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XeriscapingThe Complete How-To GuideInside:• Water-wise  Southwestern  landscapes• Planning and  planting tips• Best trees...
Xeriscaping Basics...........................1-7                                                 Tips on Drip................
Xeriscaping BasicsWhy Xeriscape?It’s Beautiful and Saves Water and MoneyIn hot dry climates like ours, gardening is an ext...
Xeriscaping Basics                                                           is a cool season grass that requires a minimu...
Xeriscaping BasicsWater IntelligentlyEfficient irrigation saves water. When plants aregrouped by their water needs, plants...
Xeriscaping Basics                                                                        Fibrous mulches such as pecan sh...
Xeriscaping Basics    Tips on Drip:    The Basics of Drip Irrigation1    Filter keeps sand and silt from        Drip irrig...
Xeriscaping Basics                                                                     8 Steps    1                       ...
Xeriscaping Basicsto a Healthy Xeric Plant     3                                                                          ...
RAINWATER HARVESTINGMaking a planfor rainwaterharvestingRainwater is a gift. Arid-climate gardensshould be designed to cap...
RAINWATER HARVESTINGPlanting sustained byrainwater harvestingUsing precipitation effectively involves keeping as muchsurfa...
L      E      G      E      N       D      Plant     Water UseRainwater OnlyThese plants qualify for the rainwater harvest...
TREES               Trees                                                                                  Well-adapted an...
DECIDUOuS TREESCeltis reticulata                                                                                   Prosopi...
DECIDUOuS TREESPistacia chinensisChinese Pistache	      Full Sun	                     Medium WaterMature Size: 40’ X 30’Bl...
EVERGREEN TREES                                                                               VINESPinus eldarica         ...
VINES    Vines                       The Wisteria shown                                here (see the plant list           ...
SHRUBS                      Shrubs                      Shrubs are a mainstay of xeric gardens. Rooting deeply, they      ...
DECIDUOUS SHRUBS                                                    Chamaebatiaria millefolium                            ...
EVERGREEN SHRUBSCercocarpus ledifolius                                                                       Ephedra speci...
Rosmarinus officinalis “ARP”“ARP” Upright Rosemary	     Full Sun	             Low WaterMature Size: 6’ X 6’Blooming Season...
FLOWERING PLANTS                               Flowering                                  Plants                      Colo...
FLOWERING PLANTS                                                Agastache cana                                            ...
FLOWERING PLANTSBerlandiera lyrata                             Callirhoe involucrata                         Calylophus sp...
FLOWERING PLANTSEriogonum species                                                                                    Gaura...
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico
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Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico

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Transcript of "Xeriscaping: the Complete How to Guide - Albuquerque, New Mexico"

  1. 1. XeriscapingThe Complete How-To GuideInside:• Water-wise Southwestern landscapes• Planning and planting tips• Best trees and shrubs for your area• Comprehensive plant list• Rebate information for Water Authority customers n o i ti d lE e th onaby i ou R egt to y w u gh Ne bro l- Al
  2. 2. Xeriscaping Basics...........................1-7 Tips on Drip......................................... 5 8 Steps to a Healthy Xeric Plant..... 6-7 Rainwater harvesting...................8-9 TREeS.................................................10-14 Vines.................................................14-15 SHRUBS..............................................16-19 FLOWERING PLANTS........................20-27 Desert Accents.............................28-31 GROUNDCOVER.................................32-34 GRASSES............................................35-37 PLANT LISTINGS...............................38-47 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS........................... 48IntroductionThe Complete How-To Guide to Xeriscaping is published by the Albuquerque Bernalillo County WaterUtility Authority and provided by agencies in our region to help people make smart, water-efficient landscapedecisions and choose plants that are appropriate to our arid climate.A comprehensive list of plants that grow well in the region is provided at back of the book. This list providesbasic information about each plant, and the plant’s rebate allowance, where applicable. Photos and moredetailed descriptions of featured plants from the list are provided in the front and middle portion of the book,along with tips on layout and design, planting, soil preparation, mulching, drip irrigation and more. If you are a customer of the Water Authority, you may qualify for a rebate by replacing turf with xeriscape. All plans must be preapproved, so call 768-3655 for more information and an application before you get started on your xeriscape project.
  3. 3. Xeriscaping BasicsWhy Xeriscape?It’s Beautiful and Saves Water and MoneyIn hot dry climates like ours, gardening is an extreme sport and xeriscape is the game-changer. Not only does itsave water and money, but a well-designed xeriscape is easier to maintain because it works within a frameworkthat is consistent with local ecology. So how does someone go from the scraped earth of new construction orthe bluegrass of less water-savvy times, to a garden that is fragrant and colorful, with shaded, wind-bufferedliving spaces that use less water as well? There are a number of things to keep in mind:Have a PlanBefore you move a shovelful of dirt or plant a singleflower, have an overall plan for your xeriscape. As thatgreat gardener Yogi Berra once noted, “If you don’tknow where you’re going, you might end up some-place else.” Look at your site from a perspective ofwhat it has to offer and what you want it to provide. Areas already shaded by the walls of the building or C onsider the mature size of plants when you existing trees might become additional patio space include them in your garden. Well-adapted to take advantage of existing cool spots, or you plants will reach their maximum size fairly quickly. may want to plant trees or vines to shade existing Over-planting wastes water and money. patios where summer sun makes them less usable because of the heat. I f you have limited time or energy to invest in gardening, the places where you spend the most Do you need a small lawn as a play space for young time or that you can see through your windows children, or is your water budget better invested in may be the focal points for color and accent, while vegetable or flower gardening? the rest of the landscape is planned for very low maintenance. Rainwater from the roof and large paved surfaces can be collected and/or diverted for plants to use. Whether you’re an avid do-it-yourselfer and want to This important source of “free” water may also help design and plant your own garden, or you use the determine the placement of large shade trees. services of a landscape design professional, the more you consider how you want to use space, how you Plant large shrubs with views, privacy screening want the space to look and feel, the more likely you’ll and wind protection in mind. develop a well-designed xeriscape that meets your needs and provides beautiful, water-wise outdoor living space for you and your family. www.abcwua.org • 1
  4. 4. Xeriscaping Basics is a cool season grass that requires a minimum of 40 inches of rainfall a year to stay lush and green. Many cities in New Mexico average 8 inches or less precipi- tation annually. That’s why we have to water bluegrass so much here in the high desert. If we’re going to be serious about saving water, we have to rethink our lawns. The greatest value of cool season turf is its resilience as a play surface. Com- munities maintain public parks and playing fields with taxpayer dollars, and these cool amenities serve the citizens well. Homeowners generally don’t need a soccer field of turf in their backyards, and no one needs a huge expanse of water-guzzling turf in their front yard where its main use is outdoor carpeting. There are hundreds of plants recommended for their medium and low water use in this guide including na-Digging the Dirt tive grasses that can create a lush-looking green cover or gorgeous tapestry of color with less than half theIf you’re planting a lawn, a vegetable garden or fruit water it takes to maintain a lawn.trees, you may need to add generous amounts ofcompost to your soil before you plant so that the soilabsorbs and holds water more efficiently. If you’relandscaping with native and xeric plants, you prob-ably don’t need to add any organic matter to the soilas these plants prefer lean soils. For arid-adaptedplants, usually all you’ll need to do is loosen the soilwell before you plant, and water deeply enough toencourage them to root extensively. Low-Water-Use Plants Choose native and low-water-use plants whenever possible. From the low desert of southern New Mex- ico to the foothills of the northern mountains, there is an amazing diversity of water-wise plants that we can use in our gardens. Whether you want to haveRethinking Our Lawns year-round green, blazing flowers or a subtle blend of texture and color that changes through the seasons,New Mexico is the land of enchantment. The blue- there are well-adapted plants that can fill the spacegrass state is Kentucky. People love our sunny skies on a modest water budget. Grouping plants of likeand low humidity; bluegrass does not. How much requirements also makes zoning irrigation easier andthirsty lawn is appropriate here? Kentucky bluegrass more efficient.2 • www.abcwua.org
  5. 5. Xeriscaping BasicsWater IntelligentlyEfficient irrigation saves water. When plants aregrouped by their water needs, plants that needwater more often in summer, such as vegetablegardens, fruit trees or turf, can be accommodatedwhile desert natives with the lowest water needscan be watered less often or not at all once they arewell-rooted. Choose lawn sprinklers that spray droplets, not high-pressure mist. They should have a low spray angle and be operated at the coolest, least windy times of day to minimize evaporative loss. Most other plants should be watered with low-flow or drip irrigation equipment, applying water only where plant roots can access it, and only as often and as deeply as the plants require. Such careful application of water has the added advantage of extra water in spring may leaf out or flower earlier, minimizing weeds and preventing pest problems. making them more vulnerable to late spring frosts. Likewise, watering too much in autumn can keep P lants use the least amount of water when they plants soft going into cold weather and make them are dormant during the coldest winter months and more vulnerable to frost damage. the most water when they are actively growing, blooming and producing fruit in summer. In spring A n automatic irrigation controller is only as as temperatures rise and in autumn as temperatures efficient as the program that runs it – and the fall, watering times should be adjusted to keep programmer who sets the run times – so program plants healthy without waste. Plants pushed with for wise water use, and water only as much as the landscape needs. R emember, too, that even the best-designed irrigation system must be main- tained to retain its optimum efficiency. Fix leaks and make sure water lines are clean and unobstructed for peak performance. www.abcwua.org • 3
  6. 6. Xeriscaping Basics Fibrous mulches such as pecan shells, shredded bark and composted cotton burrs are commonly used in planting beds, especially where plants prefer organic matter. Stone mulches such as crusher fines and gravel of various sizes and colors, can be used as pathways, lining rainwa- ter catchment, streambeds and basins, and to add texture to planting areas where desert plants prefer improved drainage. Never use impervious plastic sheetingMulching under mulches as it blocks air movement needed for healthy root growth andMulches are blankets of loose material that cover the soil to results in shallowly rooted plants moreminimize evaporation, keep roots cool in summer, suppress vulnerable to wind throw. Many types ofweed growth and slow erosion. Mulches can also provide pervious landscape fabrics are availablevisual interest and make the landscape more cohesive until where such material is needed for weedyoung plants mature to fill the space. suppression or erosion control.“Low Maintenance” isNot “No Maintenance”Xeriscapes can be designed to requirevery little maintenance, to be healthy andattractive with seasonal cleanup and pruningrather than weekly mowing, but no gardenis completely maintenance-free. To ensurethat your landscape looks its best and stayswater-wise, you may need to: • emove fallen leaves r • rim off old flower stems t • ull a few weeds p • bserve insect activity and decide when o While this may seem like a long list of tasks, in real • intervention is warranted and what the least time most of these may amount to a few hours every • invasive and most effective approach might be, two or three months. The preventative pest patrol and irrigation check can be done in the evening • onitor watering m every week or two with a cool drink in your hand – • ertilize plants that need supplementing f a relaxing reminder to stop and smell the roses.4 • www.abcwua.org
  7. 7. Xeriscaping Basics Tips on Drip: The Basics of Drip Irrigation1 Filter keeps sand and silt from Drip irrigation systems can play an important water-saving clogging small drip lines. role in the xeric landscape. When properly designed, installed and managed, drip irrigation efficiently maintains the optimal range of moisture in the soil because it applies water in precise quantities on a set schedule. Other drip irrigation advantages2 Pressure Regulator lowers the water pressure to the ideal setting include: • Easy installation and modification for a drip system (approximately • Relatively low cost 20-30 pounds per square inch [psi]). • Reduced weed growth • Minimal runoff Backflow Preventer/Anti-3 siphon Valve keeps irrigation Professional landscapers and irrigation companies can design and install drip systems customized for your yard, or you can do it system water from being siphoned yourself with kits available at hardware and home improvement back into your drinking water. stores. Backflow preventers are required by city ordinances. When hiring a landscape or irrigation company, always choose Multi-emitter Hydrant delivers one that’s licensed and insured. Furthermore, consider hiring4 water from a single riser pipe to one who has participated in the Water Authority’s Agua Savio program. Agua Savio participants have received special training multiple locations. Each outlet’s flow rate can be individually and education in irrigation efficiency and the special needs of controlled by using emitters that desert landscapes. deliver different amounts of water. Landscapers who have5 completed the training are designated as official Trained in Irrigation Efficiency Microtubing delivers the water from a multi-emitter hydrant to program participants and the location of individual plants. are allowed to display the Agua Savio logo on their documents, bids, web sites and in their places of business. For a list of program participants, visit the Water Authority’s web site at www.abcwua.org.6 Drip emitters connect to microtubing and deliver water to specific plants at a slow, consistent If you’re interested in installing your own drip irrigation system, rate. Flow rates are measured in the Water Authority offers free classes nearly every spring and gallons per hour (GPH). summer. Check our web site for a class schedule. Trained in Irrigation Efficiency On the left are the basic components of most drip irrigation7 Bubbler emitters deliver water to targeted locations, usually at systems. a higher GPH than a drip emitter. Bubblers are commonly used to water trees, shrubs and densely planted flower beds. www.abcwua.org • 5
  8. 8. Xeriscaping Basics 8 Steps 1 2 SELECT THE RIGHT PLANT DIG THE RIGHT SIZE HOLE FOR THE RIGHT SPOT AND LOOSEN THE SOILSun-loving plants should go into sunny spaces. Shade-loving plants The “right size” for trees and shrubs is about three times wider and justshould be placed under trees or beside walls where they’ll be protected a few inches deeper than the depth of the root ball. For annuals andfrom our harsh New Mexico sun. Also make sure the area is big enough perennials, the soil should also be loosened up three to five times the to accommodate the plant when it’s reached its full mature size. diameter of the container you’re planting from. If you dig a hole that’s(Remember, too, to place plants with similar water needs together.) just big enough for the plant’s root ball, you greatly limit how far the roots can easily grow and spread. 5 6 GIVE THE PLANT A GOOD SOAKING MULCH IT!Even water-thrifty xeric plants need a healthy drenching when A thick layer of mulch (2-4” deep depending on the size of the plant) willtransplanted. Make sure you soak the plant’s entire root zone. (Keep in minimize evaporation, cool the soil and reduce weed growth. Crushedmind, too, that your new plants will need more frequent waterings during 3/8” or 3/4” gravel, pecan shells, coarse textured compost and bark aretheir first year than during subsequent years.) four commonly used mulches.6 • www.abcwua.org
  9. 9. Xeriscaping Basicsto a Healthy Xeric Plant 3 4 CAREFULLY REMOVE PLANT PLACE PLANT AND FROM CONTAINER AND BACKFILL THE HOLE SEPARATE MATTED ROOTS Place the plant in the hole, making sure that the top of the root ball isTurn small plants upside down, supporting the soil with your hands. about level with the surrounding soil. Shovel the soil around the plant’sTap the pot to loosen the soil from the sides of the pot, then lift the roots to fill the hole and tamp gently to remove any large air pockets.pot off the root ball. Pulling annuals and perennials out by the stems When plants will be watered by hand or will be supplemented withand leaves can damage the plant. rainwater, they should be planted in broad, shallow basins (at leastUse a knife or sharp trowel to cut four vertical slits, one on each side of 4” deep and as wide as possible) to hold water so it soaks in deeply.the root ball. Make several similar cuts on bottom of root ball. Use yourfingers to “rough out” matted roots on sides and bottom. 7 8 USE EFFICIENT IRRIGATION MAINTAIN YOUR XERISCAPEThe majority of xeric plants suitable for New Mexico landscapes can be Even a low-maintenance xeriscape requires some maintenance.most efficiently watered using drip irrigation. Drip emitters save water Periodically check your irrigation system for leaks or clogs. Clean filterbecause they deliver a slow, steady dose of water directly to a plant’s root and check drip emitters to prevent plugging. For trees and large shrubs,zone, significantly reducing water lost to evaporation. you may need to move emitters outward and add extra emitters as plants grow so the water soaks the entire root zone. www.abcwua.org • 7
  10. 10. RAINWATER HARVESTINGMaking a planfor rainwaterharvestingRainwater is a gift. Arid-climate gardensshould be designed to capture and retain asmuch rain and snow as possible. A smoothroof surface on a 3,000-square-foot homecan shed more than 12,000 gallons of waterper year and a system of attractive-when-drystreambeds, large rain barrels or a cisterncan distribute it to the plants, the first steptoward a truly water-efficient garden.Contouring the soil so runoff flows awayfrom walls and paving into planting areas isthe simplest way to use every drop of rain.A system of shallow streambeds and basins(A) distributes water from downspouts orcanales and from paved surfaces (B) directlyto the plants nearby. The streambeds needto be lined with stone heavy enough to stayin place when flooded. The plants noted asLow RW on the plant list can thrive in or nearwater catchments without additional irriga-tion once they are well rooted.Rain barrels (C) are the next step up in waterharvesting, but are only effective if they arelarge enough to hold most of the output fromthe drainpipe or canale (gutters) they serve.A thousand square feet of roof can shed morethan 500 gallons of water per inch of rain, soon a 2,400-square-foot home, if there are 8downspouts of equal output, each rain barrelneeds to hold at least 200 gallons of water,and should have an overflow draining intoa shallow streambed that carries any excessdirectly into nearby planting basins.Cisterns (D) are the most sophisticated levelof water harvesting. Again the capacity of thetank should be large enough to contain the to design into new construction than they are to retrofit.output of the roof surface it serves with an Capacious cisterns can supply all the water disbursed via dripoverflow outlet into a shallow streambed to irrigation that a diverse garden will use throughout the year.carry any excess directly into nearby planting Lawns are the only landscape features that require so muchbasins. Because an 1,100-gallon cistern may water that even a good cistern is not sufficient. To learnbe 5 feet in diameter and 6 feet tall and, when more about the mechanics of water harvesting go tofull, can weigh several tons, cisterns are easier www.ose.state.nm.us/wucp_RoofReliantLandscaping.html.8 • www.abcwua.org
  11. 11. RAINWATER HARVESTINGPlanting sustained byrainwater harvestingUsing precipitation effectively involves keeping as muchsurface area permeable as possible, and collecting anddistributing runoff from the roof and other hard surfaceswhere it can be absorbed by a network of plant roots. Notonly does this prevent storm damage, but the hard surfacesthen supply moisture to grow trees and other plants thatkeep the surrounding spaces cooler in summer.Because rain in the high desert is feast or famine, often aninch or more at a time and sometimes months betweendownpours, combining passive collection with activestorage that can be meted out during dry periods allowsyou to grow a much broader selection of plants.First allocate spaces for the activities you’d like to accommo-date. Define the areas that need to be hard-paved such as the driveway, patios and high traffic walkways (1) and grade them to drain into planting areas. Then define areas such as secondary paths, storage and utility spaces (2) that can be paved with fine crushed gravel or other pervious material. The paved spaces and the spaces planted with the most arid-adapted plants are the driest zones in the garden. Note the places where trees or vines are needed for shade (3), where large shrubs are needed for screening (4), and where vegetable beds (5) will be: these will be the places you will want to divert the most water consis- tently via drip irrigation and can also keep the spaces fed by overflow streambeds and basins adjacent to rain barrels or cisterns. The rest of the landscape can be planted with Low and Low+ plants (6) that may need supplemental water monthly or less once established. The location of cisterns is a compromise between where there is enough space, where the water is easiest to collect from the roof and where it is most needed in the landscape. Whether building a new home or remodeling an existing one, when cisterns are part of the roof and window plan of the house, it’s easier to site them in the best locations. www.abcwua.org • 9
  12. 12. L E G E N D Plant Water UseRainwater OnlyThese plants qualify for the rainwater harvesting rebate.No supplemental water is needed once the plant isestablished as indicated for low-water plants. They arethe most arid-adapted and can grow well on rainfall aloneespecially if planted in rainwater catchments.Low WaterNo supplemental water is needed once the plant isestablished. Fast-growing plants may become well-established in a single growing season, but most plantswill need some supplemental watering through three orfour summers before they have rooted extensively enoughto stop watering. During prolonged periods with no rain—six months or longer—even these drought lovers mayneed quarterly or monthly drip irrigation to look their bestas garden plants.Low+ WaterLittle or no supplemental water is needed once the plantis established— most low+ plants will need somesupplemental watering through three or four summersbefore they have rooted extensively enough to stopwatering but they will look better if they are wateredmonthly during the summer. L E G E N DMedium WaterSome supplemental water is needed throughout the life of Plant Sunlightthe plant. Water at least monthly during the peak summermonths after the plant is well established; if planted inrunoff swales and basins, summer watering may be Requirementsskipped after a heavy rain. Full SunMedium+ Water These plants need strong sunlight to thrive and flowerMedium+ plants may need water twice monthly well. They are often the most xeric plants as theyduring the peak summer months after the plant is well are also adapted to the heat and low humidity thatestablished; if planted in runoff swales and basins, summer accompany intense high desert sun.watering may be skipped after a heavy rain. Full Sun, Part ShadeHigh Water These are the most adaptable plants; they will growRegular application of water is needed throughout the life and bloom well in either blazing sun or filtered light,of the plant, at least once a week during peak summer but are not suited to deep shade. These plants maymonths, twice monthly in spring and autumn and monthly take more water when grown in full sun than they doin winter. Planting in streambeds and basins that capture with some shade.rainwater helps supplement the plants and is especiallyhelpful in maintaining trees. Full Shade These plants prefer cooler, moister conditions more easily provided in shaded spaces. The leaves of some shade-lovers will burn if the light or heat is too intense; others many endure stronger light but will need much more water to thrive.10 • www.abcwua.org
  13. 13. TREES Trees Well-adapted and well-placed trees can be an excellent landscape investment. One strategically placed tree can transform a scorching hot section of your yard into a cool oasis, or help reduce air-conditioning costs by shading your home from the sun. When deciding which trees to plant, consider the typical mature size of the specimens as noted in the following plant list, and make sure you provide enough room for future growth. Don’t plant in areas where branches will grow into power lines or block solar panels. Planting new trees Watering for• Find the root collar on the tree where healthy growth the stem flares out into the roots, and prepare the planting hole to the same • Drip emitters should be placed depth as the roots, so the root flare will where the soil of the rootball be visible when the backfill is added. meets the backfill so that the existing roots and the soil they• The planting hole should be three times will soon extend into are kept moist. wider and just a few inches deeper than the rootball. When planting over a hardpan, • The roots that absorb moisture drill drainage holes through are at the edge and beyond the impermeable layer with the branch canopy of a mature an augur. tree, so as a tree grows and becomes established it will need• Place the tree in the hole; remove water farther and farther from the rope, wire, burlap and any other wrapping that could obstruct new roots. trunk and the original drip emitters.• Backfill with the loosened native soil that was dug out of the planting hole • Plan for healthy growth and development by including an emitter wetting and water thoroughly. pattern as shown in the drawing when the tree is planted. To discourage weeds• Only stake the tree if it seems unstable; use 2 or 3 opposing stakes with and keep the area around the developing tree cooler, plant a groundcover to flexible fabric straps. Do not use wire ties as they will cut into tender stems share water with the tree. The number of emitters and choice of groundcover and avoid rigid staking as trees need to flex in the wind to develop a will depend on whether the tree is a low or moderate water user. trunk taper that supports the leaf canopy. • Water should penetrate the soil 6 inches or deeper than the depth of the• Add a 3- to 4-inch layer of mulch over the disturbed soil, keeping mulch rootball at planting time. As the tree begins to root, gradually water more a few inches away from the trunk. deeply and less frequently until the water is penetrating to a depth of 30 inches for fruit trees and 36 inches for other trees. www.abcwua.org • 11
  14. 14. DECIDUOuS TREESCeltis reticulata Prosopis VELUTINANetleaf Hackberry Velvet Mesquite Full Sun Low+ Water Full Sun Rainwater OnlyMature Size: 25’ X 25’ Mature Size: 15-30’ X 10-25’ Blooming Season: May-June A young Flower Color: Yellow Netleaf Hack- berry passes The various through species of a rather Forestiera neomexicana mesquite are ungainly ado- trees syn- lescence, but New Mexico Olive onymous with with a little Full Sun, Part Shade Medium Water the desert pruning, like a Southwest. butterfly from Mature Size: 12-18’ X 10-15’ All are slow a chrysalis, it Blooming Season: Early Spring to leaf out in emerges as Flower Color: Yellow-Green the spring, but a sculptural Depending upon your landscape needs they make upsmall shade tree that provides habitat and preferences, this native species can for their tardiness with fragrant yellowfor butterflies and songbirds as well as be pruned upward to form an attractive flowers. Small, blue-green leaflets givecooling our patios and decks on a very small tree or left in its natural, rounded Velvet Mesquite a soft, lacy appearance.modest water budget. Deep roots allow shrub-like shape. The bark of its multiple Flat, narrow bean pods hang from theits use close to walls and paving without trunks is a smooth pale gray, and its tree throughout the summer. Its limitedrisk. branches fork at odd, interesting angles. cold-hardiness makes it a good choice Clusters of small yellowish green flow- where average annual minimum tem- ers appear early in spring; female plants peratures stay above 5 degrees F; other produce small fruits that attract song- mesquites found in the Plant List are birds. Tolerates drought, but does best about 5 degrees F more cold hardy. when roots receive a deep soaking once or twice a month. Koelreuteria paniculata Golden Raintree Full Sun Medium Water Mature Size: 25’ X 25’ Blooming Season: Early summer Quercus spp.Chilopsis linearis Flower Color: YellowDesert Willow Oak The dappled Full Sun Rainwater Only sunlight filter- Full Sun Medium WaterMature Size: 8-20’ X 10-15’ ing through Mature Size: 25-60’ X 15-60’Blooming Season: May-July the canopy of Golden Raintree Many species of oak grow well through-Flower Color: Pale pink to rosy purple is dense enough out most of New Mexico. Gambel OakA sturdy, heat-loving tree that’s native to substantially (Quercus gambelii) is a moderate-sizedto warm deserts, especially in arroyos. cool the air in tree that’s native from Southern ColoradoGrows well in New Mexico’s lowlands, but summer, but through the canyons and foothills of Newmay not be suited to elevations above bright enough Mexico and Arizona. It grows slowly to5,500 or where its cold hardiness is chal- to allow a wide 30 feet tall, sometimes taller when waterlenged. Compact and shrubby in appear- range of ground- is available. Most other oaks grow taller,ance, its leaves are long and thin and its covers to share including Valley Oak (Quercus lobata),profusion of pink trumpet-shaped flowers space and water which can reach 40 feet, and Shumardputs on quite a show. Long, pencil-like below. Rust-colored paper lantern seed Oak (Quercus shumardii), which can reachpods give the tree year-round character. husks add contrast to the yellow gold fall 60 feet with a 60-foot spread. Most oaksFast growing as a young tree, its growth foliage. This is a great tree for shading a have lobed leaves that turn from darkslows as it matures. driveway or streetside parking. green to yellow-orange in the fall.12 • www.abcwua.org
  15. 15. DECIDUOuS TREESPistacia chinensisChinese Pistache Full Sun Medium WaterMature Size: 40’ X 30’Blooming Season: Mid- to Late-SpringFlower Color: Reddish A wonderful shade tree when mature, the Vitex agnus-castus Chinese Pistache Ulmus parviflora Vitex or Chaste Tree can handle hot, Lacebark Elm Full Sun Medium Water dry desert con- ditions because Full sun Medium water Mature Size: 15-25’ X 10-15’ it roots deeply. Mature Size: 40’ X 40’ Blooming Season: July-August Its glossy dark Flower Color: Blue-lavender. leaves put So called because of the patchy mosaicon a delightful fall show turning bright bark on their trunks as they mature, Multibranched, spreading, large shrub orgold, orange or crimson. (Wait to se- Lacebark Elms are moderate in size and small tree that features distinctive darklect your tree in autumn if red foliage growth rate with a majestic form that green palmate leaves. Its low, open formis important.) The pea-sized red fruit of offers plenty of cool shade. With elm can be pruned to grow more treelike tofemale trees add color in fall. Young trees beetle-resistant leaves and no tendency create a small and lovely shade tree. Inmay have a slightly awkward form when to form a forest of weedy seedlings, this mid-summer a profusion of 7-inch-longyoung, but the canopy fills out gracefully elm is a long-lived asset best planted blue flower spikes creates a sweet aromaas trees mature. Tolerant of virtually all in broad, shallow basins that capture that attracts bumblebees. Does best insoil conditions except soggy clay. rainwater. hot areas. EVERGREEN TREES Pinus aristata Bristlecone Pine Full sun Medium water Mature Size: 30’ X 20’ This is one of the oldest known trees onJuniperus earth, and this resilience and adaptabil-(female cultivars only) ity might explain how a tree normally Pinus edulisFemale Juniper Trees found in the high mountains of the West Pinon Pine grows so well thousands of feet lower Full sun Medium water in elevation and many degrees hotter in Full Sun Medium Water temperature.Mature Size: 25-60’ X 10-40’ depending on variety Mature Size: 30’ X 20’ Short-Blooming Season: Spring Blooming Season: Early Spring needledFruit: All female varieties have blue- or copper-colored and slow- Pinon Pines are one of New Mexico’s mostberries growing, recognizable native trees. HorizontalAlthough some may argue that there are the resinous branches make for a bushy, domed shapealready enough Junipers in New Mexico aroma of when mature. Its needles, which growgardens, it is important to note that these Bristlecone in pairs, are short, stiff and dark green.adaptable conifers are the survivors of Pine fits Its spherical cones produce seeds (alsothe transition from water-soaked land- smaller gar- known as Pinon Nuts) that are prized byscapes to more sustainable ones. We are den spaces wildlife—and humans as well. Pinons arelucky to have many new xeric options, with grace often used as accent plants, and speci-but the pollenless female forms of Juni- and limited mens with gnarled trunks are especiallyper provide food and cover for songbirds water. prized. It grows best in foothill elevations,as well as interesting foliage color and but can stand up to the heat and cold oftexture. most New Mexico locations. www.abcwua.org • 13
  16. 16. EVERGREEN TREES VINESPinus eldarica Pinus pineaAfghan Pine Stone Pine Full Sun Medium Water Full Sun Medium WaterMature Size: 40’ X 18” Mature Size: 60’ X 50’Pine trees provide visual interest in a This majestic round-crowned conifer islandscape and much-needed greenery in found growing along the Mediterraneanthe coldest, most barren months. Afghan coast in hot, dry places subject to saltyPine is one of the best desert pines. It sea breezes. Ponderosa Pines, native tothrives in heat, wind, poor soil — and it the mountains of the Southwest, areis relatively drought tolerant. However, moving higher upslope as bark beetlesit cannot tolerate temperatures below 0 cull those too stressed to thrive in in-degrees F. Its evergreen leaves (needles) creasingly hot environments, but Stonegrow in pairs and reach 5-6 inches long. Pines seem perfectly content as theThis relatively fast-growing tree is great urban temperatures creep to new highs.for windbreaks and for creating a “visualscreen” between properties.Quercus fusiformisEscarpment Live Oak Full Sun, Part Shade Medium WaterMature Size: 25’ X 30’While the deciduous oaks offer seasonal Akebia quinataleaf color in addition to their shade, theevergreen oaks provide year-round visual Chocolate Vinescreening and wind protection. There are Full Sun, Part Shade Medium Waterseveral Western Live Oaks with similarattributes including Gray Oak and Emory Mature size: Climbing X 15’Oak. They grow somewhat larger than Blooming season: SummerEscarpment Live Oak, while Shrub Live Flower color: RedOak stays slightly smaller, so there is a What’s not to love about a plantLive Oak just right for a wide range of named for one of the major foodgarden spaces. groups? Alas, the common name refers to the brownish red flower color rather than the flavor of its tasty (but not even remotely chocolate) purple-brown fruits. This graceful vine with slender stems and finely divided leaves is semi-evergreen in warm microclimates, and an asset where a light shade canopy or tracery of foliage against a north or east facing wall are needed.14 • www.abcwua.org
  17. 17. VINES Vines The Wisteria shown here (see the plant list When you don’t have the time or space needed to grow shade trees but you can’t live comfortably outdoors in the blistering sun, building an arbor and planting a vine to provide a cool leafy canopy may be the solution. Many vines grow quickly and become quite large, so don’t plant four vines where on page 47) is one of one will serve better over time. Be sure to build the largest vines; a single plant is capable the shade cover large enough to shelter the space of shading a large needed and high enough, typically 9 feet above arbor, and though it the patio floor, so that as the vine drapes there’s still takes ample water to plenty of headroom underneath. establish, once it roots deeply it can be quite drought tolerant. Vines wrapped around a trellis against a wall can fit spaces too narrow for shrubs of the same height. Just remember to check the mature sizes so that you don’t plant a Great Dane where you needed a Chihuahua.Campsis radicans Lonicera sempervirens Rosa banksiaeTrumpet Vine Coral Honeysuckle Lady Banks Rose Full Sun Medium Water Full Sun, Part Shade Medium Water Full Sun, Part Shade Low+ Water Mature Size: Climbing X 40’ Mature Size: Climbing X 8’ Mature Size: Climbing X 40’Blooming Season: Summer Blooming Season: Spring into summer Blooming Season: SpringFlower Color: Orange Flower Color: Coral orange Flower Color: Pale yellow or whiteTrumpet Vine is a hummingbird’s delight If the sweet scent and rampant growth Rarely do you find a plant that is fastwith brilliantly colored, luscious nectar- of honeysuckle are too much of a good growing, evergreen and long-lived.rich flowers produced over a long season. thing in your opinion, Coral Honeysuckle Lady Banks Rose is all those things andFrom a human point of view the caveat is may be the vine for you. It is unscented it produces a beautiful if brief show ofto provide a strong enough support and and one of the least aggressive members flowers in spring using surprisingly littleenough space for this vigorous rambler. of the family, yet its brilliant flowers pro- water. This plant grows large and, unlikeThis is one of the Great Danes alluded to vide plenty of nectar for hummingbirds. most roses, blooms on old wood. Itin the introduction. If you’d like a smaller sized but fragrant produces the best flower show when vine, try the hybrid Lonicera x heckrottii, pruned sparingly, removing a few of Goldflame Honeysuckle, which differs the oldest canes every few years. in having clusters of scented gold and coral-pink blossoms. www.abcwua.org • 15
  18. 18. SHRUBS Shrubs Shrubs are a mainstay of xeric gardens. Rooting deeply, they often require less water per square foot of the space they cover than other plants. They shade the soil, and some have colorful flowers, foliage and fruit. Native shrubs also provide layers of cover as well as nectar and seeds that make habitat for birds and butterflies. Shrubs can become the walls of the garden, creating smaller outdoor rooms within the larger landscape, screening utility areas that you need but would rather not look at most of the time. They provide wind protection and many shrubs have aromatic leaves and scented flowers that perfume the air around them. The many shrubs in the plant list marked as Rainwater Only, Low+ and Low under the water heading should be watered weekly the first summer after they are planted, every two weeks in autumn and spring, and monthly or less in winter. As you water less often, water more deeply so that the moisture penetrates three feet into the soil. After a year or two, water twice a month in summer as well as in spring and autumn, and after three or more years you may be able to water once a month year-round.16 • www.abcwua.org14
  19. 19. DECIDUOUS SHRUBS Chamaebatiaria millefolium Fernbush Rhus trilobata Three-Leaf Sumac Full Sun Low WaterCaryopteris clandonensis Mature Size: 4-6’ X 5’ Full Sun, Part Shade Low WaterBlue Mist Spirea Blooming Season: Mid-Summer Mature Size: 3-6’ X 3-6’ Flower Color: White Blooming Season: April Full Sun, Part Shade Medium Water Flower Color: Yellowish-green Fernbush is an unusual native rose that’sMature Size: 2’ X 3’ great used as a single specimen or clus- An ornamental native shrub that is wellBlooming Season: July-August tered in groups or rows for visual screen- adapted to a wide range of soils fromFlower Color: Blue-purple ing and hedges. The showy flower spikes sandy to rock to heavy clay. Three-LeafA very popular, low-care shrub that’s resemble those of white lilacs and attract Sumac is a moderate to fast grower,perfect for landscape or flower beds. It butterflies all summer. Its aromatic olive depending on how much water itneeds only average garden soil to thrive. green foliage is soft and fern-like and its receives. The unremarkable tiny flowersHundreds of purple-blue flower spikes upright stems with their peeling bronze are followed by tart, red berries that arecover the mature plant in late summer. bark create a pleasant, rounded silhou- much sought after by wild birds. A goodCut back 1/3 of its previous year’s height ette without shearing. This hardy plant choice for screening and wind breaks, itsin spring to encourage heaviest flower- loves south- and west-facing exposures leaves turn glorious shades of red anding. Butterflies love this shrub! and well-drained soil. orange in the fall. Salvia greggii Autumn Sage Full Sun, Part Shade Low+ Water Mature Size: 24” X 36” Blooming Season: May-September Flower Color: Red Autumn Sage (sometimes called Cherry Sage for its cherry-red blossoms) is a valued xeric plant for its twiggy mound- Fendlera rupicola ed form and Cliff Fendlerbush its profusionCaesalpinia gilliesii of flowers that Full Sun, Part Shade Low+ WaterYellow Bird of Paradise begin in early Mature Size: 6’ X 4’ summer. Cultur- Full Sun Rainwater Only Blooming Season: Spring ally undemand- Flower Color: WhiteMature Size: 10’ X 10’ ing, AutumnBlooming Season: Summer Sage tolerates Cliff Fendlerbush grows wild in rockFlower Color: Yellow with thread-like red stamens a wide range of outcrops where it is a pleasantly compact soils — as long shrub with small pale green leaves. PlantYellow Bird of Paradise is a favorite of as they are it near a window or patio where youhummingbirds and provides months of quick draining. can observe its pink buds as they opencolor with a miserly amount of water. Just a bit of to pure white flowers. It is an elegantPlant it where it receives extra runoff from extra water dur- complement to summer flowering plants.a canale or gutter downspout, and within ing dry spells Some plants shout out their presence, buta few growing seasons, you can put away encourages Cliff Fendlerbush whispers that it’s finallythe hose and enjoy the show. more flowers. spring. www.abcwua.org • 17
  20. 20. EVERGREEN SHRUBSCercocarpus ledifolius Ephedra speciesCurlleaf Mountain Mahogany Joint-fir Full Sun Low Water Cotoneaster buxifolius Full Sun Rainwater OnlyMature Size: 10’ X 6’ Grayleaf Cotoneaster Mature Size: 2-6’ X 3-5’Blooming Season: Early Spring Blooming Season: Spring Full Sun, Part Shade Medium WaterFlower Color: Yellowish Flower Color: Yellow Mature Size: 2’ X 4-6’A shrub-like tree that’s native to dry Joint-firs are grown for the color of their Blooming Season: Spring-Summermountain slopes between 4,000 and broomy evergreen stems which, depend- Flower Color: Pink9,000 feet in elevation. Because it is very ing upon the species, may be pale blueslow growing, it can make an excellent Grayleaf Cotoneaster, like most species (Ephedra equisetina), blue-gray (Ephedrahedge or small character tree. Small flow- of Cotoneaster, is a low-spreading shrub nevadensis) or bright green (Ephedraers appear briefly in spring, then yield that is sometimes used as an informal viridis). All add year-round color andto seeds with 2- to 3-inch-long plumes. groundcover. Can be pruned back to interesting texture to gardens and requireThe bark is light gray, almost white, and create a more formal hedge shape. The minimal water once established.the small leathery leaves are dark green small pink flowers become red berries Joint-firs native to the Southwest haveabove and fuzzy white below. Water to that persist throughout fall. Its small gray brown papery seed-cones while the Asianestablish, then the tree can go unirrigated leaves clothe 3- to 6-foot arching stems species have pea-sized red fruits that areexcept in the hottest, driest weather. year-round. Grows well in moderately quite showy. fertile soil. PURSHIA SYN COWANIA Cliffrose Full Sun Low Water Mature Size: 8’ X 6’ Blooming Season: Summer Flower Color: YellowFallugia paradoxa Cliffrose makesApache Plume Mahonia fremontii an excellent com- panion for peren- Blue Algerita Full Sun Low Water nials because its Full Sun, Part Shade Low+ water open-branchedMature Size: 4-5’ X 4-5’ form casts lightBlooming Season: April Mature Size: 5’ X 7’ shade. Its irregu-Flower Color: White Blooming Season: Spring lar shape lends Flower Color: YellowThis is one of the showiest of our native a native touchshrubs. In spring it’s covered with tiny The masses of fragrant yellow flow- to landscapes—white, five-petaled flowers that look like ers that grace this native barberry are which is appropriate since this plant isminiature white roses. (Apache Plume is enough to earn it a place in the garden, a New Mexico native. Fragrant flowersin the rose family.) But this shrub really but by midsummer its bright red fruits cover the branches in early summer, a fewstands out when the pink, silky-plumed attract the attention of songbirds for of which remain virtually all summer long.seed heads cover the tips of its branches another season of interest. Although Feathery plumes form in mid-summerfrom late summer through fall. Plant it the stems aren’t thorny, the beautiful and persist into winter (consequently,in well-drained soil in any hot, sunny but prickly blue holly-like leaves of this Cliffrose is often mistaken for Apachelocation. Needs virtually no supplemental Algerita offer feeding birds a safe haven Plume). It can handle the hottest south–water once established. from predators. and west-facing garden locations.18 • www.abcwua.org
  21. 21. Rosmarinus officinalis “ARP”“ARP” Upright Rosemary Full Sun Low WaterMature Size: 6’ X 6’Blooming Season: SummerFlower Color: Light BlueKnown primarily asan evergreen shrub,Rosemary is a bushyplant featuring stiffupright stems andsoft blue flowers insummer. Rosemaryofficinalis “Arp” has Creating Habitats that Attract Wildlifeproven itself to be acold hardy selection,extending its useinto New Mexico’shigher elevations. A There are several garden amenities that both wildlifegreat choice for hot walls and corners and other areas and people find especially important:that get intense reflected heat. Plant in combinationwith other heat-loving plants like Zauschneria califor- Layers of planting from tall tree canopies to low-nica (Hummingbird Plant), Lavandula and Calylophus growing groundcovers.(Sundrops). The protection of dense vegetation in some areas and open spaces in others: groups of shrubs, flowers and grasses of different heights clustered along theVauquelinia californica edges of open space.Arizona Rosewood A diverse community of plants with colorful, Full Sun Low+ Water fragrant, nectar-rich flowers, edible fruits and seeds.Mature Size: 12’ X 10’ The cooling presence of water — a small waterBlooming Season: Summer feature, especially one located in a shady spotFlower Color: White that trickles water into a covered reservoir so evaporation is minimized, will attract wildlife andArizona Rosewoodis a handsome large people without wasting water.shrub at its best in Gardens that serve wildlife are maintained a bitopen windy spaces differently:where evergreenwind protection is Bird seed and nectar feeders should be refilled andespecially welcome. cleaned regularly.Extreme exposuresseem to increase its Nectar and seed-producing plants providedensity and, unlike sustenance with a modest amount of water andmost broadleaf seasonal pruning/dead-heading after the birds haveevergreens, its foli- taken all the food.age stays crisp and Learn to manage with little or no pesticide use,attractive throughheat and cold. which is good for your health and your pets as wellLacy umbels of as that of your wild guests.small white flowers Occasionally wash away bird droppings (freecrown Rosewood in fertilizer—think of it as their way of saying thanks).summer, turning adeep cocoa brown Weed out some plants that germinate tooand persisting well into winter. This is a useful native successfully after being processed by ourrose with no off season. feathered friends. www.abcwua.org • 19
  22. 22. FLOWERING PLANTS Flowering Plants Color is one of the great benefits of xeriscape. In the plant list you’ll find more than 200 flowering perennials, bulbs, annuals and groundcovers that can brighten and perfume your garden whether it’s sunny or shady, add flavor to your table and attract humming- birds and butterflies with their nectar. With so many options to choose from, use the mature size, light exposure, water use and region-adapted information in the plant list to narrow down the combinations of flowers best suited to your planting spaces. While many of these flowering plants are nearly as long-lived as shrubs and take up nearly as much space, others are smaller in stature and have a two- to ten-year lifespan that allows you to change the look of some spaces without a big investment in time or money. Xeric flowering plants are also ideal for planting in pots to dress up your patio or front entrance when that uncontrollable urge to play in the dirt strikes. Most xeric wildflowers can be watered deeply and infrequently like the shrubs once they are well-rooted, but some flowers, especially those listed as Medium or Medium+ in water use will need irrigation every week or 10 days through summer with the water penetrating the soil to a depth of two feet.20 • www.abcwua.org
  23. 23. FLOWERING PLANTS Agastache cana Giant Hyssop Full Sun Medium Water Mature Size: 24” X 24” Blooming Season: July-September Flower Color: Rose-Pink Tubular, raspber-ACHILLEA AGERATIFOLIA ry-pink flowersGreek Yarrow make Giant Hys- sop a favorite of Full Sun, Part Shade Low Water Agastache rupestris New Mexico’sMature Size: 6” X 12” gardeners and Licorice Mint HyssopBlooming Season: Late Spring hummingbirds. Full Sun Medium WaterFlower Color: White The flowers are prolific and con- Mature Size: 24” X 24”This slow-growing little plant is equally tinue through Blooming Season: July-Septemberat home in the rock garden or perennial the fall. Native Flower Color: Orangeborder when used as a groundcover or to the moun-edging plant. Greek Yarrow is a reliably This Southwestern native originates from tainous areas ofheavy bloomer, covering itself with the mountainous regions of southern southern Newbright white clusters of tiny flowers for Arizona and northern Chihuahua, Mexico. Mexico andmany weeks in late spring. The dense It blooms from mid-summer through the western Texas, Agastache cana does wellgray-green foliage is tidy and evergreen fall with numerous spikes of gorgeous or- in average garden conditions, mixing(particularly in milder climates), which ange flowers. The thread-like, gray-green well with other late-blooming perennials.gives the plant season-long interest. leaves give the entire plant a very soft, It’s cold hardy to -20˚ F and also remark- wispy look. The fragrance of this plant is ably heat tolerant as long as it gets also wonderful, so place it where you will adequate water. brush against it when you walk by. Loves well-drained soil with plenty of summer Aquilegia chrysantha heat. It’s also a must for hummingbird Golden Columbine gardens! Full Shade Medium Water Mature Size: 2’ X 2’ Blooming Season: SpringArmeria maritima Flower Color: YellowThrift Golden Full Sun Medium Water Columbine is the mostMature Size: 12” X 12” Artemisia versicolor heat toler-Blooming Season: Late SpringFlower Color: Pink ant of any Seafoam Artemisia high moun-This plant is a rock garden favorite with its tain Col- Sun or Shade Low+ Watertidy mound of grassy foliage and profu- umbines Mature Size: 8” X 18”sion of rose-pink spherical flowers. Kept allowing it“deadheaded,” flowering will continue to bloom The fine-textured swirling silver greenthroughout much of the summer. Well longer in foliage of Seafoam Artemisia suggestsdrained sandy or loamy soil is best for the season. cool water running through a dry desertArmeria maritima. It appreciates regular Even after garden. Although it has no showy the last blossoms of its own, it mixes well withwatering during the heat of summer, Salvias, Penstemons and other brightlyalthough drier conditions are fine for flowers colored flowers and with ornamentalcooler times of the year. Armeria is per- fade, its lacy blue-green leaves are pleas- grasses such as Little Bluestem forfect for interplanting with blue flowering ant company for summer flowers. In a a subtle blend of textures. SeafoamVeronica and white Greek Yarrow, among shaded runoff basin, Golden Columbine Artemisia holds up well in winter andothers, for outstanding rock garden color will self-sow, making a casual ground- needs less trimming than its sprawlingcombinations. cover. cousin, Powis Castle Artemisia. www.abcwua.org • 21
  24. 24. FLOWERING PLANTSBerlandiera lyrata Callirhoe involucrata Calylophus speciesChocolate Flower Poppy Mallow, Winecups Sundrops Full Sun Low Water Full Sun Low+ Water Full Sun Low WaterMature Size: 16” X 16” Mature Size: 24” X 24” Mature Size: 18” X 18”Blooming Season: Early Spring-Summer Blooming Season: Late Spring-Summer Blooming Season: Spring-SummerFlower Color: Yellow Flower Color: Red-Pink Flower Color: YellowStep out into your garden on a clear The five-petaled flowers of Poppy Mallow This spectacular native wildflower is ever-summer morning and delight to the scent (also known as Winecups) are a rich pink- blooming with a profusion of large, brightof chocolate that perfumes the air. This ish-red color with a white eye, and cover yellow, four-petaled flowers. The narrownative wildflower blooms profusely all the plant all summer. The low-spreading gray-green foliage gives the plant a lacyseason with cheery light yellow daisies; stems make this plant useful on slopes or look in the garden. Calylophus thrives inthe sweetly fragrant blossoms really do cascading over retaining walls. A valuable the heat, and grows well in a wide rangesmell just like chocolate! Easily grown in a plant for hot south- or west-facing beds. of soils, as long as they’re well drained.variety of soil types, this drought-tolerant Grows well in a wide range of soil types This tough plant is the star of any drylandspecies readily reseeds itself, making it including clay. Gently reseeds itself and rock garden or xeriscape. A good shear-a desirable addition to any wildflower will slowly spread if you let it. Recom- ing before the growing season starts inmeadow or informal garden area. Sur- mended companion plants are Berlandi- late spring will keep it looking tidy andround Chocolate Flower with Callirhoe era lyrata (Chocolate Flower), Nepeta x loaded with flowers.(Poppy Mallow) for a bright summer-long faassenii (Catmint) and Gray Santolina.show of color. Dianthus Coreopsis verticillata gratianopolitanus Threadleaf Coreopsis Garden PinksCentranthus ruber Full Sun Medium Water Full Sun, Part Shade Medium WaterRed Valerian Mature Size: 24” X 24” Mature Size: 1’ X 2’ Full Sun, Part Shade Medium Water Blooming Season: Summer Blooming Season: Late springMature Size: 36” X 36” Flower Color: Yellow Flower Color: Light pink to bright rose pinkBlooming Season: Late Spring-Summer Coreopsis is a carefree perennial with Garden Pinks have single flowers onFlower Color: Red fine, thread-like foliage and pale, 2-inch- short slender stems with a light cloveRed Valerian is a versatile plant, being wide yellow flowers that cover the plant scent. They form dense cushions of paleequally at home in both the xeric garden all summer. Performs best in compost- blue-gray leaves that make attractiveand traditional perennial border. Not enriched soil. Add soil sulphur to keep groundcovers even when the plants arefussy about its growing conditions, the the foliage nicely green. It is relatively not in bloom. The named varieties such asshowy rose-red flowers are continuous late to awaken from its winter dormancy, ‘Firewitch’ have darker flower colors andfrom late spring through summer. A will- so be patient! The “Moonbeam” cultivar bloom longer than other species, and alling reseeder under favorable conditions, is one of the most drought-tolerant are beautiful growing along paths, spill-Centranthus ruber prefers well-drained varieties and bears flowers that are pale ing around boulders and in large pots ongarden soil— not clay. yellow. the patio.22 • www.abcwua.org
  25. 25. FLOWERING PLANTSEriogonum species Gaura lindheimeriWild Buckwheat Gaillardia grandiflora Gaura Indian Blanketflower Full Sun Rainwater Only Full Sun Medium Water Full Sun Medium WaterMature Size: 1’ X 18” Mature Size: 48” X 48”Blooming Season: Spring into summer Mature Size: 24” X 24” Blooming Season: June-SeptemberFlower Color: White, pale pink or yellow Blooming Season: Summer Flower Color: White or Pink Flower Color: Yellow/Orange/RedNo matter where you live in the arid A native to the Southwest, Gaura givesSouthwest, there is probably a Wild Buck- Blanketflower is one of the most depend- the garden a wonderful informalitywheat native nearby. All have nectar-rich able perennial bloomers. It’s easy to grow with its long, wispy stems of spider-likeflowers that attract butterflies, and their and tough enough to handle hot micro- flowers. It responds with a profusion ofnectar also supports the tiny parasitic climates. The flowers sport red centers; flowers when watered regularly duringinsects that help rid our gardens of pests the petals are orange with yellow tips. the summer. Most varieties of Gaurasuch as aphids and thrips. After bloom- The flowers keep coming all summer feature white flowers, but a new varietying, they develop seed heads of rust — just remove the spent blooms and called Siskiyou Pink features pink blooms.brown or deep red that provide color well another crop of flowers will appear in a Other native perennials that enjoy similarinto autumn. Luckily several species are couple of weeks. Although fairly drought- garden conditions and combine welloffered as garden plants at nurseries that tolerant, regular watering produces the with Gaura include Echinacea (Purplespecialize in native plants. most prolific blooms. Coneflower) and Agastache cana (Giant Hyssop).Helianthus maximilianiiMaximilian Sunflower Full Sun Medium WaterMature Size: Up to 120” X 120”Blooming Season: September-OctoberFlower Color: YellowMaximilian Sunflowerproduces one of the TETRANEURIS SYNmost spectacular HYMENOXYSISlate-season bursts of Perky Sue Kniphofia uvariacolor. The tall flowering Red Hot Pokerspikes, up to 20 or 30 Full Sun Low Waterin a mature clump, are Full Sun Low+ Watercovered with up to 30 Mature Size: 12” X 12” Blooming Season: April-August Mature Size: 36” X 36”or more yellow, closely Flower Color: Yellow Blooming Season: Summerspaced daisies. Place Flower Color: OrangeHelianthus against A wonderful everblooming yellow daisywalls or fences or make a hedge with that is both heat-loving and drought- A sturdy South African native known forit, but don’t put it in the middle of your tolerant. The narrow, silver-green foliage its tough, easy-to-grow nature. It hasmost fertile flower beds, as it will crowd is evergreen and supports short stems of long grasslike foliage and unusual bicolorout weaker neighbors. The more water it yellow daisies starting in spring. A vigor- flower spikes in shades of orange andreceives, the taller it gets. (Growing Tip: ous reseeder, it quickly colonizes harsh yellow. A substantial plant that looksput it in a tomato cage early in the season areas of the garden. Use it to interplant great alone or in long beds lining drive-and let the tall stems grow up through it with cold hardy cacti. Provide lean, well- ways or entrances where dryness andso they don’t flop over with the weight of drained soil. Once established H. scaposa alkaline soils might defeat even a daylily.their flowers later in the fall.) is very xeric and needs little extra water. Particularly attractive with Yarrow. www.abcwua.org • 23

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