Colonial America: France and England By Eric James
American Colonies Ch.2: Canada and Iroquoia• French, English, and Dutch mariners sought to plunder Spanish shipping and small towns. – Settling in or near the Caribbean would provide easy piracy of Spanish ships and ports. – Settling too close would result in Spanish conquest (As occurred in Florida in 1560)• French attempted to settle along St. Lawrence river in Canada. – Cold, disease, and Indian resistance brought about failure.• Relocated settlement to mouth of St. Lawrence. – Found success in fishing and the fur trade. – Established interdependence and alliance with natives.
American Colonies Ch.2: Canada and Iroquoia• Iroquoian speaking tribes were clustered around Lake Ontario and along St. Lawrence to the east and Susquehanna Valley to the south.• Algonquian speaking tribes were clustered around Labrador to North Carolina and along the northern and western margins of Iroquoian lands.• The French befriended to northern Algonquian tribes as well as the vast, Iroquoian speaking Huron tribe. – Huron alliance was disapproved by the other Iroquoian tribes.• By 1580 fisheries, seal and whale hunts around Newfoundland employed thousands of mariners. – Temporary shore camps were established to process goods. – Led to contact with Indians who were eager to trade, and had already processed their goods. – Interdependency developed as natives became addicted to alcohol and reliant upon European manufactured goods and tools.
American Colonies Ch.2: Canada and Iroquoia• French and the natives adapted to each others trade methods.• The coveted beaver pelts became more and more scarce. – Led to conflicts within the tribes, leading to destruction and captive taking.• French established a small trading post at Quebec.• Huron allies provided 2/3 of beaver skin through their own trade within the tribes. – French provided aid during war, established a firearm trade.• Iroquoians began acquiring guns and plundering French allies. – Deganawida and Hiawatha established peace within the Five Iroquoian nations, making them more dangerous to enemies. – Five Nations formed the Great League and preferred to target those Iroquoians who had refused membership. – Viciously took captives and territories as their numbers dwindled.
American Colonies Ch.2: Canada and Iroquoia• Henry Hudson aided in the establishment of Dutch at Fort Orange. – Began trade of superior goods with Iroquoia.• Iroquoia kept enemies away from superior Dutch goods.• French kept Dutch from superior Huron furs.• French began to seek conversion of Indians. – Effort was half hearted, 4 priests only baptized 50 natives over 10 years. – Jesuits arrived in 1625 and began to move into Indian cultures. – Brought with them the European diseases that killed ½ of the Huron population.• Iroqouia wiped out the Huron tribe as well as other independent Iroquoian tribes, primarily for captives. – Captives became the majority, led to internal division.
American Colonies Ch.16: French Colonies• New France and Louisiana were small compared with British colonies. – Depended greatly upon natives for assistance. – Never really achieved economic or societal success. – Mostly sustained to hinder English expansion.• Fur trading company had control of Canada. – Over 20 years the population of Quebec stayed at 85 men. – Did not want more due to possible competition. – Conquered by English in 1629 until returned 3 years later through treaty. – Crown ordered an increase in colonization (land grants, titles, etc.)
American Colonies Ch.16: French Colonies• French Crown took over the colony of Quebec. – Used merchants and recruiters to promote colonization. – Only 12% filles de roi (women) with most being engages (single unemployed men). – Free passage, women expected to marry within a few weeks. Men entered 3 year contracts, usually returning home as soon as it ended.• Population failed to develop self sustaining chain migration. – Natural increase from 3,000 in 1663 to 15,000 in 1700. – French did not want to leave farms and towns. – Many potential colonists walked to Spain. – Large amounts of potential colonists were brought into military service. – Policies barred the Jesuits and Huguenots from the colonies. – Reputation scared many would-be colonists.
American Colonies Ch.16: French Colonies• Colonies were largely supported by tax payers. – Failed to establish successful economies.• Peasants of New France lived far better than those of France. – Wealthier, better quality of life, more land, paid fewer taxes and less rent. – Women were subservient to men in marriage, but equal business partners, dividing labors. – Women could also join convents, at high cost.• Colonial Government was divided between Governor General, Intendant, and the Bishop. – No religious tolerance, Catholic only. – Every male 16-60 had to serve in the militia. – Less than ¼ of colonists were literate, with few schools.• Colonial Seigneurs were considered aristocracy. – Rarely possible to join ranks except by birth. – On some occasions great success could allow purchase of the title. – Code of nobility dictated that they could not work, resulting in some poverty as they began to keep up appearances while experiencing generational pay gaps from France.
American Colonies Ch.16: French Colonies• French in Great Lakes colonies had sparse populations, those on the St. Lawrence began to flourish. – Achieved a middle ground with the surrounding Indians. – Indian refugees came south as French needed more furs after the Huron eradication and refugees needed guns to combat Iroqouia.• Coureurs de Bois were freelance traders who often married into Indian tribes to gain favor, safety and trading opportunity.• French and refugee allies eventually brought Iroqouis to peace. – French allies then began to fight amongst themselves. – French allies did not approve of their war methods.• Louisiana passed in and out of government and private ownership. – Failed to become profitable, continued parasitic existence on France’s support. – Corrupt colonial government and lack of development prevented success. – Continued to use Indians and pit them against one another to serve their own selfish ends. – Began demand for Indian slaves and sought eradication of Indian enemies.