Yawn - Measuring the Public Health Impacts of Air Pollution in Minnesota

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Yawn - Measuring the Public Health Impacts of Air Pollution in Minnesota

  1. 1.   Measuring  the  Public  Health  Impacts  of  Air   Pollu8on  in  Minnesota      Barbara  P.    Yawn,  MD  MSc  Director  of  Research  Olmsted  Medical  Center  Rochester,  MN  byawn@olmmed.org  
  2. 2. Air  pollu)on  affects  en)re  popula)ons  ¥  Suscep)ble  popula)on  is  growing   2004   ¥  Aging  popula)on   ¥  Increasing  obesity,  diabetes  rates  ¥  Effects  observed  in  children   ¥  Lung  development   2009   ¥  Asthma  exacerba)ons  ¥  Even  very  small  increases  associated              with  disease  and  death   Obesity  in  MN  
  3. 3. PM2.5  pyramid  of  health  effects     Death   Hospital   admissions   Emergency  room   visits   Doctor  visits   Asthma  aOacks,  medica8on   use,  symptoms   Lung  func8on  changes,  immune  cell   responses,  heart  rate  variability   responses  
  4. 4. Fine  par)cle  pollu)on:  PM2.5  
  5. 5. Air  pollu)on  epidemiology  studies  ¥  Health  impacts  are  measurable  ¥  Large  body  of  evidence  –  PM2.5  ¥  Respiratory  and  cardiovascular  effects  ¥  Long-­‐term  effects  à  increased  risk  ¥  Short-­‐term  effects  à  triggering/exacerba)ons  ¥  Effects  observed  even  at  low  concentra)ons  
  6. 6. AQI:  Number  of  unhealthy  air  days  in  MN   Source:  MN  Pollu)on  Control    Agency  
  7. 7. Improving  air,  preven)ng  deaths  ¥  Air  quality   MN  (2006)   improvement   scenarios   5  ¥  Es)mated  number   of  prevented  deaths  ¥  10%  reduc)on  PM2.5   78     concentra)ons   (MSP  metro)  ¥  BenMAP  soUware   4   Source:  CDC  Environmental  Public  Health  Tracking  
  8. 8. Air  pollu)on  and  health  research  in  MN  ¥  Purpose:  method/indicator  development   ¥  Local  area  analyses   ¥  Using  local  sources  of  data  ¥  Track  health  effects  associated  with  changes  in   air  quality  in  MSP  and  Olmsted  during     2003-­‐2009   ¥  Fine  par)culate  maaer  pollu)on  (PM2.5)   ¥  Hospitaliza)ons  and  mortality   ¥  Respiratory  ,  cardiovascular  
  9. 9. MN  air  pollu)on  reduc)on  ini)a)ves   ¥  Minnesota  Emissions  Reduc)on  Project  (MERP)   ¥  Diesel  retrofits     ¥  School  buses;  heavy  duty  public  vehicles   ¥  Project  Green  Fleet   ¥  Other  local  ini)a)ves   ¥  An)-­‐idling  ordinances   ¥  Go  Greener  Ini)a)ve  (Met  Council)   ¥  Na)onal  ini)a)ves   ¥  Ultra  Low  Sulfur  Diesel  Fuel  Rule   ¥  Heavy  Duty  Diesel  Regula)ons   ¥  Transport  Rule  
  10. 10. Measuring  impacts  using  local  area  data     Reduc8ons  in   Reduc8ons  in   Regulatory   Popula8on   Adverse   or  Policy   Exposures    Health   Changes   Outcomes   •  PM2.5       •  Respiratory  diseases   •  Cardiovascular  disease   •  Hospitaliza)ons  and   Deaths  
  11. 11. Source:  MN  Pollu)on  Control  Agency  
  12. 12. MN  air  pollu)on  health  impacts  over  )me            Amount  aOributable  to  PM2.5            Hospitaliza8ons   Time  period                Percent                                #  hosp./yr  Total  respiratory   2003-­‐2005   3.0%   354   2006-­‐2007   2.6%   309   2008-­‐2009   -­‐-­‐   -­‐-­‐  COPD  +  asthma   2003-­‐2005   3.3%   154   2006-­‐2007   2.9%   140   2008-­‐2009   -­‐-­‐   -­‐-­‐  Asthma   2003-­‐2005   3.8%   92   2006-­‐2007   -­‐-­‐   -­‐-­‐   2008-­‐2009   -­‐-­‐   -­‐-­‐  
  13. 13. PM2.5  pyramid  of  health  effects     Death   Hospital   admissions   Doctor  visits   Asthma  aaacks,  medica)on   use,  symptoms   Lung  func)on  changes,  immune  cell   responses,  heart  rate  or  variability   responses  
  14. 14. Air  pollu)on  and  health  research  in  MN   Traffic  and  Asthma  in  Olmsted  County   ¥  High  traffic  areas  associated  with  increased  asthma   exacerba)ons  in  Olmsted  County   ¥  Associa)on  remained  aUer  adjus)ng  for  poverty  
  15. 15. Summary  ¥  Air  pollu)on  affects  health  even  at  low  levels  ¥  Air  pollu)on  affects  en)re  popula)ons   ¥  Impact  on  a  growing  number  of  suscep)ble   people  ¥  All  regions  of  MN  experience  poor  air  quality  BUT…     MN  has  been  making  improvements  in  air  quality  ¥    Con)nued  efforts  will  lead  to  a  healthier  MN  ¥   
  16. 16. Project  Team  MN  Dept.  of  Health   MN  Pollu8on  Control  Agency   Olmsted  Medical  Center   Jean  Johnson   Greg  PraO     Barbara  Yawn   Chuck  Stroebel   Kari  Palmer   Peter  Wollan     Allan  Williams   Margaret  McCourtney     Naomi  Shinoda   Cassie  McMahon   Wendy  Brunner   Lisa  Herschberger   Paula  Lindgren   Measuring  the  Impact  of  Fine  Par)cles:   hap://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/hpcd/cdee/airquality.html    

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