Andrew Goodwin’s Theory
By Enid Akuffo
The song I have chosen to use Rihanna’s
‘Whose that chick’ as
the song for Goodwin’s theory. I have chosen
this song not only because I like the song
and the artist, but because Rihanna is one
of the biggest musicians of our time and so I
am curious as to if her music videos still
abide by theories such as Goodwin’s. I have
also chosen this video because Rihanna
tends to break and follow codes and
conventions of her music genre, so as I fan
and media student I would like to see how
far she pushes and conforms to Goodwin’s
Goodwin found that there were 6 key aspects when analysing a
1. A relationship between the lyrics and the visuals, with the
visuals illustrating, highlighting or in contrast to the lyrics.
2. A relationship between the music and the visuals, with the
visuals illustrating, amplifying or contradicting the music.
3. Typical genre icons and styles used.
4. Close ups of the artists face.
5. The use of Iconography
6. Voyeurism- Watching them without their knowledge.
Relationship between lyrics and visual
In the scene the lyric of the song is ‘ Its an
addiction’, with the word addiction on the
Here the lyric is ‘Sound Is my remedy’. The
word remedy in bright text.
‘Music is all I need’
Effect of feature 1
When watching the video I found that many words from the
lyrics were printed on the screen as text. And as the lyric was
sang the text appeared in time to what was said. Being a Pop
song the bright colours of the text suit the genre. The use of
the text may have been a way for the audience to be able to
sing the song and grasp it at a quicker pace. The use of the
text being placed in the corner may also have been strategic
as the audience can still see it but it doesn’t take attention
from the star. Furthermore when the word ‘Dance was sung’
the dancers were seen dancing.
This created a more
synchronised feel with the song
Relationship between music and visuals
Although there aren't many obvious relationships between the song
and visuals I found that the electro pop beat used in this video is
one that we associate with ‘aliens’ or ‘robotics’. This may have been
the inspiration for the spaceship concept used in this video. There
was also a lot of face pace editing used, many jump cuts and quick
fades. This is in correspondence with the song as it moves to a very
fast beat. This encourages the audience to dance, or at least feel
the vibrancy and excitement from the song. The use of the rapid
switch from the brightness of Rihanna’s scene to the darkness of
David Guetta’s shows the personalities of both artist, but as well
creates a flow. But also when the beat of the song slows down
there is a decrease in the speed of editing and more use of mid long
and long shots, so as the audience we can see on concentrate on
the movement of the artist and dancers.
Genre Icons and styles
Even though there are a lot of
close ups in this video they still
used many long shot like we see
in other Pop videos. This is so
the audience is able to see the
setting and the costume that the
artist is in. This is especially
typical with Pop songs whereby
the artists tend to wear more
The fast pace editing is another convention of the Pop genre. It highlights the
excitement in the atmosphere and also the fastness of the song.
Close Ups of artist
Although in a bright and vibrant setting the main focus in this video is Rihanna. She is
made the focus because essentially she is the star and what her record label are trying
to sell. Furthermore fans of her would want to much more of her videos if they would
be seeing a lot of her. In the video she is surrounded by others who stand in a
formation whereby she is the first person we see. The close ups also allow Rihanna to
have that connection with her audience as she is able to look them in the eye. There
are many scenes in which Rihanna is shown in a close up. This may also link with
Mulvey’s theory of The male gaze as men would appreciate her beauty.
However in the close up of David Guetta he
wears sunglasses. This may be so his audience
gain the sense of mystery about him, which his
female fans may appreciate.
In this particular extreme close up of
Rihanna, she expresses a slyly
seductive face. This shot may have
been included because it may get her
female fans to want to be her and her
male fans to want to be with her.
From this side close up we see
the artist less from a performing
view but a more narrative one.
His attention is not on the
audience, making it seem as if he
is in a serious role.
There is reference to her being in magazines
Reference to feminism. Which may
gain her a different type of audience.
Directors may do
this as it creates a
sense of power
video it is
the use of