PEV Charging Implementation for the City of Berkeley - August 2013


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For [IN]City Summer Institute Program for UC Berkeley
14 August 2013

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PEV Charging Implementation for the City of Berkeley - August 2013

  1. 1. [In]City Summer Institute Program 2013 Client Project Instructors: H. Fernando Burga, Ginette Wessel, Warren Logan, Eliana Abuhamdi Eric Gudz, Sean Loughran, Elyse Vukelich, Gabriel Distler Berkeley’s First to the Electric Curb To achieve Berkeley’s emission reduction goals, our objective is to provide innovative approaches for both on and off-peak electric vehicle charging. Why Plug-In Electric Vehicles (PEVs)? Overview and History California leads the nation in number of electric vehicle charging stations, therefore setting the stage for continued growth in PEV adoption. Electric Charging Stations by State, 2012U.S. Monthly PEV Sales, 2011-2012 A substantial increase in PEV sales over the last two years has come with a larger variety of PEV options. As more models enter the market, consumer choice expands accordingly. Average Cost of PEV, 2012 ($ USD) A common misconception with PEV ownership is that it is considerably more expensive than owning a typical Internal Combustion Engine Vehicle. The data suggests, however, that PEVs are beginning to become decrease in price. • Effective way to reduce carbon emissions as outlined in Berkeley’s Climate Action Plan • Targets the most polluting commute mode within Berkeley • Despite strides in achieving a very diverse mode share, 40 percent of commuters still utilize personal vehicles Source of Berkeley’s Pollutants 45% 54% Source: City of Berkeley Climate Action Plan 2009 Source: U.S. Dept of Energy Alternative Fuel Data Center Source: SAFE analysis based on data from 2007: The California Clean Vehicle Rebate offers $2500 for EV owners until 2015 June 2009: Berkeley Climate Action Plan released 2010: California SB 535 allows PEVs access to carpool lanes regardless of the amount of people 1988: GM funds EV research efforts that eventually leads to the EV1 1990: California passes its ZEV mandate 2002: GM and Daimler Chrysler sue to repeal ZEV mandate. The Bush Administration joins suit 2003: GM announces it will phase out its EV1 program 2006: Tesla Motors unveils the Roadster, sold in 2008 with a base price of $99K Feb 2009: The stimulus bill provides $2 billion for EV development Jul 2008: Gas prices reach an all-time high as car sales drop to all-time lows. The Big Three ask for a bailout in Nov March 2012: Gov. Brown signs an executive order directing the state to accelerate the market for ZEVs March 23, 2012: NRG announces a settlement to provide $100 million in PEV infrastructure in CA with 200 charging stations Source: (Timeline) History of the Electric Car, PBS, Oct 2009 and CA ZEV Action Plan Feb 2013 Source: Kelly Blue Book, Electric Vehicle growth creates opportunity History that has paved the way for PEV charging growth GET CHARGED
  2. 2. [In]City Summer Institute Program 2013 Client Project Instructors: H. Fernando Burga, Ginette Wessel, Warren Logan, Eliana Abuhamdi Eric Gudz, Sean Loughran, Elyse Vukelich, Gabriel Distler Making Sense of it All Understanding the technology and existing infrastructure of Plug-In Electric Vehicles is essential to remove the barriers to implementation. The ChargerThe Vehicle A concern with widespread adoption of electric vehicles is battery life. This concern, called “range anxiety,” is the fear that electric vehicles will run out of power without accessible options for quick recharging. A comprehensive and widespread network placates this worry. The Network Level 2 240 Volts 16-80 Amps DC Fast Charger 480+ Volts 150-400 Amps 4 - 6 HRS 30 - 60 MINS Level 1 120 Volts 12-16 Amps 8 - 12 HRS A PEV has the ability to convert power from the Grid [in Alternating Current (AC) typically] into Direct Current (DC), which is used to recharge the internal batteries. Most PEV Charging Stations operate this way, except for the DC Fast Charger, which converts the Grid’s AC directly to DC before it travels to the vehicle’s battery supply. Tel Aviv, Israel Philadelphia, Pennsylvania Charging Island, Lodi, California Electric Avenue, Portland, Oregon Technology and Context Portland, OR and Lodi, CA chose to create PEV charging hubs within economic centers to accommodate commuters during peak hours. Philadelphia, PA and Tel Aviv, Israel have designated curbside space for on-street charging, specifically in commercial areas. Source: Adv. Vehicle Testing, U.S. Transportation Technology Research and Development Center 2011 2012 2013 Source: Recargo, PlugShare, and Source: and Source: Better Place/Sunrise Group, Source: Electric Avenue, Source: Charger Locater, Examples of PEV charging infrastructure Setting the stage for PEV charging: How it works GET CHARGED
  3. 3. [In]City Summer Institute Program 2013 Client Project Instructors: H. Fernando Burga, Ginette Wessel, Warren Logan, Eliana Abuhamdi Eric Gudz, Sean Loughran, Elyse Vukelich, Gabriel Distler In the Context of Berkeley With demographics, land use, and transit informing our choices, we explore the optimal locations for PEV Charging Infrastructure in Berkeley. Research Percent of Population who own 1 or 2 Vehicles 48% - 49% 50% - 64% 65% - 73% 74% - 78% 79% - 83% Vehicle ownership in Berkeley paints a slightly different picture, with more vehicle ownership spread throughout Western and much of Southern Berkeley. Heavier concentrations of two vehicle ownership or more exist in North Berkeley. Average Household Size within a Single Housing Unit 2.1 - 2.4 2.4 - 2.5 2.6 - 2.9 3.0 - 3.3 3.4 - 5.4 Berkeley’s data on average household size are influenced by the University due to student living arrangements. Some trends in North and West Berkeley are still evident. 5% - 24% 25% - 36% 37% - 44% 45% - 50% 51% - 59% Through these demographics, we see that census tracts within Northeast and Northwest Berkeley have the largest percentage of homeowners who utilize personal vehicles for their daily commutes. Percentage of Homeowners who Commute by Car Demographic Information obtained from the U.S. Census 2011 ACS Estimates Data collected from comprehensive PEV Surveys Distribution of Median Income for Car Only Commuters Less than $10K $10K - $40K $40K - $50K $51K - $69K $70K - $102K Mapping the median income distribution for car- only commuters gives us an expected trend, with North and Southeast Berkeley having the highest median household income. Most census tracts around these two areas, however, still had relatively high median income. Berkeley’s median age distribution is complementary to our other indicators, given that 75% of all PEV owners (respondents of the survey) were over the age of 45. Utilizing this indicator was useful in further refining our target area. The student population continues to have an effect on the data. Median Age of Population 20 - 24 25 - 31 32 - 38 39 - 44 45 - 52 94% Of all PEV respondents already own a non-PEV Vehicle 94%Of all PEV respondents reside in households with two or more people 40% Of all commuters in Berkeley use personal vehicles 96%Of all PEV respondents are homeowners (not renters) 75% Of all PEV survey respondents were over the age of 45 80% Of all PEV survey households made more than $50,000 dollars annually$$$ • Center for Sustainable Energy and CA Environmental Protection Agency • Number of Survey Respondents: 4329 • All respondents were PEV owners in CA for at least 6 months • 39% of respondents live in the Bay Area State of California PEV Driver Survey - May 2013 California Center for Sustainable Energy, May 2013 PEV indicators within Berkeley’s Census Demographics GET CHARGED
  4. 4. [In]City Summer Institute Program 2013 Client Project Instructors: H. Fernando Burga, Ginette Wessel, Warren Logan, Eliana Abuhamdi Eric Gudz, Sean Loughran, Elyse Vukelich, Gabriel Distler Selecting the Right Places Once we combine the demographic indicators with current transit infrastructure, we are able to identify ideal PEV charging locations. Methodology Our ultimate goal with PEV charging development is for it to be widely accessible to all the diverse communities in Berkeley. We chose indicators from our research and data that would serve as quick, feasible starting points for development, which could later influence more PEV ownership in the future. When we combine each of our research layers with Berkeley’s transit infrastructure in one map, we see the optimal places for PEV charging stations. These areas were selected from the median of each census dataset and informed with the aforementioned California PEV Driver Survey results. The layering process isolates four census tracts which best meet our selected indicators for PEV charging. Criteria for Census Tract Selection: • The % of homeowners commuting by car: Over 37% • The % of population owning 1-2 cars: Over 70% • Average Household Size: Over 2.3 • Median Income: Over $50,000 per year • Age: Over 40 Within North Berkeley, public PEV charging stations are not available, only ones from private residents who have shared their locations through the web. These two sites offer us the best fit in the area given our indicators and criteria. Southeast Berkeley was also well suited for PEV charging development due to its strong correlation to our indicators. Some private residential charging exists in the area, but larger, publicly accessible charging would better serve the area’s needs. Most Optimal for EV Charging Stations Less Optimal for EV Charging Stations Mass Transit Routes (Bus, Rail) Roads without Major Mass Transit Major Bike Network Existing Plug-Share PEV Charging with capacity radius Proposed PEV Charging Stations with capacity radius Telegraph/Channing Parking Garage (North Telegraph Area) A Marin Circle Fountain (Residential) B College/Webster (Mixed Use) C Solano/Colusa (Mixed Use) D A B C D Demographic Information obtained from the U.S. Census 2011 ACS Estimates Existing Residential Private Charging from Our Site Selection Master Tool: The All-Inclusive Lens In order to accommodate future PEV expansion to better address social equity in Berkeley, we chose a city-owned garage in the North Telegraph area. Though this region does not match our indicators, it opens the door for greater opportunity in the future. GET CHARGED
  5. 5. [In]City Summer Institute Program 2013 Client Project Instructors: H. Fernando Burga, Ginette Wessel, Warren Logan, Eliana Abuhamdi Eric Gudz, Sean Loughran, Elyse Vukelich, Gabriel Distler Optimal Development Sites Site Selections An exploration of two proposed sites, one in a more dense, commercial environment, and one in residential North Berkeley. Site Selection Rationale and Characteristics: • City-owned structure in the heart of Berkeley • Surplus electrical capacity, enough for three dual Level 2 charging stations • Ideal central location (in a commercial district) • Potential for solar panels on underutilized roof • Excess parking capacity for dedicated spaces • Physically separated from street, potentially easing residential and commercial friction Site Selection Rationale and Characteristics: • An exclusively residential area, but some commercial development nearby • Possible surplus electrical capacity and within 100 feet of a transformer • Excess street capacity for dedicated EV spaces • At the nexus of five neighborhood streets, high visibility in the area • Serves as a connection to other neighborhoods • Additional traffic engineering research needed A: Telegraph and Channing Parking Garage Facade of Garage from Channing Street Interior view from 4th Floor of Garage Implementation with three Dual Level 2 chargers 0 1 20.5 Miles Ü A B: Marin Circle View displaying the current landscaping, looking EastView of Marin Circle looking South with transformer Marin Circle with two dual Level 2 charging stations MARIN AVENUE LOS ANGELES AVENUE M ARIN AVENUE DEL NORTE STREET LOS ANGELES AVENUE ARLINGTON 0 1 20.5 Miles ÜB GET CHARGED
  6. 6. [In]City Summer Institute Program 2013 Client Project Instructors: H. Fernando Burga, Ginette Wessel, Warren Logan, Eliana Abuhamdi Eric Gudz, Sean Loughran, Elyse Vukelich, Gabriel Distler Optimal Development Sites Site Selections A look at two additional opportunity sites within a mixed residential and commercial setting to accommodate both on and off-peak charging. Site Selection Rationale and Characteristics: • Public Right of Way • Mixed Use of Commercial and Residential • Existing short parking time limits with the option of extended time for PEVs • Geographically dispersed away from other sites • Does not take up additional parking on Solano • Larger households and higher rates of car-only commuting in the area • Within 100 feet of a transformer Site Selection Rationale and Characteristics: • A small side-street off the main commercial stretch of College Avenue • Travel lane is closed to through traffic • In proximity to a good balance of residential and commercial areas • Underutilized street space for dedicated EV parking spaces • Surface landscaping already allows for easy access for wiring • Within 100 feet of a transformer D: Solano Avenue at Colusa Avenue Ideal implementation with two dual Level 2 chargers COLUSAAVENUE SOLANO AVENUE Looking South down Colusa Avenue at Solano Avenue View of street area proposed for charging looking North View East down Webster Street from College Avenue 0 1 20.5 Miles Ü C C: Webster Street at College Avenue View of proposed site from across Webster Proposed implementation with two dual Level 2 chargers WEBSTERSTREET COLLEGE AVENUE 0 1 20.5 Miles ÜD GET CHARGED
  7. 7. [In]City Summer Institute Program 2013 Client Project Instructors: H. Fernando Burga, Ginette Wessel, Warren Logan, Eliana Abuhamdi Eric Gudz, Sean Loughran, Elyse Vukelich, Gabriel Distler Why It’s Worth It Feasibility Exploring the practicality and economic feasibility of installing public PEV charging stations in Berkeley. Projected Growth in EV Sales The Consumer’s Satisfaction Despite projected rapid growth in EV sales and high satisfaction from current owners, public charging infrastructure hasn’t caught up. Estimated Level 2 Charger Installation Cost - Telegraph/Channing Garage: $29,100 Current Legislation Assembly Bill 118 - The Air Quality Improvement Program is an incentive program administered by the California Air Resource Board through 2015 to fund clean vehicle and equipment projects. Assembly Bill 923 - Allows local districts to increase motor vehicle registration fees by $2 to expand systems that address air quality. The Electric Program Investment Change (EPIC) was established by the California Public Utilities Commission in 2012. It provides funding for applied research and development, technology demonstration and deployment, and market facilitation for clean energy. The California Air Resources Board outlines funding priorities for Cap and Trade revenues. Investments include “Reduce GHG emission through the development of state of the art systems to move goods and freight, advanced technology vehicles and infrastructure.” Moving Ahead for Progress in the 21st Century (MAP-21). Within MAP-21, the Congestion Mitigation and Air Quality Program (CMAQ) provides funding to state and local governments for transportation projects to help meet the requirements of the Clean Air Act. The Economic Landscape 77% Expressed varying levels of dissatisfaction with public charging infrastructure 22% 55% 20% 3% Funding Options GET CHARGED California Center for Sustainable Energy, May 2013 Forbes, EV Market Forecast Report, April 2013 Options for Grants The Lisa and Douglas Goldman Fund highlights environmental grants available, specifically ones that mitigate greenhouse gas emissions in Northern California. Established with Plan Bay Area in compliance with SB 375, this grant program administered by the Metropolitan Transportation Commission (MTC) allocates funding for transportation, bicycle and pedestrian improvements, local streets, and road preservation. Urban Greening Grant Program: developed to coordinate infrastructure planning alongside climate change. Our idea is to combine landscaping and urban forestry with an on-street charger, as the curbs would be torn up already. This would enhance the aesthetics of the neighborhood and add a source of revenue from the Strategic Growth Council for greening streets. This public agency regulates air pollution in the Bay Area. They offer several different grants relating to the reduction of air pollution, including a Bay Area PEV ready program. The Hewlett Foundation offers grants to ensure energy is produced and used cleanly and efficiently, with a focus on the Bay Area Innovative Ideas LEGISLATION ALLOWING FOR-PROFIT COMPANIES TO WRITE OFF DONATIONS: A concept that would allow for-profit companies to receive tax-deductions for the value of their donated equipment or actual monetary contribution. REDEFINING COMPLETE STREETS: Complete Streets seek to balance different transportation modes for safety, access and the environment. Could electric cars be considered an additional mode and incorporated into future planning? BUSINESS IMPROVEMENT DISTRICTS: An exploration of possible alliances with the Elmwood Claremont Neighborhood Association and Solano Avenue Merchants to create BIDs, as local PEV charging stations incentivize shopping in those commercial areas. CROWDFUNDING: With the level of enthusiasm we have witnessed in the electric vehicle community, is this the perfect population segment to proselytize and fund expansion of the network? COMMUNITY BUILDING: We consider enlisting the local community on the design side, either with local industrial designers to inform the hardware, or covering the chargers with artwork from local schools. If each charger was used as an art piece, could arts funding be utilized to off-set costs? California Center for Sustainable Energy, May 2013
  8. 8. [In]City Summer Institute Program 2013 Client Project Instructors: H. Fernando Burga, Ginette Wessel, Warren Logan, Eliana Abuhamdi Eric Gudz, Sean Loughran, Elyse Vukelich, Gabriel Distler Looking Towards the Future Conclusions Through our findings to date, we present ideas worth exploring in the future and reflect on the nature of innovation. Full Service Charging Stations The Electric Slide Wireless Charging This quote, by none other than the man that forever changed the car industry and manufacturing process, represents the tendencies of people to want a newer version of what they already have. But innovation requires a thorough re-imagining of the status quo and moving the culture forward. Sometimes people don’t know what they want until they encounter it. We feel this way about electric cars. Through our research and interaction with the electric vehicle community, there is a palpable enthusiasm for these vehicles, a motivated base that can help propel this to the mainstream. We are reminded of an earlier era, before environmental concerns diminished the excitement about cars. The policy groundwork and larger objectives have been established in Berkeley’s Climate Action Plan, and the technology and market growth are following suit. The only piece left to persuade the reluctant masses, is a robust charging network that is accessible to all. New Concepts to be Researched GET CHARGED Wireless vehicle chargers located beneath city pavement have already been utilized in places like South Korea and Utah. As the technology improves and demand increases, Berkeley should consider creating new wireless electric car infrastructure. By doing so, cars could charge while they drive. We realize that it is impractical to expect everyone to move their car from a parking space once their PEV is done charging. But what if instead of waiting on people to move their cars, we moved the charger? The city could install a charger on a metal track along the curb with the ability to slide into place. This way, multiple parking spaces could have access to the charger without any designated PEV parking. “If I had asked people what they wanted, they would have said a faster horse.” - Henry Ford Concluding Remarks Wireless Charging Station, Wireless Charging Station, Adding full service features like the ability to check tire pressure, wash windshields, and on site convenient stores, makes charging stations more appealing. Store leases and revenue could also help expand the program. A potential location could be the currently vacant corner lot at Shattuck and Derby. Above is the green company EV-oasis’ model for a solar powered charging station at an abandoned gas station in Encinitas, CA. The station would include a lounge, restrooms, a restaurant, a car sharing service, and the space for 15 cars to charge simultaneously. Through our analysis, underutilized lots on Shattuck would be candidates for these concepts. Other possible sites for expansion: • The Alameda and Hopkins Street • Hopkins Street and Carlotta Avenue • San Pablo Avenue and Gilman Street