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  • 1. Phosphate GroupDNA & RNA Nitrogen Base Pentose Sugar DNA & RNA are the 2 types of nucleic acid. They are made up of structures: the pentose sugar, phosphate group and the nitrogen base.
  • 2. Keywords:• DNA • Deoxyribonucleic acid.• RNA (mRNA, tRNA) • Ribonucleic acid (mRNA stands for messenger RNA, tRNA stands for transfer RNA).• Nucleotide • A compound containing a pentose sugar, phosphate group and a nitrogen base.• Polynucleotide • A polymer made up of many nucleotides.• Pentose Sugar • A sugar that contains 5 carbon atoms.• Phosphate Group• A group important in energy transfer.
  • 3. Keywords:• Nitrogenous or Nitrogen-containing Base • A base that contains nitrogen and is necessary for protein synthesis.• Semi-conservative • When a or chromatid is kept from the mother and its joining chromatid is made from the free nucleotides in the nucleus.• Codon • A series of 3 adjacent bases that code for a certain amino acid.• Anticodon • A series of 3 adjacent bases that correspond through complementary base pairing to the codon on a RNA strand.• Triplet • A series of 3 adjacent bases on a DNA strand.
  • 4. Nucleotides and PolynucleotidesNucleotides are a small cluster of molecules that build up a strand ofDNA and RNA. Nucleotides can have 5 different bases and 2 differentsugars, however this changes whether if they are DNA or RNA.There are 2 groups of bases and 2 groups of sugars.• Pyrimidine • Thymine • Cytosine • Uracil (only in RNA, replaces Thymine)• Purine • Adenine • Guanine There are two sugars, deoxyribose and ribose, the previous is in DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and the latter in RNA (ribonucleic acid).
  • 5. Complementary-base Pairing DNA and RNA structure uses complementary-base pairing to pair the bases perfectly, such as adenine on one end and thymine on the other, similar to guanine being on one side and cytosine being on the other as such:Don’t forget thatA to T only have 2 hydrogen Cytosine Guaninebonds while C to G have 3! Adenine Thymine
  • 6. TranscriptionTranscription is the process in which DNA uses mRNA tomake a code in which they will collect amino acids via the ribosome and create a protein, this is succeeded by translation. The process starts with the DNA breaking up to unveil a strand in which it houses a code for a certain amino acid. Then through RNA polymerase, a mRNA strand is created, nucleotide by nucleotide with complimentary base pairing, Uracil replaces Thymine as you can see in the image. And then the mRNA leaves the nucleus to proceed to translation.
  • 7. Translation Translation takes place in the cytoplasm, it is when the mRNAstrand that was transcribed then goes to a ribosome to enter the translation phase. The ribosome collects tRNA which are madeup of 3 adjacent bases that compliment the bases on the mRNA strand. These 3 bases create an amino acid which is then held onto the other amino acids being created by a peptide bond. Remember that mRNA always ends with a ‘stop’ codon! The codon is always one of three: • UAG • UAA • UGA
  • 8. This diagram shows how nucleotidesDNA Replication free in the nucleus bind with the DNA to create a second strand. The two phosphates are left free to bind with another nucleotide to bind with another DNA strand.
  • 9. DNA Replication ~ pt.2DNA replication is a simple process, it takes place duringthe interphase after a cell has divided, due to the smallnumber of chromosomes and only chromatids, nucleotidesbind with the DNA chromatid and start its evolution into achromosome.A certain enzyme, DNA polymerase, will act upon thenucleotides to cause this process. And as told, DNA is apolynucleotide, with the smaller subunits being thenucleotides.And from this we know that DNA is semi-conservative, inthat it keeps one strand from the original cell and the otherbeing fully created from nucleotides in the nucleus.
  • 10. DNA Replication ~ diagram The strands were once the same, identical in every way. While now they are 2 different strands. We say they are semi- conservative.
  • 11. Questions?
  • 12. Thank you!