing, West-facing or East-facing Exposed or Sheltered Cultivation Grow in a gritty, poor to moderately fertile soil Soil Well-drained Acid, Alkaline or Neutral Chalk, Clay, Sand or Loam Propagation Propagate by seed, sown in pots in a cold frame when ripe or remove cormlets when dormant Suggested planting locations and garden types City/Courtyard Gardens, Flower borders and beds, Gravel Garden, Patio/Container Plants or Rock Garden How to care Pruning No pruning required Pests Corms are vulnerable to mice, voles and squirrels Diseases Generally disease free, corms may rot in storage
  • Tolerant of summer moisture given a well drained site. Description: Corm with leaves developing well after the flowers. Flowers purple with contrasting, much divided, long red stigma lobes  
  • Very small, extremely early flowering, fragrant iris, perfect for forcing, rock gardens, woodlands, in front of borders. Performs well in all soil types, provided it is well drained. Bloom in later winter/early spring. How to grow Sunlight Full sun Aspect South-facing, North-facing, West-facing or East-facing Exposed or Sheltered Cultivation Grow in well-drained neutral or slightly alkaline soil Soil Well-drained or Moist but well-drained Alkaline or Neutral Chalk, Clay, Sand or Loam Propagation Propagate by seed, sown in pots in a cold frame in autumn or spring. Lift and separate bulbs in early autumn Suggested planting locations and garden types City/Courtyard Gardens, Cottage/Informal Garden, Flower borders and beds, Patio/Container Plants or Rock Garden
  • Iris reticulata  are superb early flowering bulbs for spring colour. They are compact, so ideal for containers, usually about 10-15cm tall with large, long flowers. This particular iris is dark purple to violet making it very striking when it bursts into flower.
  • Characteristics of this Plant Family: Leaves, Stem & Roots ~  The leaves of this family are often long and thin with parallel veins arising from the base (Ornithogalum, Eremurus), or oval with net veins arising along the stem, as in Trillium. In extreme cases, they have been reduced to scales (Asparagus) or modified to extend into tendrils (Gloriosa). or even needles (Borya). Many members of the family are perennial and have storage organs such as bulbs, corms or rhizomes. The Liliaceae are monocotyledons, that is, they have only one seed leaf. Flowers ~  The flowers are often borne in racemes, although they may also be solitary as in the Tulip. They usually have six petals which may be joined to some degree, may form a tube (Kniphofia), may be of different sizes (Calochortus) or may all be of equal size and shape. There are nearly always six stamens. Seeds ~  The ovary (seed pod) in this Family is usually superior (inside the flower) with three chambers, with the seeds arranged in two rows in each chamber. Seeds of many species are round, flat and papery, although they may also be black and round. (Click here for more information and examples of seedpods in this Family.) Members of this Family usually have: Bulbs or other storage organs  Long, thin leaves  Six petals  Six stamens  Seed capsule which forms inside the flower Note:  Several groups of plants in the Family Liliaceae have now been given their own Family status. These include Alliaceae, Alstroemeriaceae, Amaryllidaceae, Asparagaceae, Asphodelaceae, Aspidistraceae, Calochortaceae, Colchicaceae, Convallariaceae, Fritillariaceae, Hemerocallidaceae, Hyacinthaceae, Trilliaceae, and Zephyranthaceae. Even before these changes, it was difficult to know whether a plant belonged to the Lily Family, the Iris Family, or the Amaryllis Family. Here are some points of difference which might help: Liliaceae  ~ 6 stamens, superior ovary (inside the flower)  Iridaceae  ~ 3 stamens, inferior ovary (behind the flower)  Amaryllidaceae  ~ 6 stamens, inferior ovary (behind the flower) 
  • Chionodoxa forbesii These smaller, upward-facing flowers are bright gentian blue with a white center. Heirloom, 1880.These Mediterranean natives bloom very early and produce sprays of 5-10 star-shaped flowers in glorious shades of blue, pink, and white. 
  • F. imperialis  is a robust perennial with stout, erect stems bearing whorled, lance-shaped leaves and, in early summer, a terminal umbel of bell-shaped orange or yellow flowers beneath a crown of bracts Fritillaria are both deer and rodent resistant plants that bear pendant, bell shaped flowers with a mildly skunky odor. Fritillaria prefer rich, organic well-draining soil with a neutral pH and full sun to filtered sunlight. Plant immediately after receiving them; they don’t like being lifted out of the soil. These plants are heavy feeders. How to grow Sunlight Full sun Aspect South-facing, North-facing, West-facing or East-facing Exposed or Sheltered Cultivation Grows well in most fertile, well-drained soils. Handle the fragile bulbs carefully and plant at four times own depth Soil Well-drained Acid, Alkaline or Neutral Loam, Chalk or Sand Suggested planting locations and garden types Cottage/Informal Garden or Flower borders and beds How to care Pruning No pruning required Pests Prone to slugs Diseases Generally disease free
  • Fritillaria in Iran.
  • Common Name: Spanish bluebell Type: Bulb Family: Hyacinthaceae Zone: 3 to 8 Native Range: Southwestern Europe, northern Africa Garden Location: Maritz Apple Allee Height: 0.75 to 1.5 feet Spread: 0.75 to 1 feet Bloom Time: April to May Bloom Color: Lavender Bloom Description: Bluish lavender Sun: Full sun to part shade Water: Medium Maintenance: Low Flowers: Showy Flowers Tolerates: Black Walnuts Uses: Cut Flower, Will Naturalize Culture Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soil in full sun to part shade. Plant bulbs about 3-4” deep and 4-6” apart in the fall. Naturalizes well by both bulb offsets and self-seeding in optimum growing conditions. Plants go dormant by early summer. Noteworthy Characteristics Spanish bluebell or wood hyacinth is a bulbous perennial that is native to Spain, Portugal and northwest Africa. Each bulb produces a clump of 2-6 strap-shaped leaves from which rises a rigid flower stem containing 12 or more hanging, bell-shaped, bluish lavender flowers held in an upright raceme. Flower stems rise to as much as 18” tall. Synonymous with and formerly known as  Scilla campanulata ,  Scilla hispanica  and  Endymion hispanicus . Blooms in mid-spring at the time of the late tulips.
  • Spanish Bluebell Hyacinthoides hispanica, ‘Excelsior’
  • Common Name: common hyacinth Type: Bulb Family: Hyacinthaceae Zone: 4 to 8 Bloom Time: April Sun: Full sun Water: Medium Maintenance: Low Flowers: Showy Flowers, Fragrant Flowers Tolerates: Black Walnuts, Rabbits Culture Easily grown in average, medium, well-drained soils in full sun. Prefers organically rich soils. Tolerates some light shade. Plant bulbs 4-5” deep and 4-5” apart in mid fall. Soils should be kept moist immediately after planting to encourage root growth. Also keep soils moist during the spring growing season, but taper off moisture after bloom as bulbs head toward dormancy. Promptly remove spent flower spikes so plants do not need to expend energy on seed production. Bulbs are commonly grown in containers, especially when forced for indoor winter bloom. Noteworthy Characteristics Hyacinth, Dutch hyacinth or garden hyacinth is a spring flowering bulb that produces spikes of flowers noted for their intense, often overpowering, fragrance. Typically grows 6-10” tall. Each bulb sends up 3-4 strap-shaped green leaves in early spring and a stiff densely flowered spike of extremely fragrant tubular flowers. A very large number of hybrid cultivars are available in commerce under this species name in flower colors including various shades of blue, purple, pink, red and white. Problems No serious insect or disease problems. Flowering often decreases in quality after the first year, and bulbs may need to be replaced every couple of years.
  • Hyacinthus orientalis growing in native habitat, Thrace. This plant naturally occurs in Central and Southern Turkey.
  • This species is found in woods and meadows of western Europe, beneath hedgrows or in oak and beech woods in spring. Plants naturalize well.
  • Asiatic hybrids  (Division I). These are plants with medium sized, upright or outward facing flowers, mostly unscented. They are derived from central and East Asian species, including  L. bulbiferum, L. cernuum, L. concolor, L. davidii, L. lancifolium, L. maculatum . Asiatic Lilies produce bulbils in leaf axils. They will tolerate a range of soils, including alkaline. Three subdivisions exist:\ Ia  upward-facing flowers Ib  outward-facing flowers Ic  downward-facing (pendent) flowers Grow in a border where they may be left undisturbed for years. All benefit from incorporating grit (course sand) at a ratio of 2 parts compost to 1 part grit when planted, with an extra layer of grit beneath the bulbs.
  • Trumpet lilies  (Division VI), including Aurelian hybrids (with  L. henryi ). This group includes hybrids of many Asiatic species, including  L. regale  and  L. aurelianse . The flowers are trumpet shaped, facing outward or somewhat downward, and tend to be strongly fragrant, often especially night-fragrant. Trumpet Lilies tolerate alkalkine conditions. Four subdivisions exist: 6a: trumpet-shaped flowers 6b: (usually) outward facing, bowl shaped flowers 6c: shallowly bowl-shaped flowers 6d: flowers with distinctly recurved petals
  • Oriental hybrids  (Division VII). T Derived from species originating in the far east, these are based on hybrids of  L. auratum  and  L. speciosum , together with crossbreeds from several species native to Japan, including  L nobilissimum ,  L rubellum ,  L alexandrae , and  L japonicum . They are fragrant, and the flowers tend to be outward facing. Plants tend to be tall, and the flowers may be quite large. The whole group are sometimes referred to as  Stargazers  because they appear to look upwards.  These lilies flower mostly in late summer, and are often scented. Most are intolerant of alkaline soils; require acidic soil to grow. Four subdivisions exist: 7a: trumpet shaped flower 7b: bowl-shaped flower 7c: flat flowers 7d: flowers with distinctly recurved petals
  • They are an American hybrid group created from crossing the Oriental and Trumpet lilies. This combination has resulted in a lily that is considered to be better than either of the parent plants.  The Orienpet Lily is disease resistant and easily tolerates heat but not direct hot sun, humidity, and cold.  Preferring dappled sunlight or morning sun and afternoon shade, they come in bold shades of red, orange, burgundy, and gold but are also available in pastel shades of white, pink, peach, and soft yellows, and can be very fragrant!  If you like a flower that will create a lot of conversation and second looks, this is the one for you!  Blooming from mid-July to mid-August, they can grow as tall as 8'.
  • Preferred common name Armenian grape hyacinth Family Hyacinthaceae Muscari  are bulbous perennials with linear or strap-shaped leaves and small bell-shaped, tubular or urn-shaped flowers borne in a dense raceme on an erect leafless stem M. armeniacum  is a strong-growing bulbous perennial to 20cm in height, with narrow, arching green leaves and erect stems bearing dense spikes of white-tipped, deep violet-blue, egg-shaped flowers 5mm in length in spring One of the most attractive blue flowering bulbs. Well suited to mass plantings, though long foliage may be untidy.
  • How to grow Sunlight Full sun Part shade Aspect South-facing, North-facing, West-facing or East-facing Exposed or Sheltered Cultivation Plant 10cm deep in autumn in any moderately fertile, well-drained soil. Lift and divide (when dormant in summer) congested clumps to maintain vigour. May be invasive Soil Well-drained or Moist but well-drained Acid, Alkaline or Neutral Chalk, Clay, Sand or Loam Propagation Propagate by seed, sown in autumn, in containers in a cold frame or separate offsets in summer Suggested planting locations and garden types City/Courtyard Gardens, Cottage/Informal Garden, Flower borders and beds, Garden Edging, Gravel Garden, Ground Cover, Low Maintenance, Patio/Container Plants, Rock Garden, Underplanting of Roses and Shrubs or Wildflower meadow
  • Thrives in full sun or light shade. Form large groups in areas where they are content. Easily grown. Puschkinia  is a dwarf bulbous perennial with erect basal leaves and racemes of star-shaped pale blue flowers, each tepal with a darker blue central stripe P. scilloides  has narrowly strap-shaped leaves and very pale blue flowers, each tepal with a darker blue central stripe, 12mm across, in spring Other common names Lebanon squill Starch hyacinth How to grow Sunlight Full sun Part shade Aspect South-facing, North-facing, West-facing or East-facing Exposed or Sheltered Cultivation Grows well in any moderately fertile, well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade Soil Well-drained or Moist but well-drained Acid, Alkaline or Neutral Chalk, Clay, Sand or Loam Propagation Cottage/Informal Garden, Flower borders and beds, Garden Edging, Rock Garden, Patio/Container Plants or Underplanting of Roses and Shrubs
  • Grow in full sun or partial shade; easily naturalized. Scilla  are perennial bulbs with narrow basal leaves and erect stems bearing racemes of star-shaped, flat or bell-shaped flowers which are often blue. S. siberica  is a bulbous perennial to 20cm in height, with narrow strap-shaped leaves and purplish stems bearing short racemes with 2-5 nodding, bowl-shaped bright blue flowers 1.5cm in width How to grow Sunlight Full sun Part shade Aspect South-facing or East-facing Exposed or Sheltered Cultivation Plant bulbs 8-10cm deep in late summer or early autumn in a moderately fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soil in full sun or partial shade Soil Well-drained Acid, Alkaline or Neutral Loam, Sand Propagation Propagate by seed or divideoffsets when dormant Suggested planting locations and garden types City/Courtyard Gardens, Cottage/Informal Garden, Flower borders and beds, Garden Edging, Gravel Garden, Patio/Container Plants, Underplanting of Roses and Shrubs or Rock Garden
  • Emperor, or Fosteriana, Tulips are the earliest, mid-height tulips. Known for their remarkably huge flowers and bright colors, Emperor Tulips make a fantastic display planted in large drifts and are also terrific as a cut flower. 10” – 18” stems Foliage usually striped Fosteriana Tulips were developed from  Tulipa fosteriana,  a wild species of tulip found in mountainous areas of Central Asia. The resulting Fosteriana Tulips differ somewhat in height, but all have a wonderful flower shape with  huge, wide petals  in bright colours.Fosteriana Tulips are more commonly known as  Emperor Tulips , and the names of many of the varieties reflect this ("Red Emperor", "White Emperor", "Pink Emperor", "Orange Emperor", etc.). Fosteriana Tulips look particularly impressive when planted in large beds ("drifts"), and will come back year after year. A few varieties have a fragrance
  • 8” – 16” stems; striped foliage; flowers often bear different colors on the outside than on the inside. Greigii Tulips were developed from the  Tulipa greigii  species, which is native to Turkestan. Greigii Tulips are fairly short as tulips go, but the  blooms are very large  in proportion to the plant as a whole. They come in very bright colours, like red and yellow, and the flowers open wide in full sun, creating cup-shaped blooms that can be  more than 5" (12 cm) in diameter  when fully open.Because they are short, Greigii Tulips are  ideal for rock gardens and containers . They have an added attraction in that the  leaves are usually patterned  with stripes or spots, in purple or brown. Finally, they naturalize very well (i.e. if you leave them alone, they come back year after year, and even multiply). Pictured: ‘Orange Sunset’ bears blossoms 9” – 10” on 8” – 12” stems. It is perhaps the largest tulip.
  •   Tien Shan mountain range in Southern Kazakhstan
  • AKA Waterlily Tulips 4” – 8” ste Kaufmanniana Tulips were developed from the  Tulipa kaufmanniana  species, which is native to Turkestan. They are some of the  earliest tulips to flower . Kaufmanniana Tulips are generally very low growing (some are only 4 - 5"/10 - 12 cm tall), which makes them  ideal for rock gardens and containers . If left undisturbed, they will normally return year after year and gradually multiply.The flowers have pointed petals which open almost completely flat on sunny days. A fully-opened Kaumanniana Tulip  looks more like a water lily than a tulip . Some varieties have been cultivated to take advantage of this, so that the inside colour is sometimes dramatically different from the outside. ms; usually with many dark stripes, stipples, or mottling on wide, spreading foliage. Among the earliest flowering of all tulips.
  • Tulipa kaufmanniana
  • Single Early Tulips have strong stems that will withstand wind or rain. These tulip bulbs are the earliest bloomers of the taller tulips. Excellent for bedding, cutting and forcing. 6” – 8” stems Blooms well in our area, flowers are long lasting because they bloom when temperatures are cool; many are fragrant. As their name suggests, these tulips bloom early in the season. In addition to their early appearance, they have several other attractive qualities: Single Early Tulips are known for having  very strong stems . This means that they will stand up extremely well to wind and rain, unlike some other types of tulips (for example, Parrot Tulips). They are available in  many different colours , both jewel tones and pastels. Some varieties of Single Early Tulips have a fragrance
  • A group of almost entirely triploid hybrids of T. Gesneriana ‘Red Emperor’ (male) X T. fosteriana , (cultivars of the original Darwin Series) these plants are excellent cultivars due to their large flower, sturdy stems and plant size. Darwin hybrids make up about 10% per tulip production in Holland. The Darwin Hybrids are single flowered cultivars with long stems that flower in mid-spring. Darwin Hybrid tulips are best for perennial bedding, cut flowers and companion planting with other bulbs, perennials and annuals. Large flowered and bold, they also force well; very reliably. Darwin hybrids bear long-lasting flowers. Brent and Becky Heath regard this as the ‘longest term perennial’ tulip group. The Darwin Hybrid Tulips were created by crossing the Fosteriana Tulips with the old Darwin Tulips (now part of the Single Late Class). Along with the Single Late Tulips, Darwin Hybrids are the  tallest tulips  available.Darwin Hybrid Tulips are known for the  HUGE size  of their brilliantly coloured flowers. The blossoms are an almost perfect pyramid shaped when closed, but they can measure as much as 6" (15 cm) in diameter when fully opened. Because of their long stems, lovely pyramid shape, and brilliant colours, Darwin Hybrids are often considered the very best type of tulip to raise for  cut flowers . However, there are definite advantages to growing them for beds and borders, especially in areas where they can be sheltered from strong winds. Unlike many types of tulip which only look well for the first couple of years, Darwin Hybrid Tulips will come back looking great year after year (provided you don't cut the leaves off after blooming). As a result, you will sometimes hear them called  "perennial" tulips . A few varieties have a fragrance
  • Triumph tulips are derived from hybridization between cultivars of the Single Early Group, and the Single Late Group. They bear strong stems, and large, shapely blossoms. Plants succeed equally well in the garden and forced. Triumph tulips exist in the greatest array of colors, and bloom about 10 days before Darwin hybrids. These tulips are the result of a cross between the Single Early Tulips and some of the later flowering varieties. Triumph Tulips are the  largest and most important class  of tulips.They come in  every possible shade of colour  possible for tulips, including some marvelous pastels. They are particularly prized for their beautiful,  traditional "tulip" flower shape . They have sturdy stems, which allows them to  stand up well to bad weather . They make excellent cut flowers, as they have a long vase life. Finally, many consider them to be the absolute  best type of tulip for indoor forcing . A few varieties have a fragrance.
  • Characteristics of this Plant Family: Leaves, Stem & Roots ~  Most members of this family have some sort of storage organ to enable them to overwinter. This may be obviously enlarged, as in the Cyclamen tuber (corm), or just thickened roots with a resting bud, as in the many species of Primula. The leaves are opposite or alternate, or form a rosette at the base of the stem, and are usually undivided. The leaves and stem may be hairy. The calxy is formed of five parts joined into a tube which remains after the flower dies, and inside which the seed pod develops. Flowers ~  The flowers have five petals, joined into a tube at the base, and sometimes the ends are turned back. They are often on long leafless stalks, either singly or in groups. There are five stamens joined to the flower tube opposite the petals. In the genus Primula, there are two distinct arrangements of the style and stamens: Pin-eyed flowers are those in which the style is longer than the stamens and you can see the round stigma like a pin in the mouth of the flower tube, and Thrum-eyed, in which the stamens (the thrums) are longer and are visible at the mouth of the flower tube. Seeds ~  The seed pod forms inside the calyx and is composed of five parts joined into a single chamber. There are usually many small seeds. Members of this Family usually have: Winter storage organs  Five petals joined in a tube  Five stamens joined to the tube opposite the petals  Calyx of five parts joined in a tube  Undivided leaves  Seed pod with one chamber forming inside the calyx and are annuals or perennials, but not trees or shrubs
  • Plants should be set in autumn in sheltered conditions and in partial shade beneath trees and shrubs. Squirrels, mice and voles may eat tubers. Preferred common name Eastern cyclamen Family Primulaceae Cyclamen  are tuberous perennials with rounded, sometimes angular, leaves which are often attractively mottled. The nodding, characteristically shaped flowers have 5 reflexed and twisted petals, often with dark markings at the base C. coum  is a perennial to 10cm, with rounded leaves sometimes marbled with silver on the upper surface. Flowers 2cm in width, deep pink, with a purple blotch at the base of each lobe, open from late winter Other common names Round-leaved cyclamen
  • How to grow Sunlight Part shade Aspect South-facing, North-facing, West-facing or East-facing Sheltered Cultivation Plant 5cm deep in moderately fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soil. Avoid excessive summer moisture and mulch well when leaves wither Soil Well-drained Acid, Alkaline or Neutral Chalk, Clay, Sand or Loam Propagation Propagate by seed, sown in darkness as soon as ripe. Can be beneficial to soak seed for 10 hours prior to sowing Suggested planting locations and garden types Patio/Container Plants, Rock Garden or Underplanting of Roses and Shrubs How to care Pruning No pruning required Pests Mice and squirrels may be a problem; vine weevil can attack pot-grown plants Diseases Generally disease free 
  • C. hederifolium  is a perennial to 12cm, with somewhat ivy-shaped leaves patterned with silvery-green, and pink, sometimes fragrant, flowers 2.5cm in width, darker around the mouth, opening before or with the leaves Other common names Ivy-leaved cyclamen Neapolitan cyclamen Sowbread Synonym(s) Cyclamen   neapolitanum
  • How to grow Sunlight Part shade Aspect South-facing, North-facing, West-facing or East-facing Sheltered Cultivation Plant 5cm deep in moderately fertile, humus-rich, well-drained soil. Avoid excessive summer moisture and mulch well when leaves wither Soil Well-drained Acid, Alkaline or Neutral Chalk, Clay, Sand or Loam Propagation Propagate by seed, sown in darkness as soon as ripe. Can be beneficial to soak seed for 10 hours prior to sowing Suggested planting locations and garden types Patio/Container Plants, Rock Garden or Underplanting of Roses and Shrubs How to care Pruning No pruning required Pests Mice and squirrels may be a problem; vine weevil can attack pot-grown plants Diseases Generally disease free outdoors
  • RANUNCULACEAE - The Buttercup Family There are around 1800 species in this family, which is found mainly in the colder regions of the world. Most of them are well-known wild flowers or garden flowers, including Buttercups, Anemones, Delphiniums, Aquilegias and Clematis. Some species, particularly Aconitum, are poisonous. Nearly all members of the family are herbaceous, with Clematis being the only woody species. Characteristics of this Plant Family: Leaves, Stem & Roots ~  The leaves of this family are usually divided or lobed, but are heart-shaped in Ranunculus ficaria (Lesser Celandine) and narrow and undivided in some species of Ranunculus. They usually arise from the base of the plant, or alternately up the stem, but in Clematis they are opposite. The perennial species form a small rhizome or tuber which develops new roots each year. Flowers ~  The flowers may be solitary, but they are frequently in clusters or spikes. In many species, there are no proper petals, and it is the brightly coloured calyx which forms the 'flower'. There are usually five sepals, although there may be many, and they come in a wide variety of shapes. Those in the genus Ranunculus, the Buttercups, are the only ones which have a true calyx and petals. There are many stamens surrounding many fused carpels. Seeds ~  The seeds are carried in several different types of fruit. In Actaea (Baneberry), it is a berry; in Clematis , each seed develops a hard woody coating and a fluffy tail, but in most species the seeds develop either as a globe from which they separate when they are riper or inside a (usually five-sided) capsule which splits at maturity to release them (as in Aquilegia ). Members of this Family usually have: Five coloured sepals instead of petals (except Buttercups)  Divided leaves  Non-woody tissue (except Clematis) 
  • Anemone Anemone is a genus of approximately 120 species of perennials found mostly in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere. They can be divided into three groups: 1: those from woodland and alpine pastures which flower in spring 2: those from the Mediterranean or Central Asia where the summers are hot, which flower in spring or early summer; 3: the larger herbaceous species which flower from late summer to autumn. The name  anemone  is often said to come from the Greek word  anemos meaning 'wind'. However, it is more likely to be a corrupted Greek word, of Semitic origin, referring to the lament for slain Adonis or Naaman, whose blood produced the red  A. coronaria . Anemone blanda From SE Europe and Turkey, this spreading perennial is great for naturalizing in a spring garden, at home in both woodland or in a rock garden. With colourful tepals arranged daisy-like around central yellow stamens, this pretty little plant bears solitary flowers in deep blue, white or pink. It spreads quite quickly to form large clumps. Cultivation: Grow  Anemone blanda  in well-drained, humus-rich or sandy soil in partial shade to full sun. Drier conditions are tolerated in summer when the plant is dormant. Anemones are prone to leaf eelworms, leaf spot, powdery mildew, damage from slugs and snails and occasionally anemone smut.
  • AKA St. Brigid Group or De Caen Group Both groups are derived from A. coronaria. Flowers appear from late spring to earl summer. Great cut flower, should be picked while in bud. coronaria  is tuberous perennial with finely dissected, palmate leaves and solitary flowers to 7cm across, which may be red, violet-blue or white; there are also double-flowered cultivars. How to grow Sunlight Full sun Aspect South-facing or East-facing Sheltered Cultivation Grow in a light, sandy soil in full sun. May need protection from winter frosts. Must be kept dry during dormancy Soil Well-drained Acid, Alkaline or Neutral Loam or Sand Propagation Cottage/Informal Garden, Mediterranean Climate Plants, Patio/Container Plants or Rock Garden Susceptible to leaf and bud eelworms and damage fromslugs Diseases May be infected by powdery mildews
  • Eranthis performs best in full sun or light shade; ideal beneath deciduous trees. Plant immediately, as the tubers can be difficult to establish if they are too dry. Soak overnight before planting. Eranthis  are small tuberous perennials with palmately or pinnately lobed basal leaves and cup-shaped flowers held above a collar of deeply lobed stem leaves E. hyemalis  is a perennial to 10cm in height, with cup-shaped bright yellow flowers 3cm in width from late winter, surrounded by divided leafy bracts. Basal leaves are rich green, divided into several lobes Other common names Winter hellebore Winter wolf's bane How to grow Sunlight Full sun Part shade Aspect South-facing, North-facing, West-facing or East-facing Exposed or Sheltered Cultivation Grow in a humus-rich, moderately fertile soil that doesn’t dry out. Tolerates most soil types but does best in alkaline soils Soil Well-drained or Moist but well-drained Acid, Alkaline or Neutral Chalk, Clay, Sand or Loam Cottage/Informal Garden, Flower borders and beds, Ground Cover or Underplanting of Roses and Shrubs
  • Bulbs for Autumn Planting

    1. 1. Bulbs – Fall is For Planting! Eric Stormer Virginia Cooperative Extension Norfolk, Virginia
    2. 2. T. kaufmanniana in its native southern Kazakhstan. Tulip in the desert of the Aral Sea region, Kazakhstan
    3. 3. Tulipa agenensis sharonensis, Dor-Habonim Beach, Israel
    4. 4. T. agenensis, Jerusalem
    5. 5. T. gesneriana
    6. 6. The colorful Schrenck's Tulip, T. schrenckii
    7. 7. Commercial tulip production, The Netherlands
    8. 8. Japan Table Cape, Tasmania Washington State, USA
    9. 9. The Amaryllis Family Amaryllidaceae
    10. 10. Ornamental Onion, Allium spp. A . aflatunense, ‘Purple Sensation’ Allium giganteum Allium christophii
    11. 11. Snowdrops, Galanthus nivalis
    12. 12. Galanthus elwesii
    13. 13. Amaryllis Hippeastrum X hybrida
    14. 14. Star Flower Ipheion uniflorum
    15. 15. Red Spider Lily Lycoris radiata
    16. 16. Magic Lily, Resurrection Lily Lycoris squamigera
    17. 17. Narcissus Division 2 – Large Cup
    18. 18. Narcissus Division 3 – Small Cup Narcissus, ‘Barrett Browning’ Narcissus, ‘Pooka’
    19. 19. Narcissus Division 4 – Double Flowered
    20. 20. Narcissus ‘Thalia’ Division 5 - Triandrus
    21. 21. Narciccus ‘Jetfire’ Division 6 - Cyclamineus
    22. 22. Narcissus, ‘Bell Song’ Division 7 - Jonquilla
    23. 23. Narcissus ‘Silver Chimes’ Division 8 - Tazetta
    24. 24. Autumn Daffodil Sternbergia lutea
    25. 25. The Colchicum Family Colchicaceae
    26. 26. Autumn Crocus, Meadow Saffron Colchicum autumnale C. autumnale, var. alboplenum
    27. 27. Autumn Crocus Colchicum cilicicum
    28. 28. Autumn Crocus Colchicum ‘The Giant’
    29. 29. The Iris Family Iridaceae
    30. 30. Dutch Crocus, Giant Crocus Crocus vernus vernus
    31. 31. Tomasini’s Crocus Crocus tommasinianus
    32. 32. Sieber’s Crocus, Cretan Crocus Crocus sieberi
    33. 33. Silvery Crocus Crocus biflorus cvs. C. biflorus, ‘’Blue Pearl’ C. biflorus, ‘Prins Claus’
    34. 34. Snow Crocus Crocus chrysanthus, ‘Cream Beauty’
    35. 35. Cloth-of-Gold Crocus Crocus angustifolius
    36. 36. Fall Crocus Crocus goulimyi
    37. 37. Saffron/Autumn Crocus Crocus sativus (Autumn flowering)
    38. 38. Crocus speciosus, ‘Conqueror’ (Autumn flowering)
    39. 39. Ligurian Autumn Crocus Crocus medius, syn. C. ligusticus
    40. 40. Iris histrioides
    41. 41. Reticulated Iris Iris reticulata
    42. 42. The Lily Family Liliaceae
    43. 43. Glory-of-the-Snow Chiondoxa
    44. 44. Crown Imperial Fritillaria imperialis, ‘Flava’
    45. 45. Fritillaria imperialis (native habitat)
    46. 46. Spanish Bluebell Hyacinthoides hispanica
    47. 47. Oriental (Dutch) Hyacinth Hyacinthus x orientalis
    48. 48. English Bluebell Hyacinthus non-scripta
    49. 49. English Bluebell
    50. 50. Asiatic Lily
    51. 51. Trumpet Lily, L. longiflorum
    52. 52. Oriental Lily
    53. 53. Orienpet Lily Hybrids
    54. 54. Grape Hyacinth Muscari armeniacum
    55. 55. Grape Hyacinth Muscari azureum
    56. 56. Muscari neglectum
    57. 57. Muscari neglectum
    58. 58. Striped Squill Puschkinia scilliodes, var. libanotica
    59. 59. Siberian Squill, Scilla siberica
    60. 60. Emperor Tulip Tulipa fosteriana hyb. Tulipa ‘Exotic Emperor’
    61. 61. Tulipa fosteriana in its native Uzbekistan
    62. 62. Tulipa griegii hybrids Tulipa griegii, ‘Orange Sunset’ Tulipa griegii, ‘Queen Ingrid’
    63. 63. T. griegii
    64. 64. Tulipa kaufmaniana hybrids Tulipa kaufmanniana, ‘Gluck’
    65. 65. T. kaufmanniana, ‘Shakespeare’ T. kaufmanniana, ‘Kiev’
    66. 66. Tulipa kaufmanniana in its native Turkestan
    67. 67. Single Early Tulip Tulipa, ‘Diana’ Tulipa, ‘Candy Prince’
    68. 68. Darwin Hybrids – lineage Tulipa fosteriana, ‘Red Emperor’ – male parent T. gesneriana, ‘Anthony Roosen’ Intro. 1892 (One of the original Darwin Tulips) – one of many old Darwin tulips.T. gesneriana, ‘Alcmene’ Intro. 1917
    69. 69. Darwin Hybrid Tulips Tulipa, ‘Pink Impression’
    70. 70. Triumph Hybrid Tulips Tulipa ‘Apricot Beauty’
    71. 71. Species Tulips Tulipa clusiana
    72. 72. The Primrose Family Primulaceae
    73. 73. Cyclamen coum
    74. 74. Cyclamen coum
    75. 75. Cyclamen coum
    76. 76. Cyclamen hederifolium
    77. 77. Cyclamen hederifolium
    78. 78. The Buttercup Family Ranunculaceae
    79. 79. Grecian Windflower Anemone blanda
    80. 80. Crown Anemone Anemone coronaria
    81. 81. Winter Aconite Eranthis hyemalis
    82. 82. The End Questions?
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