Shinoda - Measuring the Public Health Impacts of Air Pollution in Minnesota

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Shinoda - Measuring the Public Health Impacts of Air Pollution in Minnesota

  1. 1.  Measuring  the  Public  Health  Impacts  of  Air  Pollu8on  in  Minnesota       Naomi  Shinoda   Minnesota  Department  of  Health   Chronic  Disease  and  Environmental  Epidemiology   Environmental  Public  Health  Tracking  and  Biomonitoring    
  2. 2. Fine  par)cle  pollu)on:  PM2.5  
  3. 3. PM2.5  pyramid  of  health  effects     Death   Hospital   admissions   Emergency  room   visits   Doctor  visits   Asthma  aBacks,  medica)on   use,  symptoms   Lung  func)on  changes,  immune  cell   responses,  heart  rate  variability   responses  
  4. 4. Air  pollu)on  epidemiology  studies  ¥  Health  impacts  are  measurable  ¥  Large  body  of  evidence  –  PM2.5  ¥  Respiratory  and  cardiovascular  effects  ¥  Effects  observed  even  at  low  concentra)ons  ¥  Long-­‐term  effects  à  increased  risk  ¥  Short-­‐term  effects  à  triggering/exacerba)ons  
  5. 5. Air  pollu)on  affects  en)re  popula)ons  ¥  Suscep)ble  popula)on  is  growing   2004   ¥  Aging  popula)on   ¥  Increasing  obesity,  diabetes  rates  ¥  Effects  observed  in  children   ¥  Lung  development   2009   ¥  Asthma  exacerba)ons  ¥  Even  very  small  increases  associated              with  disease  and  death   Obesity  in  MN  
  6. 6. AQI:  Number  of  unhealthy  air  days  in  MN   Source:  MN  Pollu)on  Control    Agency  
  7. 7. Popula)ons   at  risk :  es)mated  numbers   Duluth  MN-­‐WI  es8mates   Total  popula)on   235,600          Children  under  18   47,900          Adults  65+   37,100   Pediatric  asthma   3,300   Adult  asthma   14,000   Chronic  bronchi)s   8,300   Emphysema   3,900   Cardiovascular   65,400   Diabetes   13,600   Source:  ALA  State  of  the  Air  2012  
  8. 8. Improving  air,  preven)ng  deaths  ¥  BenMAP  modeled   MN  (2006)   predic)ons  ¥  Air  quality  improvement   5   scenarios  ¥  Es)mated  number  of   prevented  deaths   78     (MSP  metro)  ¥  Scenario:  10%  reduc)on   in  PM2.5  concentra)ons   4   Source:  CDC  Environmental  Public  Health  Tracking  
  9. 9. Air  pollu)on  and  health  research  in  MN  ¥  Method  development  project  using  local  data   ¥  Develop  methods  for  local  area  analyses  ¥  Track  health  effects  associated  with  changes  in   air  quality   ¥  PM2.5  concentra)ons   ¥  Hospitaliza)ons  and  deaths  (respiratory,   cardiovascular)   ¥  2003-­‐2009  data   ¥  MSP  metro  and  Olmsted  County  
  10. 10. Air  pollu)on  and  health  research  in  MN   ¥  Associa)ons  found  in  the  MSP  metro  for  PM2.5  and   respiratory  hospitaliza)ons  Hospitaliza8ons   Amount  aOributable  to  PM2.5  in  2003-­‐2009                          Percent                                          #  hosp.  per  year  Total  respiratory   1.9%   224  COPD  +  asthma   2.3%   110  Asthma   2.3%   54  
  11. 11. MN  air  pollu)on  reduc)on  ini)a)ves   ¥  Minnesota  Emissions  Reduc)on  Project  (MERP)   ¥  Diesel  retrofits     ¥  School  buses;  heavy  duty  public  vehicles   ¥  Project  Green  Fleet   ¥  Other  local  ini)a)ves   ¥  An)-­‐idling  ordinances   ¥  Go  Greener  Ini)a)ve  (Met  Council)   ¥  Na)onal  ini)a)ves   ¥  Ultra  Low  Sulfur  Diesel  Fuel  Rule   ¥  Heavy  Duty  Diesel  Regula)ons   ¥  Transport  Rule  
  12. 12. Source:  MN  Pollu)on  Control  Agency  
  13. 13. MN  air  pollu)on  health  impacts  over  )me  ¥  MSP  metro:  decline  in  resp.  hosp.  aBributable  to  PM2.5            Amount  aOributable  to  PM2.5            Hospitaliza8ons   Time  period                Percent                                #  hosp./yr  Total  respiratory   2003-­‐2005   3.0%   354   2006-­‐2007   2.6%   309   2008-­‐2009   -­‐-­‐   -­‐-­‐  COPD  +  asthma   2003-­‐2005   3.3%   154   2006-­‐2007   2.9%   140   2008-­‐2009   -­‐-­‐   -­‐-­‐  Asthma   2003-­‐2005   3.8%   92   2006-­‐2007   -­‐-­‐   -­‐-­‐   2008-­‐2009   -­‐-­‐   -­‐-­‐  
  14. 14. Summary  ¥  Air  pollu)on  affects  health  even  at  low  levels  ¥  Air  pollu)on  affects  en)re  popula)ons  ¥  A  growing  number  of  Minnesotans  more  suscep)ble   to  air  quality  impacts  BUT…    ¥  MN  has  been  making  improvements  in  air  quality  ¥  Con)nued  efforts  will  lead  to  a  healthier  MN      
  15. 15. Project  Team  MN  Dept.  of  Health   MN  Pollu8on  Control  Agency   Olmsted  Medical  Center   Jean  Johnson   Greg  PraO     Barbara  Yawn   Chuck  Stroebel   Kari  Palmer   Peter  Wollan     Allan  Williams   Margaret  McCourtney     Naomi  Shinoda   Cassie  McMahon   Wendy  Brunner   Lisa  Herschberger   Paula  Lindgren   Measuring  the  Impact  of  Fine  Par)cles:   hBp://www.health.state.mn.us/divs/hpcd/cdee/airquality.html    

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