Introduction to WiMAX


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A primer on WiMax.

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Introduction to WiMAX

  1. 1. 802.16: WiMAX A World Without Wires Presented by Eric Goldman – First Published May 2007
  2. 2. Agenda <ul><li>Introduction: What is WiMAX? </li></ul><ul><li>Functionality, Security & Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>Comparison: WiMAX vs 802.11 “Wi-Fi” </li></ul><ul><li>Convergence: HIPERMAN & WiBro </li></ul><ul><li>Competing Technologies: EVDO, HSDPA </li></ul><ul><li>Future: WiMAX predictions, implications </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion: Summary and Questions </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>
  3. 3. Introduction: What is WiMAX? <ul><li>WiMAX is the street term for IEEE 802.16 </li></ul><ul><li>Developed for Wireless MANs </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Speed wireless links </li></ul><ul><li>Allows nodes to have a wide range of mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for deployment by ISPs and corporations, not home users </li></ul><ul><li>* Similar in concept to cellular networks, but for more generic forms of data </li></ul>
  4. 4. How does WiMAX work? <ul><li>WiMAX system typically consists of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WiMAX Tower: High powered base station, with large range and connection to Internet (ISP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>WiMAX Receiver: One or more end-user roaming nodes or another WiMAX tower </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two Modes of Communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NLOS: Similar to Wi-Fi, built in or external radio device which connects a host to WiMAX Tower </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LOS: Higher speed backhaul connection used between WiMAX towers to extend network </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Example: WiMAX Network image from:
  6. 6. Security: Advantages & Concerns <ul><li>X.509 certificate for customer Authentication </li></ul><ul><li>Currently Optional Security: AES Cipher & Extensible Authentication Protocol </li></ul><ul><li>Susceptible to same reliability issues as all wireless networks: jamming, physical take-down, promiscuous capture </li></ul><ul><li>Unencrypted management data  network mapping and man-in-the-middle attacks </li></ul><ul><li>Old management frames  DoS replay attack </li></ul><ul><li>Implemented by ISP  proprietary additions </li></ul>
  7. 7. Implementation: Capacity & Performance <ul><li>4-6 Mile Coverage Radius for NLOS </li></ul><ul><li>30 Mile connection for LOS links </li></ul><ul><li>70 Megabit data rate; comparable to cable and DSL when divided among 100+ homes </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothetically as reliable as cell networks </li></ul><ul><li>Redundant backhaul links provide stability </li></ul><ul><li>LOS links operate in unlicensed spectrum: interference from other technologies </li></ul>
  8. 8. Implementation: Industry Support <ul><li>Sprint: Testing WiMAX as the new, 4G replacement for current cellular networks </li></ul><ul><li>Intel: Add WiMAX to architecture development, internal laptop development </li></ul><ul><li>Motorola & Nokia: 3G/WiMAX compatible cell phone development, other devices </li></ul><ul><li>Industry is cautious, yet supportive </li></ul><ul><li>* Government also has a stake: High speed, attack-tolerant networking </li></ul>
  9. 9. Comparison: WiMAX and Wi-Fi To the end user, similar experience as Wi-Fi, but with much greater mobility and expectation of connectivity throughout a given area. WiMAX (802.16) Wi-Fi (802.11g) Range 4-5 Miles (30 Miles) 100 Feet Speed 70 Mbps 54/108 Mbps Frequency 2-11 GHz (10-66 Ghz) 2-11 Ghz Wiring Tower to Tower Required at Base
  10. 10. Convergence: HIPERMAN & WiBro <ul><li>HIPERMAN: European Standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Envisioned for end user deployment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No higher spectrum component </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WiBro: Korean Standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong QoS emphasis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More strict requirements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All of these technologies are being converged for planned interoperability </li></ul>
  11. 11. Competing Technologies: EVDO & HSDPA <ul><li>EVDO: Evolution-Data Optimized </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offered by Sprint & Verizon (CDMA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Already supported, lower implementation costs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>HSDPA: High-Speed Downlink Packet Access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Offered by AT&T (GSM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing data-rate, already surpassing WiMAX </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Current 3G Cellular network technologies offer high-speed data transfer over current infrastructure, increasing customer base </li></ul>
  12. 12. Future: Predictions <ul><li>WiMAX implementation may be too late; other technologies exist, and may be outdated when widely available </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data over Cellular networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More Comprehensive technologies; 802.20 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumers seem anxious for technology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential customers would prefer it over or in combination with Cable or DSL </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong industry support from multiple partners </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Future: Implications <ul><li>Reduce TCO </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Simpler deployment and management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No wiring costs, can reach remote or rural areas </li></ul></ul><ul><li>24/7 Connectivity: With a laptop and WiMAX connection, user can have great mobility and access to data </li></ul>
  14. 14. Conclusion: Summary <ul><li>WiMAX offers higher speeds, greater mobility, and large coverage area </li></ul><ul><li>Replace or supplement cellular networks </li></ul><ul><li>Open standard, many industry partners </li></ul><ul><li>Converging Standards globally </li></ul><ul><li>Competing technologies already deployed </li></ul><ul><li>Potential to be truly disruptive technology </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusion: Questions <ul><li>The floor is now opened to questions </li></ul>
  16. 16. References <ul><li>Airvana. WiMAX to CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Comparison. 2005. Airvana. 27 Apr. 2007 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Ekuland, Carl, et al. “IEEE Standard 802.16: A Technical Overview of the WirelessMAN Air Interface for Broadband Wireless Access.” IEEE Communications Magazine June 2002: 98-107. Rpt. in IEEE Communications Society Archives. IEEE Communication Society. 4 June 2002. IEEE. 27 Apr. 2007 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Grabianowski, Edward, and Marshall Brian. “How WiMAX Works.” HowStuffWorks 2 Dec. 2004. 27 Apr. 2007 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ High-Speed Downlink Packet Access.” Wikipedia. 27 Apr. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 27 Apr. 2007 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Hoymann, Christian, Markus Puttner, and Ingo Forkel. The HIPERMAN Standard – a Performance Analysis. 27 Apr. 2007 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Sprint Nextel Announces 4G Wireless Broadband Initiative with Intel, Motorola and Samsung. 8 Aug. 2006. 27 Apr. 2007 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Viscusi, Stefania. “Study Finds End-Users Prefer WiMAX.” TMCnet 16 Apr. 2007. 27 Apr. 2007 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>“ WiMAX.” Wikipedia. 26 Apr. 2007. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 27 Apr. 2007 <>. </li></ul><ul><li>Wright, Oshua. “WiMAX security issues.” Network World 11 Dec. 2006. 27 Apr. 2007 <>. </li></ul>