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Halcon dissertation final defense powerpoint 11-08-10



Innovations and Competitiveness of Business Schools of

Innovations and Competitiveness of Business Schools of
Two Women's Colleges in Metro Manila



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    Halcon dissertation   final defense powerpoint 11-08-10 Halcon dissertation final defense powerpoint 11-08-10 Presentation Transcript

    • Innovations and Competitiveness of Business Schools of Two Womens Colleges in Metro Manila By: FREDERICK A. HALCON Assistant Professor and Chairperson,Milleret School of Business & Management for Women (MSBMW), Assumption College Lecturer, International Business Economics and Diplomacy (I-BEAD) & Entrepreneurship & Franchise Management Department (EFMD) St. Scholastica’s College Manila
    • “When you educate a man you educate an individual; when you educate a womanyou educate a whole family.” –Robert Morrison MacIver(1882-1970), Scottish sociologist
    • Innovative BusinessEducation
    • Teresita Sy-Coson AB & BSC Business Administration Fortune Magazine’s 39th Most Powerful Woman in BusinessMargarita ForesBSC AccountingRestaurateur, CIBO and Café Bola
    • OUTLINE OF PRESENTATION• The Research Problem***• Research Gaps from the Review of Literature***• Methodology***• Summary of Results• Conclusions & Recommendations [Proposed Model]***as revised after the proposal defense last March 11, 2010
    • CHAPTER IThe Research Problem
    • STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM To what extent do the two selected women’s colleges in Metro Manila, particularly their business schools, employ innovations in their programs in gaining competitiveness?
    • RESEARCH OBJECTIVES1. To identify innovations practiced by each women’s college in order to gain competitive advantage in their business programs The proponent of this research acting as coach of AC MSBMW studenits in the JFINEX competition last September 2010. The case study research design suggests the use of “participant-observer” method as one of its data gathering methods.
    • RESEARCH OBJECTIVES 2. To develop, generate and propose an empirically testable theory and propositions on innovation and competitiveness based on available literature and relevant data from the womens colleges, with their schools of business/commerce as casesThe proponent and his colleagues in the MSBMW office preparing for Day 1 of PAASCU visit (September 2008). The case study database includes investigation of archives (such as documentation in the form of photographs) as part of the data to be analyzed.
    • RESEARCH OBJECTIVES3. To highlight the best or emerging practices or salient features of each school of business The proponent’s International Busienss & Economics (IBE) students (batch 2009) of Assumption College preparing for their thesis defense St. Scholastica’s College students attending a lecture on the Science, Ethics and Business of Stem Cells (July 2010) Photo courtesy of : Dr. Joanne Miranda, Associate Professor, SSC
    • CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKLopez’s Model of Strategic Delivery of Women’s Business Education (2008). Milleret School of Business & Management for Women.
    • OPERATIONAL FRAMEWORK*** Independent Variables Innovations in: Dependent Variable -Content Development and Enrichment -Methodologies Development Empirically Testable Model or -Materials Development Framework in Innovation -Research as a strategy for Competitiveness of -Co-Curricular Projects Womens Colleges -Faculty Development and Enrichment -Student Care and Coaching -Industry Networking***Intervening Variables are removed, as revised after the proposaldefense last March 11, 2010
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES• There is a need for women’s colleges to innovate their business programs or course offerings through content, methodologies and materials development and other related areas to remain competitive in the industry given their business strategy.
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES• Innovation is needed by these women’s colleges’ business schools in order to compete in the field of business education. Students of MSBMW in action (Curricular and extra-curricular programs)
    • RESEARCH HYPOTHESES• There is no difference between the innovation employed by Assumption College and St. Scholastica’s College in the delivery of business courses/subjects as assumed by the proponent of this research.
    • SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY & RESEARCH VALUE• For advocates of women empowerment• For competency building to gain competitive advantage• For academicians and school administrators• For strategy formulation• For future researchers
    • SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS• Limited to the Schools of Business of the Two Women’s Colleges: – Assumption College’s Milleret School of Business and Management for Women (MSBMW) – St. Scholastica’s College’s School of Commerce
    • SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS • Case study research methodology • Theory building using case study research strategy (Eisenhardt, 1989 & Yin, 2003). – Qualitative data analysis
    • SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS• WORD OF CAUTION or DISCLAIMER: What may be considered as innovative by W.C.s in this study may be deemed as ordinary practices by their university counterparts and/or other larger institutions of higher education endowed with larger networks of resources within their reach.
    • CHAPTER IIResearch Gaps from the Review of Related Literature and Studies
    • SYNTHESIS & RESEARCH GAPS• Social changes in the Americas and Europe brought WCs to Philippine shores in the 1900s. – Historical perspective: Only single women who desire to become teachers are allowed the privilege of higher education – STIGMA: Teachers are typically unmarried women• WCs started as schools for teachers. Iskul Bukols resident teacher, Miss Tapia, is an archetype of a teacher assumable to be a graduate of a womans college. Iskul Bukol is a situational comedy that ran from 1977 to 1988 in Philippine television.
    • SYNTHESIS & RESEARCH GAPS• Women’s colleges to make themselves more relevant started offering business courses. – Stitt-Gohdes (1998)  teaching methodologies – Stitt-Gohdes, Crews and McCannon (1999)  logical situations, hands-on activities – Lorange (2002)  business education evolve from axiomatic to pioneering and value- creating
    • SYNTHESIS & RESEARCH GAPSScrimshaw (2006) → WCs empower women than their coed counterpartsLopez (2008) → Strategic Delivery of Women’s Business EducationRose (2009) → Innovation is needed to enhance value of students upon graduationBrown (2009) → WCs are learning institutions that are open and empower womenBumatay (2009) → Management education should shift from classical approaches to experiential methods
    • SYNTHESIS & RESEARCH GAPS• Minor Research Gap: Measurement of Innovation is unclear• Identification of Major Research Gap – Are there studies on Educational Innovation? YES – Are there studies on Educational Institutions? YES – Are there studies on Business Education? YES – Are there scholarly articles on women’s studies? YES – Are there studies on Educational Innovation in Business for Women? None so far.
    • CHAPTER III Methodology
    • RESEARCH DESIGN • Inductive case study research – in-depth investigation of a single individual, group, or event to explore causation in order to identify underlying principles • Qualitative data – Triangulation Method: Archives, Interviews and Participant-Observer
    • RESEARCH DESIGN• Case study (Yin, 2003 & Eisenhardt, 1989) – Does not require behavioral control of events – Focuses on contemporary events (innovations / best practices / salient features) – Examination of a phenomenon in real-life setting; phenomenon and context are not clearly evident
    • RESEARCH DESIGN• Common critique/misconception to case studies (Yin, 2003): – Provide little basis for scientific generalization – ANSWER: They are only generalizable to theoretical propositions (or universes).
    • RESEARCH DESIGN• Descriptive Method or Descriptive/Narrative Case Study (Yin, 2003) – deemed appropriate due to the fact that there are only two womens colleges whose schools of business/commerce are under study
    • POPULATION & RESPONDENTS• For the semi-structured interviews, respondents will be faculty members of the Schools of Business/Commerce of AC & SSC: – Full-time (40 hours a week) – Half-time (20 hours a week) – Part-time (3 to 15 hours a week) in AC; (3 to 9 hours) in SSC
    • POPULATION & RESPONDENTS• Semi-structured interviews will be audio/video recorded for transcription purposes with the aid of a Research Assistant. Semi-structured interviews with Prof. Rubyrose Barrientos (Information & Communication Technology; Operations Research) [July 10, 2010]
    • POPULATION & RESPONDENTS• Thirteen (13) professors were interviewed: – Assumption College MSBMW • BARRIENTOS, Rubyrose • BALURAN, Fe (Chairperson, Accountancy Program) • CORTES, Myrna • LOPEZ, Ma. Corazon (MSBMW Dean) • ORJALO, Victoria (Former MSBMW Dean) Semi-structured interview with Prof. Ria Salvana • SALITA, Gilda Socorro (Chairperson, (Business Communication) of AC [July 10, 2010] Entrepreneurship/Tourism/Marketing and HRDM ) • SALVANA, Ria Teodora
    • POPULATION & RESPONDENTS• Thirteen (13) professors were interviewed: – St. Scholastica’s College School of Commerce • CHING, Remedios (College Dean) • GUANZON, Gloria • MAURICIO, Delfin (Chairperson, EFMD) • MENDOZA, Aldrin • MIRANDA, Joanne • NAYVE, Ruben, Jr., (Chairperson, Semi-structured interview with Prof. Aldrin Mendoza of SSCs IBEAD) IBEAD Department. Prof. Mendoza is also connected with the Corporate Communications Department of PAGCOR. [July 24, 2010]
    • SAMPLING DESIGN• Theoretical sampling (Eisenhardt, 1989) – Random selection is neither necessary nor preferable in doing case studies – Respondents are chosen purposively – Statistical tools (random sampling and inference-making) are not applicable – BEST RESPONDENTS: Faculty members of both schools
    • MEASUREMENT AND INSTRUMENTATION• Semi-structured interview questionnaire• Use of multiple sources of data• Creation of a case study “database”• Maintenance of chain of evidence – Pictures, memoranda, letters, other archives
    • RESEARCH PROCEDURES• Entering the “field” (Eisenhardt, 1989): – Interviews with AC and SSC Business/Commerce faculty members – Photographs and Audio/Video Recordings – Collection of exhibits as part of the archives – Field notes – Transcription of interviews
    • RESEARCH PROCEDURES• Processing and analysis of data – Transcription of data – Matching of interview responses, archives and notes – GENERAL ANALYTIC STRATEGY (Yin, 2003): Use of tables/matrices or “empty shells” to summarize qualitative data to reach theoretical saturation (Glaser, 1978)
    • RESEARCH PROCEDURES• Processing and analysis of data – GENERAL ANALYTIC STRATEGY: Use of tables “empty shells” to group responses among the two schools enables the proponent to perform within-case and cross-case analyses
    • RESEARCH PROCEDURES• Processing and analysis of data – No standard “cookbook” procedure in analyzing qualitative data for case studies unlike statistical analysis for quantitative data
    • RESEARCH PROCEDURES• Theoretical saturation – Similar responses are then grouped together  Shorter tables/content imply common and coherent responses among interviewees – Glaser (1978) stated that when building theory, it is necessary to gather data until each category is “saturated” • No new or relevant data emerge in the process
    • RESEARCH PROCEDURES• To strengthen validity and to prevent researcher’s bias (participant-observer method) or “to go native” (in social science research): – Full-time faculty member in AC – Chairperson, Corporate Business & International Business Programs The researcher participating in a decision- making process in Assumption College In-Service Training Program (May 2010)
    • RESEARCH PROCEDURES • To prevent researcher’s bias (participant-observer method) and to strengthen internal & external validity: – Lecturer / Part-time faculty of the IBEAD Department (2010-The researcher teaching Principles of Economics present)with Taxation & Agrarian Reform to a Third Year class of IT students in SSC (July 2010) – Former Lecturer of the EFMD Department (2005)
    • ANALYSIS OF DATA• Multiple Sources of Evidence – Archives, Interviews and Field Observations (triangulation) for matching purposes• Within-case analysis – Grouping of similar responses from interviewees coming from the same school; use of “empty shells” (Yin, 2003) or 2x2 matrices (Eisenhardt, 1989)• Cross-case analysis – Pinpointing similarities and differences of the responses and archives gathered
    • ANALYSIS OF DATA (Yin, 2003)• Construct validity: Multiple sources of evidence• Internal validity: Pattern matching, linking of interviews to existing/gathered evidence → explanations• External validity: Establishing the degree or field of generalizability: Business schools of WCs• Reliability: Develop case study database
    • THEORY BUILDING PROCESS (Eisenhardt, 1989) STEP ACTIVITIES DONE BY PROPONENT Getting Started Preliminary Review of Related Literature; Search for research gaps Selecting Cases AC and SSC Schools of Business/Commerce Crafting Drafting and using of semi-structured interviewInstruments/Protocols questionnaire Entering the Field Participant-observer method; note taking; collection of artifacts for database; interviewing (3 months) Analyzing Data Grouping of similar responses and matching of evidence from case study database (within-case and cross-case) using “empty shells”.Shaping Hypotheses Noting of prominent responses and evidences Enfolding Literature Comparison of Results of Interviews with Literature Reaching Closure Theoretical saturation
    • CHAPTER IVSummary of Results
    • PRODUCING A CASE STUDY DATABASE• CAVEATS: – Yields a mass of qualitative documents; Intensive documentation and transcription – Time-consuming • Proposal Writing (September 2009 – January 2010) • Revisions to Proposal (April-May 2010) • Fund-raising (January 2010-May 2010) • Parallel data-gathering (June- August 2010) • Transcription and analysis (August -September 2010)
    • INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION• Within-case Analysis for AC – As seen and noted from various data sources: • Strong grounding in Theology for Business Students (12 to 21 units of Theo) • Webbing • TFCD format in syllabi-making (until 2009) • Whole Brain Thinking (WBT) and Self- Social Mastery (SSM) as foundation courses for First Year student
    • INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION• Within-case Analysis for AC: – Industry practitioners are seen as partners in education – Use of case analysis in imparting knowledge in business courses (verified by RRL) – “Asian perspective” in business and management is being brought to the classroom – Mentoring of achievers and underachievers
    • INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION• Within case analysis (for SSC): – Music and Arts education for ALL business students – Synthesis: a one (1) unit course required for all graduating students; week-long activity that uses action-based, problem-based learning • Use of problem trigger – i.e. social transformation and social issues
    • INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION• Within case analysis (for SSC): – Use of concept maps in their syllabi to link key ideas; lifelong learning or “metacognition” or learning about learning – Womens issues are encouraged in integrating lessons – Grounding on Theology (12 units); Ora et Labora (Prayer and Work) • Social Responsibility and Ethics in Business Education
    • INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION• Within case analysis (for SSC): – The School of Commerces I-BEAD program is the only existing program in the Philippines that combines International Business (IB), Economics and Diplomacy courses – EFMD program is the only existing program that combines both entrepreneurship and franchise management.
    • INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION• Cross-case analysis – Unique to AC: HRMD & Tourism Mgt. – Unique to SSC: EFMD, I-BEAD, Business Information & IT, Financial Management – Common degree offerings in both schools are • Marketing Management • Corporate Business and/or Management
    • INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION• Cross-case analysis – In both schools concerned: • Both schools claim that there are linkages with industry partners and practitioners • Part-time faculty members are typically industry practitioners; partners in education • Strong grounding on theology
    • INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION• Cross-case analysis – In both schools concerned: • Training programs for faculty and staff (F&S Development) • Manageable class size → AC and SSC face almost similar conditions in terms of enrollment (AC has 900+; SSC has 1000+) – Degree offerings are also found in the universities → girls tend to go where the boys are – Thus, professors / administrators tend to be “nurturing” to address needs of students
    • INNOVATIVE FEATURES IN BUSINESS EDUCATION• Cross-case analysis – In both schools concerned: • In terms of student and faculty research, “baby steps” are undertaken to establish and improve a strong research culture. – AC: Action research such as feasibility studies as theses; faculty members are encouraged to write and publish in the in- house journal – SSC: Theses mentors are required to attend a thesis protocol seminar. • Both schools have in-house journal publications.
    • CHAPTER VConclusions & Recommendations
    • CONCLUSIONS• Curriculum Investigation and Teaching Methodologies – For AC: Webbing, Self and Music and Arts are taught to Social Mastery (SSM) and all students in St. Whole Brain Thinking Scholastica’s College not only (WBT) to their students in the School of Commerce – For SSC: Problem-based learning (PBL), Music and Arts Education for ALL students (not just Business) – For both schools: Strong grounding on Theology: 12 to 21 units FOREX101 : A webbing of concepts inInternational Finance and Selected Topics in International Business. Event was organized by the graduating class of AC’s IBE students Batch 2010. The proponent served as the professor in both subjects.
    • CONCLUSIONS• TEACHING METHODOLOGIES. The use of information and communication technology (ICT) is considered to be an innovation by the respondents of the study. The proponent of this research (center) attempts to learn new technologies by uploading his department’s (i.e. e-modules in activities to the online school calendar online. (May 2010) coordination with CWC). Faculty & Staff In-Service Program held every last week of May.
    • CONCLUSIONS• LINKAGES – Knowledge transfer continuum between academe and industry partners – Industry practitioners are part of the faculty lineup (i.e. Dr. Eduardo Morato, Jr. of AIM, Prof. Neil Angelo Halcon of BSP, Prof. Aldrin Mendoza of PAGCOR, etc)
    • CONCLUSIONS RESPONSIBLE BUSINESS EDUCATIONAnother form of innovation that can be incorporated in business educationin womens colleges is the integration of social responsibility discussed in the light of the philosophy of their respective foundress—St. Scholastica and St. Marie Eugenie de Brou: Strong grounding on Theology.
    • Institutional Social Development Programs of Women’s Colleges Assumption Students takingtheir Integrated Summer Study Program in Infanta, Quezon SSC’s Citizen’s Watch for (2006) Good Governance AC MSBMW Faculty Members and Launched: July 2010 students help the staff of a rural hospital setup a computer database and give ICT training for their operations.
    • CONCLUSIONS• SERVICE-ORIENTED ADMINISTRATION: – Small student population size: – Class size: 15 to 35 students (makes webbing and interaction with others possible and practical) – Coordinating functions performed by faculty: “nurturing”.
    • Industry Adoption and Use Linkages of Computer & Technology Corporate Practitioners Changes in Students Changes Innovative Business Education Profile in Schools ofBusiness/Commerce In In WomensIn Womens Colleges Curriculum Colleges Whole Brain Responsible Thinking, Self & Social Mastery, Business Problem-Based Education Learning, Music & Arts Vision-Mission Educational Philosophies
    • THEORETICAL PROPOSITIONSProposition No. 1: Innovations in the curriculum are made by the administrators of the schools as they take into account the changing profiles of their students.Proposition No. 2: Academic linkages are established, strengthened and nurtured when industry practitioners become part of the faculty line-up of a business school.
    • THEORETICAL PROPOSITIONSProposition No. 3: Responsible business is emphasized in the curriculum and activities of the business schools of the womens colleges, given their respective Vision- Mission statements.Proposition No. 4: Womens colleges, specifically their schools of business/commerce, adopt to changing technology to make business education more timely and relevant to the needs of the students and the industry.
    • TRIANGULATION OF CONSTRUCTS ICT WBT SSM PBL CSR Small Practitioners /Theo Popn Partners in EducIs it in the Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yesarchives?Was it Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yesmentioned inthe semi-structuredinterviews?Was it Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yesrecorded inthe fieldnotes? METHODOLOGY Respon- Svc Industry Linkages sible Oriented Business Admin Education
    • COMPARISON TO EXTANT LITERATUREMethodology -Sabio (2009): Technology and social learning styles for women learning business -Business School Admission (2009) identifies experiential learning as a common methodology of teaching business
    • COMPARISON TO EXTANT LITERATUREResponsible Business -CSR is a mandated course requirement by CHED Memo #39 s. 2006 in Business programs. -It is organic for Catholic schools to integrate concepts of Responsible Business in Theology classes with the help of faculty and lay partners. Community dimension is emphasized (Halcon, 2009)...as well as human dignity and rights (Stabile, 2005).
    • COMPARISON TO EXTANT LITERATUREService-oriented management -Brown (2009) states that WCs are institutions that empower women -Sabio (2009) encourages faculty members to embrace students different learning styles; know their students better -Diamond (2009) states that WCs are institutions that encourage women to be active agents in the world despite the threat of coeducational institutions.
    • COMPARISON TO EXTANT LITERATUREAcademic Linkages -Lopez (2008) states that industry networking makes business education more relevant to the needs of the outside world. Ties should be nurtured and preserved with the practitioners.
    • RECOMMENDATIONS• INCLUDE METRICS: Empirically test the model with statistics; propose standard rubrics• Replicating the same data gathering procedure, inclusion of the Schools of Business/Commerce of other Women’s Colleges: – Miriam College, – College of the Holy Spirit
    • RECOMMENDATIONS• Innovations may be undertaken not only by women’s colleges but also by their coed counterparts. Replicating the same data gathering procedure involving more schools will enable the researcher to: – Investigate and test any significant differences – Increase the “generalizability” and robustness of the model
    • RECOMMENDATIONS• Further explore studies that will investigate whether business education should be made gender-sensitive or not. – Womens way of thinking vs. Business is for everyone• Women’s education (in general) in developing countries paves the way for national progress [delayed marriage, less children, entrepreneurial ventures, economic growth, better health] (Todaro & Smith, 2006); (USAID, 2005).
    • PHOTO CREDITS Mr. Don Jeffrey A. Halcon Prof. Gilda Salita Prof. Ariel Geronimo Prof. Rubyrose Barrientos Dr. Joanne Miranda Prof. James QueInternational Business & Economics Society (IBES) of Assumption College www.ssc.edu.ph www.assumption.edu.ph www.facebook.com
    • THANK YOU VERY MUCH! Merci beaucoup! (French) Vielen danke! (German)That in all things, God may be glorified!
    • DEDICATION To the loving memory of Leonardo A. Halcon (January 31, 1940 – March 4, 2005)My Dad & I (August 1986)