New York Episode 2, Order and Disorder• In 1825 less than 170,000 people were living in New York City. – It was an orderly, compact, rural community. – No regular police or fire departments.• Between 1800 and 1900 the population of New York grew fifty times larger.• The Eerie Canal was constructed and connected the Great Lakes to the Hudson River, making New York a trade center. – New York became the largest industrial city in the U.S. by the time of the Civil War.
New York Episode 2, Order and Disorder (Continued)• New York created a modern police department, public water, power, etc.• Experienced a huge influx of impoverished farmers and day laborers from Ireland. – By 1842 there were nearly 100,000 Irish in New York. – Residents of the city expressed anti-Catholic sentiments, to discourage Irish. – Irish took worst jobs available. – Americans feared Irish immigrants would steal their identity. – Between 1845 and 1855 1 million Irish immigrants came to New York fleeing the Potato famine. – Many died during the thirty day voyage.• More Irish lived in New York than anywhere in the world except Dublin. – Pushed into the community of Five Points with the African Americans – Irish laborers were hired instead of blacks for less wages. – Blacks were used to break Irish labor strikes. – Community experienced devastating disease and horrible housing conditions.
New York Episode 2, Order and Disorder (Continued)• Protestant missionaries invaded Irish slums. – Provided children’s aid.• Five Points was full of ruffians, gangs, and riots.• Tammany Hall served to unite many immigrant votes.• Huge losses on wall street led to an economic crisis.• Central Park constructed to unite the people.• More than 150,000 New Yorkers fought for the Union in the Civil War. – New York became the center of wartime manufacturing. – Draft came to New York in 1863. • Led to a three day riot in which a huge amount of Five Points residents, mostly Irish, took control of the city. • Destroyed more than 5 million dollars in property, at least 119 people died. • Army response was delayed due to the threat of invasion from Robert E. Lee’s army.• Within months of the riots massive civil reform was instituted. – Modern fire department, public health, expanded police, regulated housing.• Ex-fireman, William Tweed, became head of Tammany Hall.
New York Episode 3, Sunshine and Shadow• The Civil War came to an end.• Central Park increased in popularity.• Railroad and roadway construction projects became prominent. – Large workforce followed the construction.• New York was in a constant state of change, retaining little of its past. – Hudson River froze for weeks in 1867. – Manhattan Island was rapidly filling and Long Island had great space.
New York Episode 3, Sunshine and Shadow• Brooklyn Bridge construction began. – John Robling, the chief engineer, died due to an injury sustained while surveying his construction site. – Construction fell to his son.• William Tweed came to prominence. – Tammany Hall leader who managed and helped the lower class. – Provided aid to immigrants and employment. – Stole huge amounts of money from public projects. • Courthouse was meant to cost 350,000 but ended up costing millions and taking 13 years to finish. – Became one of the largest real estate owners in the city. – New York Times reported that Tweed stole over 200 million. – Tweed took the fall for the whole system that he was a part of. – Sentenced to 12 years in prison, the sentence was overturned. – Lost civil suits, stripping him of his property and sending him to prison. – Escaped and fled to Spain only to be sent back where he died in prison.
New York Episode 3, Sunshine and Shadow• Pacific Railroad went bankrupt in 1863. – Took banks down with it. – Wall Street experienced big troubles. – Unemployment skyrocketed, wages reduced, homelessness increased. – Known at the time as the great depression.• J.P. Morgan ushered in the corporate economy.• Edison assembled the first electrical power plant.• Brooklyn Bridge completed in 1883. – Built as a lasting monument to the future. – Irish did not attend opening despite being very involved in construction due to opening on Queen Victoria’s B-Day. – Calamity took place when someone screamed it was falling. – Stampede trampled many.• Jacob Riis immigrated to New York and experienced poverty in the Five Points. – Became a Police Reporter. – Later published a book with many photos of the horrible conditions within the Tenements. – Caused a response for public aid and minimum living improvements.• New York merged with Queens, Staten Island, Brooklyn, and the Bronx. – Created Greater New York. – Became the largest city in the world aside from London.
Merger that puts New York on top• AOL purchased Time Warner in 2000. – Questions as to whether or not New York would reassert its dominance in the emerging market of global information. • Rivaled by Southern California, Bay Area, and Washington.• New York challenged in the past. – At Independence Boston and Philadelphia were ahead of New York economically. – New Orleans challenged New York’s dominance in the 19th Century. – Eerie Canal established control of U.S. hinterland trade with Europe. – Triangle Trade established control of U.S. cotton trade with England.• Opinion was that New York would continue to serve as America’s economic capital city of the next century.
The City in the Land of the Dollar• American Cities exhibit a sort of free for all in terms of construction opportunities. – Absent from many European cities where image and pre planned arrangement are priority. – American cities lack the picturesque uniformity that can be found in some European cities.• Skyscraper was developed in Chicago. – Commercial downtown look took root. – Huge fire in 1871 provided a blank slate for construction. – Elevator allowed for upward expansion previously limited by human endurance.
The City in the Land of the Dollar• Commercial districts largely eliminated the intermingling of businesses and housing.• America pioneered the concept of downtown. – People worked, shopped, and played downtown, living elsewhere. – Suburbs became a hybrid between the urban and the rural community.• Frederick Law Olmsted pioneered the beautification of downtown. – Construction of many urban parks. – Original plan was for a greenbelt park all around the outer edge of Chicago. – Scaled down to eight individual parks.
The City in the Land of the Dollar• American commercial towers were quickly becoming the trademark of large American cities. – Originally restricted by height limits and building codes. – As construction methods improved, the height limits became unrestricted. – American buildings reached for the clouds.• The profitable city replaced the idea of the beautiful city as regulation was decreased to a bare minimum.