Accessibility Concerns for Mobile ApplicationsPresentation Transcript
Eric MaslowskiUniversity of Michigan 3D Lab firstname.lastname@example.org
Some Context… • Work done in collaboration with IGDA Accessibility SIG for Constance Steinkuehler, former Senior Policy Analyst at the Office of Science and Technology Policy in the Executive Office of the U.S. President. • Heavily inspired by WC3/WCAG and IGDA • 10+ years of application and web development experience.
Someone You Should Know… IGDA (International Game Developers Association) Game Accessibility Special Interest Group http://igda-gasig.org • Game Accessibility Top 10 • Methods for Providing Accessibility • How Many Need It? • Etc.
What Type of Applications Are WeTalking About… Visually Dynamic and Rich User Experiences on Mobile Platforms.
What is Accessibility…?The ability to fully experiencean application even whenfunctioning under limitingconditions.
Possible Limiting ConditionsVision• Vision Loss (e.g. mild,moderate, severe, blindness)• Color Blindness• Visual motor impairment (e.g. visual tracking, diplopia)• Visual field loss
Motor (e.g. arms, hands, trunk, legs)• Motor control impairment (e.g. coordination,aiming, response speed)• Muscle weakness (e.g. paralysis, paresis)• Muscle Tone (e.g. rigidity, spasticity,hypo/hypertonicity, tremor)• Balance (e.g. vestibular, visual, proprioceptive, )• Range of Motion limitation
Hearing• Hearing Loss (e.g. mild, moderate, severe, deafness)Vocal & Communication (i.e. speech)• Speech disorder (e.g. articulation, fluency, voice)• Language (e.g. form, content, function)• Muteness
Type Number %Some Numbers… Visual – Severe 1,768,000 0.8 Visual – Not severe 5,904,000 2.8 Auditory – Severe 832,000 0.4 Category Number % Auditory – Not severe 7,134,000 3.4 No disability 181,317,000 78.7 Mobility – Severe 14,698,000 7.1 Mobility – Not severe 10,441,000 5.0 Severe disability 32,776,000 14.2 Learning disability 3,451,000 1.7 Other mental disability Not severe (dementia, mental 16,297,000 7.1 6,657,000 3.2 retardation, other disability unspecified) Other disabilities 2,270,000 1.1 (Speech) Total population 279,463,000 100.0 Total 53,155,000 Source: 2005 Census Data
Can we be all things to all people… No, but it’s a nice goal to strive for.
So Why We Should Care?• User Satisfaction• Reach Greater Audience• Address Government Regulations• Provide New Skill Building Opportunities
Practically speaking…• Project Requirements• Budget and Resource Considerations• Platform Limitations• Demographic Considerations• Etc.
Current State…(Games)Vision - Even the simplest issues (such as font size and contrast) are rarelyconsidered, resulting in significant issues for older players in particular.Hearing - Subtitling/captioning is relatively commonplace, however the implementation ishighly inconsistent and usually patchy and poorly executed.Motor – New input devices, control schemes, and mechanics has contributed to significantgrowth.Cognitive - Although many therapeutic titles exist for profound cognitiveimpairment, commercial considerations are rare.Vocal & Communication - Speech is now beginning to be included as an input method aswell as simply communicating with other players on select titles.
• Great for Interactive Apps• Low to Mid-Cost• Touch Screen Accessibility• Many (cheap) Apps• Convenient• Unique Development• (often) Special Distribution• Noisy Input
Screen Readers Possible, but… Unity 3D does not support Screen Readers! Puts everything on developer which is a major challenge and demand on resources.
You will need to make compromises…• What are their interests?• What limitations could they have?• What will make your audience happy?
• Adolescent and young males with SCI • 16 to 24 year old • Racial and ethnic minority backgrounds• Gaming Experience• Expectations• Devices (which ones they own and play)• How often they play
Inspiration• South Park• Adult Swim• Call of Duty• Assassin’s Creed• Uncharted• Ratchet and Clank• Mario• Zelda• Deathspank• Fallout 3• Hot Shots• Naked Gun
1. Manual Dexterity• Includes full control of one or more hands to severely limited movement of fingers or the need for peripheral devices such as mouthsticks.• Poor articulation of the fingers often leads to knuckles dragging or fingers accidentally resting on the device which creates multiple unintentional “taps”.2. Varying Touch Speed & Accuracy• Motor impairment often leads to lack of control over pressure sensitivity, speed, and accuracy due to muscle weakness and involuntary movements.
3. Limited Range of Motion• Due to muscle atrophy or direct neuropathy an individual’s range of movements may be limited requiring devices to be placed in strategic spots (e.g. resting on thigh) or mounts. For those affected this often prevents access to the full screen.4. Spasms and Involuntary Movements• For those affected, involuntary movements big and small can lead to accidental taps, interrupted swipes, and lack of accuracy.
Double taps often lead to accidental clicksand false-positives due to spasms, multiplefingers/knuckles on the device, or lack offorce when interacting.Relying on single taps, swipes, and contextsensitive menusRequires additional development anddesign considerations to juggle the manyinteractions players have come to expect.
Response time, accuracy and player abilities canvary, which makes it difficult. (The experience istoo hard or too easy)Focusing on cerebral/thinking challenges canlower frustration and shift emphasis away fromtwitch reflex.Risk of being too easy, difficult to fit certaingenres, doesn’t satisfy “twitch junkies”
• Some can’t use both hands• Dual joysticks need to go• Difficult to juggle multiple actions• Requires extra care with design• Often needs special code (ex. Auto-aim)
Those with limited motor function often struggle with long precisegestures due to spasms, placement of the device on their thigh or in amount, and a general range of motion limitations.Quick swipes are easier for individuals to execute and thus leads togreater enjoyment.
Project possible through funding by:Department of Education National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR) #H133G100118
Address health and socialsituations for those with SCI. Built around establishedconventions found in games. If the game is “FUN” they will keep playing giving us more opportunities for reaching them.
Player is confronted with real considerations(pressure releases, day planning, bowel/bladder, etc. ) But need to earn cash, fight animal minions, save the world Action / Adventure / RPG
The underlying theme is still all about the health mechanics
• iOS Platforms(iPad, iPod, iPhone)• Unity3D Game Engine• Alienbrain Asset Management*• 3D StudioMax, Zbrush, Photoshop, AfterEffects
Tap where want to go inenvironment and character goestherePros• Very accessible• Passes all the guidelinesCons• occasionally frustrating and dull• less direct control over player• can’t control speed
Player drags his finger along the screenThe character is locked to the touch point.Pros:• Allows for fine control of the character.• Easy to implement and cheap
Cons:• Requires long gestures and constant interactions.• More reflex than cerebral• Player must path around obstacles• Device gets noisy input
Scrollbars on either side of the screen controlthe player’s “wheels” independently.Pros:• Good connection with character• Mimics real-world wheelchair• Can do fancy maneuvers• Small modification can work for mouth sticksCons:• High reflex requirement• Hard to juggle multiple activities
Virtual Trackball over screen. Swipe in directionplayer should go. Speed and length of swipeaffects speed of player.Pros:• Good connection with character• Can build up momentum• Mimics real-world wheelchair dynamics• Can do some fancy maneuvers• Works for mouth sticksCons:• Some reflex requirement• Susceptible to multi-touch woes