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Ch 3 Notes
 

Ch 3 Notes

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The Water Cycle and The Atmosphere

The Water Cycle and The Atmosphere

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    Ch 3 Notes Ch 3 Notes Presentation Transcript

    • Ch 3 Notes
      The Hydrosphere
      The Water Cycle
    • The Earth Is A System
      Everything on the planet is integrated.
      There are 4 main parts:
      Geosphere (Rock)
      Atmosphere (Air)
      Hydrosphere (Water)
      Biosphere (Living Things)
      Each of these parts overlaps the other!
    • The Hydrosphere
      Extends from the bottom of the Ocean to the tops of the clouds in the Atmosphere.
      The Hydrosphere is 29km tall!
      Covers ¾ of the planet!
      The water in the Hydrosphere is constantly moving between the Atmosphere, the Geosphere, and back to the Hydrosphere.
    • The Water Cycle
      There are 3 ways water can move:
      Evaporation= Liquid water is heated by the sun until it turns to water vapor and rises into the Atmosphere.
      Condensation = Water vapor cools around dust particles and collects in groups.
      Precipitation= Falling water drops enter the Geosphere or Hydrosphere.
    • Oceans
      Each Ocean is connected to the other Oceans of the planet.
      Ocean water has Sodium and Chlorine that make it salty.
      Salinity = concentration of dissolved mineral salt.
      The oceans have a range of temperatures!
      All oceans have currents of warm or cold water moving through them.
    • Ocean Temperatures
      The surface of the ocean is warmed by the sun.
      the sun cannot reach all the way to the bottom!
      As you travel down, the water reaches the freezing point.
      There are 3 layers based on temperature:
      Surface Zone/Mixed Layer= Top 100-200m. Warm!
      Thermocline= A band 50-100m wide of decreasing temperature.
      Deep Zone= 500m down. Water is just above freezing!
    • Temperature Regulation
      The most important job of the Ocean is to regulate the Earth’s temperature!
      The Ocean absorbs heat energy and slowly releases it.
      The Ocean can absorb half of the energy coming from the sun every day.
      Ocean water that is heated up always starts to move……
    • Ocean Surface Temperature
    • Ocean Currents
      Water moves in 2 ways in the Ocean:
      1. Wind Driven= Surface Currents.
      These currents can be hot or cold water.
      They always change the climate of the land they pass!
      They transport hot or cold water thousands of miles.
      2. Temperature Driven= Deep Currents.
      These currents are always COLD.
      They move slowly along the ocean floor.
      Their movement down and away, allows warm water to continue circulating.
    • Ocean Surface Currents
    • Ocean Surface Currents
    • Fresh Water
      3% of the water on Earth is Fresh Water.
      2% is locked up in Glaciers and Ice Caps.
      The remaining 1% is in:
      Lakes /Rivers
      The Atmosphere
      Ground Water
      Most Fresh Water moves around in River Systems.
    • Ground Water
      Less than 1% of the water on Earth is Ground Water.
      All water that falls as precipitation has a chance of becoming trapped in the Ground Water.
      Aquifers = Rock layers that store water.
      Recharge Zone= Surface area above an Aquifer where water collects and enters the Aquifer.
      Greene County has it’s own Aquifer!
    • Green County Aquifer!
    • How Aquifers Work
    • Where Is The Water?
    • Is Artesian Spring Water Better?
    • Ch 3 Notes
      The Atmosphere!
    • Atmosphere
      1,000 km
      Geosphere
      6,378km
    • The Atmosphere!
      The Atmosphere is made of:
      78% Nitrogen
      21% Oxygen
      1% Everything else!
      The Atmosphere is constantly changing.
      Gasses are being added and taken away.
      The Atmosphere serves as a “safety blanket” for the Earth.
    • The Atmosphere!
      The Atmosphere is made of:
      __________________
      __________________
      1% Everything else!
      The Atmosphere is ___________________.
      Gasses are being added and taken away.
      The Atmosphere serves as a “_____________” for the Earth.
    • Composition
      Nitrogen enters the atmosphere when:
      Volcanoes erupt.
      Organic material decays.
      Oxygen enters the atmosphere when:
      Produced by plants!
      Other gasses include:
      Argon, Methane, Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor.
      Atmospheric Dust is an essential part.
      It is made of dirt, ash, smoke, aerosols, ect.
    • Composition
      _________ enters the atmosphere when:
      _____________erupt.
      Organic material _____________.
      ___________ enters the atmosphere when:
      Produced by ________!
      Other gasses include:
      ___________________________________________.
      ____________________is an essential part.
      It is made of ______, ash, smoke, aerosols, ect.
    • Composition of the Atmosphere
    • Air Pressure
      The atmosphere is constantly being pulled towards the Earth’s surface by gravity.
      This means there are more molecules near the ground.
      Because there are more molecules, there is more pressure from them
      Most of the mass of the atmosphere is located within 30km of the ground.
      Air pressure is highest at the Earth’s surface.
      If you climb a mountain, air pressure goes down because there are less molecules.
    • Air Pressure
      The atmosphere is constantly being pulled ____________the Earth’s surface by _________.
      This means there are more molecules near the ____________.
      Because there are more molecules, there is more ___________ from them
      Most of the ______of the atmosphere is located within 30km of the ground.
      Air pressure is ________ at the Earth’s surface.
      If you climb a mountain, air pressure goes down because there are ____________.
    • Air Pressure
    • Layers of the Atmosphere
      The Atmosphere has 4 layers.
      Each is divided based on a combination of:
      Temperature
      Pressure
      Distance from the Earth’s surface.
    • Layers of the Atmosphere
      The Atmosphere has _______layers.
      Each is divided based on a combination of:
      __________________
      ________________
      _________________ from the Earth’s surface.
    • Layers of the Atmosphere
    • Layers of the Atmosphere
    • The Troposphere
      Closest to the Earth’s surface.
      18km tall.
      As altitude increases:
      Temperature decreases.
      Pressure decreases.
      All weather happens in this layer.
      Has the highest air pressure.
      Densest layer.
    • The Troposphere
      Closest to the Earth’s surface.
      __________ tall.
      As altitude increases:
      __________ decreases.
      __________ decreases.
      All _________ happens in this layer.
      Has the highest air pressure.
      __________ layer.
    • The Troposphere
    • The Stratosphere
      Extends from 18km to 50km.
      As altitude increases temperature rises.
      Contains the Ozone layer!
      Ozone absorbs UV rays from the sun.
      This causes the temperature rise.
      If the Ozone was not protecting us, we would quickly be damaged by the UV radiation.
    • The Stratosphere
      Extends from _____km to ___km.
      As altitude increases ______________ rises.
      Contains the _________ layer!
      Ozone absorbs __________from the sun.
      This causes the temperature ________.
      If the Ozone was not protecting us, we would quickly be ______ by the _______________.
    • Ozone Hole
    • The Mesosphere
      The coldest layer of the atmosphere!
      As altitude increases, temperature decreases.
      Meteorites burn up in this layer.
      We actually know very little about the Mesosphere!
      Planes cannot fly this high.
      Rockets cannot fly this low.
      There are ‘waves’ of atmosphere that travel through this layer.
    • The Mesosphere
      The _________ layer of the atmosphere!
      As altitude increases, temperature _________.
      __________ burn up in this layer.
      We actually know ___________about the Mesosphere!
      Planes cannot fly this high.
      Rockets cannot fly this low.
      There are ‘_______’ of atmosphere that travel through this layer.
    • The Thermosphere
      The lowest section is called the Ionosphere.
      Full of electrically charged ions!
      These ions usually radiate light in the form of our Northern Lights.
      As altitude increases, temperature increases.
      Nitrogen and Oxygen atoms absorb solar radiation.
      The temperature is 2,000C
      Because the density is so low, the air doesn’t feel hot!
    • The Thermosphere
      The lowest section is called the ___________.
      Full of ___________________ions!
      These ions usually radiate __________ in the form of our Northern Lights.
      As altitude increases, ____________________.
      _______ and ______ atoms absorb solar radiation.
      The temperature is __________
      Because the density is so _______, the air doesn’t ____________!
    • Energy Movement
      There are 3 ways energy can move:
      Radiation: transfer of energy across space.
      Conduction: transfer of energy through direct physical contact.
      Convection: transfer of energy by air currents.
      When solar radiation hits the atmosphere, any of the 3 movements can happen.
    • Energy Movement
      There are 3 ways energy can move:
      _________: transfer of energy across ________.
      _________: transfer of energy through _________________________
      ________: transfer of energy by _____________.
      When solar radiation hits the atmosphere, any of the 3 movements can happen.
    • What happens to solar radiation?
      20% absorbed by ozone, clouds, and atmospheric gasses.
      5% reflected by Earth’s surface.
      25% Scattered and reflected by clouds and air.
      50% absorbed by Earth’s surface.
    • Weather
      Air is constantly moving up, down, and sideways.
      Less dense air gets warmed by the sun and rises.
      Dense cool air sinks towards the ground.
      Eventually, they create a circular current called a Convection Current.
      Clouds form when warm moist air rises and suddenly cools.
    • Weather
      Air is constantly moving __________________ _____________.
      ______ dense air gets warmed by the sun and ______.
      _________air sinks towards the ground.
      Eventually, they create a circular current called a ____________________.
      Clouds form when warm moist air __________________________________
    • The Greenhouse Effect
      The Ozone layer acts exactly like a glass window.
      Unlimited energy can come in.
      No energy can go out!
      If The Greenhouse effect did not exist, Earth could not support life.
      If the Greenhouse effect becomes too strong, the Earth won’t be able to keep supporting life!
    • The Greenhouse Effect
      The Ozone layer acts exactly like a ________________.
      ___________________can come in.
      ________ energy can go out!
      If The Greenhouse effect did not exist, Earth could not ____________.
      If the Greenhouse effect becomes ________, the Earth won’t be able to ____________ ____________________.