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ART OF ENGINEERING - FINAL PROJECT REPORT

ART OF ENGINEERING - FINAL PROJECT REPORT

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Final project report Final project report Document Transcript

  • The Nanorobot Project ReportArt of Engineering CourseFall Term 2010Mehmet Erkan OZSEYHANErhan KELESSercan DINCTolga AYAZSEVEN
  • General Concept of NanorobotsReported by Mehmet Erkan OZSEYHANOur project stems from brain-machine interface (BMI) process.Nanorobots provide connection between human brain and supercomputer via special devices on the nanorobots. The reason why wechoose nanorobots is that Scientists predict that NBIC (nano-bio-info-cogno) technologies will shape the future. That’s why we give Human Brainimportance the nanorobots in our project. Super ComOur purpose is to create nanorobots and inject them to human brain tomonitor and advance the brain. How do nanorobots enter the brain?Because of nanorobots’ tiny structures, they can be sprayed by nasalspray to reach the brain.When brain with nanorobots encounters the problem, they transmit thedata the any telecommunication devices via nanoradio signals. Then, toanalyze the data, they send messages to super computers. After that,super computer will send feedback. For instance, computer will say thatyour hormone level is above the average and if you want to tranquilizeit, you should download program related to your disease. Finally, patientwill send the program from iPad to nanorobots. So, nanorobots willstimulate neurons and cure the diseases.Encryption of nanorobots is vital subject. In order to strength the securityof nanorobots, we will use fingerprint of people desiring to havenanorobots. 1
  • Properties of NanorobotReported by Erhan KELES  Propelling Nanorobot o ATP consuming Molecular Machines  Controlling Nanorobot o Nanoradio Remote Control  Neuron-Nanorobot Interface o Memristor(Memory Resistor) o NanoFET(Nano Field Effect Transistor)Biomolecular Nanomotor (F0F1 ATPase) A motor converts other forms of energy into mechanical energy. Nature has its own versions of motors (biomelocular motors) which are essentially super- efficient machines operating at very tiny scales.  Biomolecular motors convert chemical energy into mechanical work or motion, exhibiting remarkable control and precision.  They use free energy from ATP (Adenosine Tri-phosphate) or other nucleotide triphosphate (NTP) hydrolysis as its fuel  Nanomotor (F0F1 ATPase) converts chemical energy into mechanical work or motion, exhibiting remarkable control and precision as using free energy from ATP (Adenosine Tri-phosphate).ATP driven linear biomotor is based on dynein, kinesin, and miyosin which areresponsible for muscle contraction. In muscle, actin filaments slide on myosin heads. 2
  • Actin filaments made up of 375 amino acid long subunits are responsible for ATP.Myosin transport along actin generates not only muscle contraction but also severalcellular transport processes. While muscle myosin works in a non-processive manner,a single myosin V protein takes many steps along the actin filament withoutdissociating.BIOMIMETIC APPROACH TO BACTERIAL FLAGELLUM FOR NANOMOTORIt is a highly complex molecular machine. Protruding from many bacteria are long spiral propellersattached to motors that drive their rotation. It has been proposed that the flagellum originatedfrom a protein export system. Over time, this system might have been adapted to attach abacterium to a surface by extruding an adhesive filament. An ion-powered pump for expellingsubstances from the cell might then have mutated to form the basis of a rotary motor. Rotating anyasymmetrical filament would propel a cell and give it a huge advantage over non-motile bacteriaeven before more spiral filaments evolved.Finally, in some bacteria flagella became linked to an existing system for directing movement inresponse to the environment. In E. coli, it works by changing flagella rotation from anticlockwise toclockwise and back again, causing a cell to tumble and then head off in a new direction.http://www.phy.duke.edu/undergraduate/biophysics/, date: 1_13_201 3
  • Nanoradio Remote ControlWhen voltage applied, electrons flow from a battery through the nanotube. A radiowave vibrates the nanotube tip for transferring data by the radio wave.Firstly nanocarbon tube assembled to an electrode’s cathode side and anode side ofthe electrode is just beyond and free. When a voltage is applied between theelectrodes, electrons are transmitted from cathode through the nanotube andelectrons are transferred to the anode as jumping from the tip of the nanotube. Aradio wave vibrates the nanotube tip for transferring data by the radio wave. Memristor (Memory Resistor)Memristors, unlike conventional electronic devices, carry memories of their past andremember how much voltage was applied beforehand and for how long.STDP (Spike Time Dependent Plasticity) is the base of learning performed bysynapses. When you activate a region on the brain, synapses create new pathways 4
  • to perform learning. The more you use a pathway in the brain the stronger synapsesare created on the pathway vice versa. This feature of biological learning is calledSTDP (Spike Time Dependent Plasticity). Although we have super computers we donot perform even most low level brain sized animals because todays computer donot handle STDP process. However, a breakthrough which is called memristor couldtransfer key point of biological information process’ superiority to the electroniccircuits. STDP (Spike-Time-Dependent-Plasticity) behavior could be generated bycombining memristance models with the electrical wave signals of neural impulses(spikes) converging from pre- and post-synaptic neurons into a synaptic junction.  These results suggest the memristor devices are capable to emulate the biological synapses with properly designed CMOS neuron components to provide local programming voltages with controlled pulse width and height. Nano Lett. 2010, 10, 1297—1301NanoFET (Nano Field Effect Transistor)  NanoFETs that could measure ion flux or electrical signals in cells is smaller than many viruses(less than 50 nanometers).  NanoFET probe could enter into even single cell without any harm thanks to its glycoprotein coated probe.Decoding and encoding neural codes on the brain via NanoFET which is so muchfaster than biological one is smaller than many viruses and about one-hundredth thewidth of the probes recently used by people to take cellular measurements, whichcan be nearly as large as the cells themselves. In addition phospholipid coatednanowire technology could open new scientific platforms to facilitate developmentof technology for human. Neuron Cell NanoFET Probe www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2010/August/12081002.asp 5
  • SOME DRAWBACKS FOR NANOROBOTS INTO THE BODYNanotoxicityNanotoxicology is a branch of bionanoscience dealing with the study andapplication of toxicity of nanomaterials. Application of nanopatricles at the medicalfield has some toxic effect to the living organism. In these case, nanotoxicology as abranch of bionanoscience tries to understand and prevent toxicity of nanomaterials.Bioengineers, nanoscientists, physiologists, neurologists, and other scientists study inthis field in collaboration with each other. Generally nanotoxicity is attributed treefeatures of nanoparticles which are toxicity attributed to nanoparticle composition,toxicity attributed to nanoparticle core, toxicity attributed to nanoparticle surfacefunctionalization.Toxicity Attributed to Nanoparticle CompositionNanoparticles(NPs) are made up of heavy metals which are cadmium, lead, mercury,sulfur, selenium, or tellurium are toxic to the living organism. Cadmium is primaryconstituent of the metal used in nanoparticles that has carcinogenic effects to theliving and has been linked with cancers of the lung, prostate, and kidney. In additioncadmium negatively affects DNA repair process as causing mutations on the geneticmaterial. Similarly quantum dots have toxic effects as the formation of ROS(ReactiveOxygen Species) which is called oxidative stress. ROS stops cellular respiration,increase permeation of the cell membrane, and damage the nucleus. 6
  • SolutionWhen nanoparticles coated with silane and poly(ethylene glycol), gene expressionwas relatively unaltered in the presence of nanoparticles. But long-term in vivoresearches are needed.(T. Zhang, J. L. Stilwell, D. Gerion, L. Ding)Toxicity Attributed to Nanoparticle CoreCadmium ions are released from nanoparticle core because of photo-oxidationPhoto-oxidation of nanoparticles causes cadminium ions released from nanoparticlecore and these ions bind mitochondrial proteins, stopping cellular respiration andcausing cell death.SolutionTo minimize access to the core, coating layer by layer assembled films ofCdTe(Cadminium-Tellurium) with collagen could provide some protection.(V. A. Sinani, D. S. Koktysh, B.-G. Yun, R. L. Matts, T. C. Pappas, M)Toxicity Attributed to Nanoparticle Size When a particle size gets smaller, the surface to volume ratio increases significantly. Accordingly the more surface means the more active compound to make toxic chemical reactions to living organism. One research shows that the bigger red NPs is less toxic than smaller NPs localized in the nuclear compartment of the cell. 7
  • Bioethical IssuesBioengineering applications creates unprecedented moral challenges by making useof genetic engineering, nanobiotechnology, and tissue engineering that are requiredhighly professional information because all subjects of bioengineering has its ownunique code of ethics so the moral questions posed to bioengineers are not a subsetof any other group.Bioengineers must be careful about safeguards, regulations, and contingency plansnot to cause catastrophic failures. Because a failure may result in the release ofinvasive species or infectious agents, a critical medical device failing to sustainpatients or an imaging device causing misdiagnoses. In addition, a bioengineer mustbe care about consequences of socioeconimical effect on public of what peopledevise. In this case, a bioengineer should dope out possible advantages andchallenges of his project.There are lots of questions about nanoneuroscience and its applications related tobioethics that: 1. Should we make a home test for Alzheimer’s disease? Should employers and insurance companies then have access to this information?” 2. Will nanotech, artificial intelligence and genetic engineering become the modern incarnation of the “Guns, Germs and Steel”? 3. Will a faceless coterie of technocrats take control inside the machine, exploiting the science for profit and micromanaging every decision? 4. Is the humanity just a stepping stone?Organizations Working on the Ethical Issues of Nanotechnology  Nano Ethics Group - http://www.nanoethics.org/  Center for Responsible Nanotechnology (CRN) o http://www.crnano.org/index.html  The International Council on Nanotechnology http://icon.rice.edu/about.cfm?doc_id=4379  Latin American Nanotechnology and Society Network http://www.estudiosdeldesarrollo.net/~webrelans/Home_E.html 8
  • Future Applications  Understanding of the process of neurological disorders. As using CNT-neuron interactions, scientists could decode and encode neurons.  Accurate diagnose techniques for neurological disorders.  Much more effective drugs to pass BBB(Blood Brain Barrier) and deliver medicine only to the target.  Using 100 times nicer methods than that of microsurgery by use of nanobots and femtolasers.  Use of nanobots to treat neurological disorders and to advance human intelligence level thanks to nanobot-neuron interface  SWNTs(Single Walled Nano Carbon Tubes) could be implanted at the local site of nerve injury to increase production of the cells at the damaged site using SWNT as a bridge between ends of injured lesions.  CNT(Carbon Nano Tube) could open new scientific platforms to facilitate nanoneuroscience researches. Thanks to its neuron stimulating and monitoring properties, scientists can investigate nature of neural circuitry in vitro instead of in vivo by using CNT-neuron scaffolds.References 1. Ellis-Behnke et al., 2007 2. Liopo et al., 2006 3. http://www.technologyreview.com/communications/20244/page2/?a=f 4. M. P. Waalkes, Mutat. Res. 2003, 533, 107. 5. J. Lovric, S. J. Cho, F. M. Winnik, D. Maysinger, Chem. Biol. 2005, 12, 1227 6. T. Zhang, J. L. Stilwell, D. Gerion, L. Ding 7. A. M. Derfus, W. C. W. Chan, S. N. Bhatia, Nano Lett. 2004, 4, 11 8. J. Lovric, H. S. Bazzi, Y. Cuie, G. R. Fortin, F. M. Winnik, D. Maysinger,J. Mol. Med. 2005, 83, 377 9. Vale, R., Myosin V motor proteins: marching stepwise towards a mechanism. The Journal of cell biology, 2003. 163(3): p. 445-50 10. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK6007 11. http://www.nsti.org/outreach/Biomolecular_Motors/ 12. http://www.technologyreview.com/communications/20244/page2/?a=f 13. www.technewsdaily.com/cat-brain-inspires-computers-of-the-future-0439/ 14. http://www.umt.edu/ethics/Debating%20Science%20Program/debatingscien ceresourcecenter/nanotechnology/NanoODC/Nanotoxicology.aspx 15. http://blogs.tps.vic.edu.au/year10chemspace/nano-properties/ 9
  • SUPER-COMPUTER NANOROBOT INTERFACESReported by Sercan DINC  Super-Computer is the powerful computer. It process data like personal computer but hardware tools of it are enhaced so it can process complex data.  Data is processed like a digital signal but digital signal is converted the nemerical codes in the Process Unit.  According to types of data, numerical codes contain differences.  Unique code system protects the data from hacker users, this system depends the cyrpto codes.  Cypto codes are used two different criterias, one of them computer codes and second person codes.  Computer codes are the codes that each computer has own special codes.  Person codes are the codes that created the math. modelling person’s fingerprint.  Because of complex data, most powerful radiowaves are used that is created outside process unit. RESEARCH METHODI utilizied Tubitak Sciences books then, searched computer technology in the varies ofsources. After the investigated to super-computer concept, i tried to can be computer signalssend to nanorobots. Todays Brain-Machine Interface technology defines how to computerconnects to brain and how to data is processed but i add some theorical content to BMItechnology for improving our project. Numerical models and cytpto system depend todayinformation systems technology. I tried to use minumum text and maximum graphics in theslides for decreasing the understanding. I tried to provide the representation contiunity somy subject is the next part of the previous team worker and it is provide a passing the subjectof next team worker. In this sense i avoided to say same things with my team workers but itried to support to them and add new things with the proper subject plan. REFERENCES Tubitak Yayınları-Bilim ve Teknik March 2002 “Bionic Human” Tubitak Yayınları-Bilim ve Teknik September 2002 “Computer Technoloıgy” Tubitak Yayınalrı-Bilim ve Teknik October 2006 “Creating the Future” Internet: www.kevinwarwick.com Internet :“Numerical Alghoritms of Stacked Chips” Internet: http://www.algosort.com/ “Computer Progrramming Alghoritms” Pictures from Internet. 10
  • Usage Fields and Common Impact of Our ProjectReported by Tolga AYAZSEVENBrain is a simple organ that perceives things with electrical signals. Wesmell things, touch, feel and hear things. These senses are just electricalsignals for brain which are transported by neuron cells.This nanobot will get into the human brain, circulate it and scan it forany defection or connect with super computer to get any mission from it.By innovating this technology, lots of industrial applications will changeincluding Education, Medicine and All information systems.This device will help hormonal process of human brain such as testinghormon level on the blood and retrieving it to the normal level.There will be no need for telephone because of the visual networks. Wewill communicate humans without talking because nanobot transfersinformations directly to satellite and satellite sends them to anothernanobot and nanobot transfer them to human brain.This bot can do some nuerosurgeries such as smash diseased cells ortissues (cancerous tissues), stopping celebral hemorrhage and kind ofthese surgeries. So there will be no any open brain surgery in the future.We will transfer information from computers to the human memory. 11
  • Bioethical QuestionsInnovation of this device, a lot of unacknowledged questions come out. 1) We will transfer informations directly to the brain so there will be no need for schools and teachers will fall out of work and they become extinct. Is this ethic? 2) The nanobot operate surgeries by itself and this operations will increase success rate. However, brain surgeons will extinct to. This problem will cause a lot of response. 3) If you are rich, you can buy informations without any effort . So wealthy people increase their knowledge with money. What about poors? 4) Thanks to our project; all diseases and deficiencies can be solved and number of death people decreased dramatically. Population growth exploded but where is the enough source? 5) In the next level of the our project, goverments can use it for bad purposes and people can be managed in the war conditions! 12