Thornton & Droessler - Upcoming NAAQS Changes and Challenges

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  • 1. David  Thornton  Up  in  the  Air:  Rochester   May  9,  2012    
  • 2. Agenda  •  Federal  View  •  Minnesota’s  View  •  Ground-­‐level  Ozone  and  PM2.5  •  Impacts  of  NonaNainment   •  State  ImplementaPon  Plan  •  History  of  MN  Voluntary  AcPons   •  AddiPonal  Voluntary  OpPons?  
  • 3. CAA  and  NAAQS  •  EPA  uses  its  Clean  Air  Act  (CAA)  authority  to  regulate   air  quality   •  SecPon  109  specifies  EPA s  responsibility  for  prescribing   NaPonal  Ambient  Air  Quality  Standards  (NAAQS)   requisite  to  protect  public  health   •  SecPon  107  provides  that  implementaPon  falls  primarily  to   the  states  •  NAAQS  set  for  six  pollutants     •  Carbon  monoxide,  lead,  NOX,  SO2,  ozone,  and  parPculate   maNer  (PM10  and  PM2.5)  
  • 4. NAAQS  Reviews  •  NAAQS  are  supposed  to  be  reviewed  every  five  years   and  revised  as  needed   •  Account  for  new  informaPon  on  health  impacts   •  Clean  Air  Science  Advisory  CommiNee  reviews  data  and   makes  recommendaPons  to  the  Administrator   •  Reviews  have  not  always  occurred  –  or  new  informaPon   has  shown  that  standard  is  protecPve  •  Recent  flurry  of  review  and  revision  of  standards     •  Between  2008  and  2013,  EPA  will  review  ALL  
  • 5. EPA’s  NAAQS  Revisions  Pollutant   NAAQS  Promulga0on  Date   Designa0ons  Effec0ve  Ozone   March  2008   2012  Lead   October  2008   December  2010  NO2   January  2010   February  2012  SO2   June  2010   2012  Carbon  Monoxide   August  2011   2013  (standard  retained)  PM2.5   2013   2015  Ozone   July  2014   2016   (9/20/2011)  
  • 6. ImplemenPng  a  New  NAAQS  •  Make  aNainment/nonaNainment  designaPons   •  States  review  air  quality  monitoring  and  other  informaPon   •  Does  the  air  quality  meet  the  standard?  (ANainment)   •  Is  air  quality  worse  than  prescribed  by  the  standard?   (NonaNainment)  •  EPA  reviews  state  informaPon  and  makes  official   designaPon   •  DesignaPon  is  a  federal  rulemaking  
  • 7. ANainment/NonaNainment  •  ANainment  is  consistent  with  protecPng  human  health   •  New,  lowered  standards  makes  nonaNainment  likely  •  NonaNainment  brings  specific  requirements   •  NonaNainment  permijng  –  offsets  and  “lowest  achievable  emission   rate”  for  new  or  modifying  sources   •  State  ImplementaPon  Plan  with  control  measures   •  Reasonably  Available  Control  Technology/Reasonably  Available   Control  Measures   –  Apply  reasonable  controls  to  exisPng  sources   •  Reasonable  Further  Progress   –  DemonstraPng  progress  in  emission  reducPons  
  • 8. Trends  in  Key  Pollutants:    Twin  CiPes,  1999-­‐2010   140%  Percent  of  NaPonal  Ambient  Air  Quality  Standard   120%   100%   80%   60%   40%   20%   0%   1999   2000   2001   2002   2003   2004   2005   2006   2007   2008   2009   2010   Standard   NO2  Annual  (1971)   NO2  1-­‐HR  (2010)   SO2  1-­‐HR  (2010)   O3  8-­‐HR  (2008)   PM2.5  Annual  (1997)   PM2.5  24-­‐HR  (2006)  
  • 9. Ozone  and  Fine  ParPculate  MaNer  (PM2.5)  •  Components  formed  from  atmospheric  reacPons  of   emissions  of  other  pollutants  •  Create  larger  nonaNainment  areas   •  Not  single  source  based  •  Many  sources  contribute   •  ParPcularly  combusPon  sources   •  Including  smaller  sources  –  less  controlled  •  Where  Minnesota  is  closest  to  the  standard  
  • 10. Ozone  NAAQS  •  Standard  set  in  2008:  75  ppb  standard   •  EPA  is  implemenPng  this  standard   •  SPll  under  legal  challenge  •  EPA  began  but  dropped  a  potenPal  reconsideraPon   of  this  standard   •  Looking  at  a  range  of  60  –  70  ppb  •  Ozone  standard  will  be  reviewed  in  2013  
  • 11. Minnesota  Ozone  Levels   80 70 2009-­‐2011   65  Ozone  ConcentraPon  (ppb)   62   61   63   63   62   Standard   62   60   59   59   60   60   58   58   60 54   49   50 40 30 20 10 0
  • 12. Ozone  Standard  of  70  ppb  based  on   2008-­‐2010  Data   13
  • 13. Ozone  Standard  of  65  ppb  based  on   2008-­‐2010  Data   14
  • 14. Ozone  Standard  of  60  ppb  based  on   2008-­‐2010  Data   15
  • 15. PM2.5  NAAQS  Review  •  Schedule   •  June  2012  proposal,  June  2013  promulgaPon   •  2015  designaPon     •  Based  on  2012  –  2014  data   •  Likely  2018  SIP  due  date  •  Standard  likely  to  become  more  stringent   •  Annual  standard  range:11  –13  µg/m3   •  Daily  standard  range:  30  –  35  µg/m3     •  Likely  pairing:  11  with  35,  13  with  30  
  • 16. Daily  PM2.5  Design  Values  40   2008-­‐2010   2009-­‐2011  35   34   Standard   33   31   PotenPal  Standard   30   30  30   28   28   27  25   21  20   19   17  15  10   5   0  
  • 17. Annual  PM2.5  Design  Values  16   2008-­‐2010  14   2009-­‐2011   Standard  12   PotenPal  Std  -­‐  Low   PotenPal  Standard  -­‐  High   10.0  10   9.5   9.6   9.6   9.2   9.0   8.8   8.6   8   6.6   5.8   6   5.4   4   2   0  
  • 18. Consequences  of  NonaNainment  •  Significant  for  businesses,  government  and  ciPzens   •  Air  permijng,  increased  monitoring  and  modeling,  State   ImplementaPon  Plan   •  Adverse  health  impacts  of  not  meePng  standard  •  Economic  Impact  of  NonaNainment   •  1999  MN  Chamber  of  Commerce  Report  esPmated  at  $189  -­‐  $266   million  annually   •  Major  health  benefits  to  reducing  fine  parPcle  and  ozone  polluPon   •  EPA  esPmates  $2  trillion  annually  by  2020  from  the  1990  Clean  Air   Act  Amendments  
  • 19. State  ImplementaPon  Plan  •  If  in  nonaNainment,  states  must  submit  an   implementaPon  plan  (SIP)   •  To  demonstrate  how  NAAQS  will  be  aNained   •  Include  control  measures  to  bring  areas  into  aNainment  •  EPA  must  review  and  approve  the  SIP  
  • 20. SIP  Components   Legal     Air  Quality   Authority   Monitoring   Program   Control  Strategy   Resources   Demonstra0on   Emission  Limi0ng   Rules  and  Regs   Modeling     Data   New  Source   Review  Enforcement   Voluntary  and   Non-­‐Tradi0onal   Mobile  Measures   Measures   and  Fuels   PermiPng   Adapted from presentation by Tom Helms, EPA, on nonattainment/SIP
  • 21. CAA  Requirements  for  Ozone  NA  Areas   Extreme Severe Serious Traffic controls during congested periods Clean fuels requirement for boilers (plan in 3 years) No waivers from 15% or 3% reduction requirements Requirement for fee on major sources if fail to attain Measures to offset VMT growth (108(f) measures) due in 2 yrs Contingency measures if miss milestone Specific NSR requirements for modifications to existing sources Moderate VMT demonstration due in 6 years (TCM program if needed) Clean fuel program due in 4 years (if applicable) Enhanced I/M due in 2 years Plan for 3% annual average reductions due in 4 yearsMarginal Demonstration of attainment in 4 years Basic I/M (if not already required) due immediately Stage II gasoline vapor recovery due in 2 years RACT: Existing & future CTG s & RACT on major sources (existing due in 2 years) Plan for 15% VOC reduction within 6 years is due in 3 years New Source Review (NSR) program due 2 years (corrections to existing, also) RACT corrections due in 6 months; I/M corrections, immediatelyEmission inventory due in 2 yrs; requirements for emission statements due in 2 yrs; periodic inventories
  • 22. CAA  Requirements  for  Ozone  Areas  •  Requirements  for  all  nonaNainment  areas   •  NonaNainment  New  Source  Review   •  Emissions  offsets   •  Lowest  Achievable  Control  Technology  •  AddiPonal  requirements  for  moderate  NA  areas  are   the  ones  you  really  want  to  avoid   •  InspecPon/maintenance  of  vehicles   •  15%  reducPon  in  inventory   •  Stage  2  vapor  recovery  at  gasoline  dispensing  staPons  
  • 23. Sources  of  Urban  Air  PolluPon  •  Mobile  Sources  (Vehicles)   •  On  road   •  Off  road   •  Small  engines  •  Small  staPonary  sources   •  ResidenPal  burning   •  Small  commercial/Industrial  •  Large  staPonary  sources  
  • 24. What  are  area  and  mobile  sources?  
  • 25. Voluntary  Measures  •  AcPon  Trajectory:   •  Clean  Air  MN   •  Project  Green  Fleet   •  MPCA  through  DERA  and  CMAQ   •  Minnesota’s  Clean  Air  Dialogue   •  Addressing  mobile  and  area  sources  
  • 26. Clean  Air  Minnesota  and  Project  Green  Fleet  2003    -­‐    MN  Chamber  of  Commerce  Study;  MCEA;  MPCA;  RPU  2006    -­‐    PGF  first  in  Rochester  with  RPU,  Mayo,  City  of  Rochester,  First  Student,  and  the  Hoover  Hornets  
  • 27. Voluntary  Measures  •  Ozone  Advance   •  EPA  website:  hNp://www.epa.gov/ozoneadvance/     •  Basic  InformaPon   •  Eligibility   •  ParPcipaPon   •  Ozone  Flex   •  Resources   •  Frequent  QuesPons  
  • 28. Voluntary  Measures  •  Ozone  Advance  (PM2.5  prototype?)   •  State,  tribal,  and/or  local  governments  can  parPcipate   in  Ozone  Advance  if  they  meet  the  basic  program   eligibility  criteria:   •  The  area(s)  designated  is/are  not  designated  nonaNainment   for  either  the  1997  8-­‐hour  or  the  2008  ozone  NAAQS.     •  IdenPfy  and  report  on  the  air  monitor(s)  that  reflect  the  air   quality  in  the  area(s).   •  Emissions  inventory  reporPng  must  have  occurred  prior  to   parPcipaPon  in  Ozone  Advance.  
  • 29. Voluntary  Measures  •  Ozone  Advance     •  Promotes  local  acPons  in  aNainment  areas  to  help  these   areas  conPnue  to  meet  the  ozone  NAAQS.       •  To  apply  for  parPcipaPon,  an  area  must  submit  a  sign-­‐up   leNer   •  Expressing  area’s  willingness  to  coordinate  with  EPA,  state,  tribal   and/or  local  stakeholders  and  to  quickly  implement  measures  to   reduce  ozone   •  Does  not  need  to  idenPfy  specific  control  measures   •  Should  be  signed  by  the  appropriate  state,  tribal  and/or  local   officials  with  the  authority  to  implement  the  program  
  • 30. Chicago  Clean  Diesel  ConstrucPon   Provisions  •  Score  requirements     •  Fleet  average   •  Self-­‐reporPng  by  contractor  
  • 31.           Rail  Partnership     •  Variable  operaPons   •  MulPple  types  of   vehicles   •  Switchers   •  Hostlers   •  Cranes     •  Lius   •  Trucks     •  Idling  
  • 32. Voluntary  Measures  •  EPA’s  Voluntary  ResidenPal  Wood  Smoke  ReducPon   IniPaPve     •  Great  American  Woodstove  Changeout  Campaign  (Main   focus)   •  Outdoor  Wood-­‐fired  hydronic  heaters   •  Voluntary  Fireplace  Emission  Standard   •  “Burn  Wise”  NaPonal  EducaPon  and  Outreach  Campaign    
  • 33. Voluntary  Measures  •  Wood  Stove  Change  out   •  Voluntary,  incenPve-­‐based  (e.g.,  cash  rebates,  vouchers)   effort  to  encourage  owners  of  old,  inefficient  woodstoves   to  replace  with  a  cleaner  burning  hearth  appliance,  like:   •  Gas  stoves   •  Wood  pellet  stoves   •  EPA-­‐cerPfied  wood  stoves  
  • 34. Thank  You    -­‐    QuesPons?  David  Thornton  Assistant  Commissioner  for  Air  Policy  Minnesota  PolluPon  Control  Agency  651-­‐757-­‐2018  j.david.thornton@state.mn.us    Bill  Droessler  Senior  Director  of  Strategic  Project  Planning  Environmental  IniPaPve  612-­‐334-­‐4488  ext.  103  bdroessler@environmental-­‐iniPaPve.org