Ch 3 Notes

1,174 views

Published on

The Water Cycle and The Atmosphere

Published in: Technology, Business
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,174
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
5
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
18
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Ch 3 Notes

  1. 1. Ch 3 Notes<br />The Hydrosphere<br />The Water Cycle<br />
  2. 2. The Earth Is A System<br />Everything on the planet is integrated.<br />There are 4 main parts:<br />Geosphere (Rock)<br />Atmosphere (Air)<br />Hydrosphere (Water)<br />Biosphere (Living Things)<br />Each of these parts overlaps the other!<br />
  3. 3.
  4. 4. The Hydrosphere<br />Extends from the bottom of the Ocean to the tops of the clouds in the Atmosphere.<br />The Hydrosphere is 29km tall!<br />Covers ¾ of the planet!<br />The water in the Hydrosphere is constantly moving between the Atmosphere, the Geosphere, and back to the Hydrosphere.<br />
  5. 5. The Water Cycle<br />There are 3 ways water can move:<br />Evaporation= Liquid water is heated by the sun until it turns to water vapor and rises into the Atmosphere.<br />Condensation = Water vapor cools around dust particles and collects in groups.<br />Precipitation= Falling water drops enter the Geosphere or Hydrosphere.<br />
  6. 6.
  7. 7. Oceans<br />Each Ocean is connected to the other Oceans of the planet.<br />Ocean water has Sodium and Chlorine that make it salty. <br />Salinity = concentration of dissolved mineral salt.<br />The oceans have a range of temperatures!<br />All oceans have currents of warm or cold water moving through them.<br />
  8. 8. Ocean Temperatures<br />The surface of the ocean is warmed by the sun.<br />the sun cannot reach all the way to the bottom!<br />As you travel down, the water reaches the freezing point.<br />There are 3 layers based on temperature:<br />Surface Zone/Mixed Layer= Top 100-200m. Warm!<br />Thermocline= A band 50-100m wide of decreasing temperature.<br />Deep Zone= 500m down. Water is just above freezing!<br />
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Temperature Regulation<br />The most important job of the Ocean is to regulate the Earth’s temperature!<br />The Ocean absorbs heat energy and slowly releases it.<br />The Ocean can absorb half of the energy coming from the sun every day.<br />Ocean water that is heated up always starts to move……<br />
  11. 11. Ocean Surface Temperature<br />
  12. 12. Ocean Currents<br />Water moves in 2 ways in the Ocean:<br />1. Wind Driven= Surface Currents.<br />These currents can be hot or cold water.<br />They always change the climate of the land they pass!<br />They transport hot or cold water thousands of miles.<br />2. Temperature Driven= Deep Currents.<br />These currents are always COLD.<br />They move slowly along the ocean floor.<br />Their movement down and away, allows warm water to continue circulating.<br />
  13. 13. Ocean Surface Currents<br />
  14. 14. Ocean Surface Currents<br />
  15. 15. Fresh Water<br />3% of the water on Earth is Fresh Water.<br />2% is locked up in Glaciers and Ice Caps.<br />The remaining 1% is in:<br />Lakes /Rivers<br />The Atmosphere<br />Ground Water<br />Most Fresh Water moves around in River Systems.<br />
  16. 16. Ground Water<br />Less than 1% of the water on Earth is Ground Water.<br />All water that falls as precipitation has a chance of becoming trapped in the Ground Water.<br />Aquifers = Rock layers that store water. <br />Recharge Zone= Surface area above an Aquifer where water collects and enters the Aquifer.<br />Greene County has it’s own Aquifer!<br />
  17. 17.
  18. 18. Green County Aquifer!<br />
  19. 19. How Aquifers Work<br />
  20. 20. Where Is The Water?<br />
  21. 21. Is Artesian Spring Water Better?<br />
  22. 22.
  23. 23. Ch 3 Notes<br />The Atmosphere!<br />
  24. 24. Atmosphere<br />1,000 km<br />Geosphere<br />6,378km<br />
  25. 25. The Atmosphere!<br />The Atmosphere is made of:<br />78% Nitrogen<br />21% Oxygen<br />1% Everything else!<br />The Atmosphere is constantly changing.<br />Gasses are being added and taken away.<br />The Atmosphere serves as a “safety blanket” for the Earth.<br />
  26. 26. The Atmosphere!<br />The Atmosphere is made of:<br />__________________<br />__________________<br />1% Everything else!<br />The Atmosphere is ___________________.<br />Gasses are being added and taken away.<br />The Atmosphere serves as a “_____________” for the Earth.<br />
  27. 27. Composition<br />Nitrogen enters the atmosphere when:<br />Volcanoes erupt.<br />Organic material decays.<br />Oxygen enters the atmosphere when:<br />Produced by plants!<br />Other gasses include: <br />Argon, Methane, Carbon Dioxide, Water Vapor.<br />Atmospheric Dust is an essential part.<br />It is made of dirt, ash, smoke, aerosols, ect.<br />
  28. 28. Composition<br />_________ enters the atmosphere when:<br />_____________erupt.<br />Organic material _____________.<br />___________ enters the atmosphere when:<br />Produced by ________!<br />Other gasses include: <br />___________________________________________.<br />____________________is an essential part.<br />It is made of ______, ash, smoke, aerosols, ect.<br />
  29. 29. Composition of the Atmosphere<br />
  30. 30. Air Pressure<br />The atmosphere is constantly being pulled towards the Earth’s surface by gravity.<br />This means there are more molecules near the ground.<br />Because there are more molecules, there is more pressure from them<br />Most of the mass of the atmosphere is located within 30km of the ground.<br />Air pressure is highest at the Earth’s surface.<br />If you climb a mountain, air pressure goes down because there are less molecules.<br />
  31. 31. Air Pressure<br />The atmosphere is constantly being pulled ____________the Earth’s surface by _________.<br />This means there are more molecules near the ____________.<br />Because there are more molecules, there is more ___________ from them<br />Most of the ______of the atmosphere is located within 30km of the ground.<br />Air pressure is ________ at the Earth’s surface.<br />If you climb a mountain, air pressure goes down because there are ____________.<br />
  32. 32. Air Pressure<br />
  33. 33. Layers of the Atmosphere<br />The Atmosphere has 4 layers.<br />Each is divided based on a combination of:<br />Temperature<br />Pressure<br />Distance from the Earth’s surface.<br />
  34. 34. Layers of the Atmosphere<br />The Atmosphere has _______layers.<br />Each is divided based on a combination of:<br />__________________<br />________________<br />_________________ from the Earth’s surface.<br />
  35. 35. Layers of the Atmosphere<br />
  36. 36. Layers of the Atmosphere<br />
  37. 37. The Troposphere<br />Closest to the Earth’s surface.<br />18km tall.<br />As altitude increases:<br />Temperature decreases.<br />Pressure decreases.<br />All weather happens in this layer.<br />Has the highest air pressure.<br />Densest layer.<br />
  38. 38. The Troposphere<br />Closest to the Earth’s surface.<br />__________ tall.<br />As altitude increases:<br />__________ decreases.<br />__________ decreases.<br />All _________ happens in this layer.<br />Has the highest air pressure.<br />__________ layer.<br />
  39. 39. The Troposphere<br />
  40. 40. The Stratosphere<br />Extends from 18km to 50km.<br />As altitude increases temperature rises.<br />Contains the Ozone layer!<br />Ozone absorbs UV rays from the sun.<br />This causes the temperature rise.<br />If the Ozone was not protecting us, we would quickly be damaged by the UV radiation.<br />
  41. 41. The Stratosphere<br />Extends from _____km to ___km.<br />As altitude increases ______________ rises.<br />Contains the _________ layer!<br />Ozone absorbs __________from the sun.<br />This causes the temperature ________.<br />If the Ozone was not protecting us, we would quickly be ______ by the _______________.<br />
  42. 42. Ozone Hole<br />
  43. 43. The Mesosphere<br />The coldest layer of the atmosphere!<br />As altitude increases, temperature decreases.<br />Meteorites burn up in this layer.<br />We actually know very little about the Mesosphere!<br />Planes cannot fly this high.<br />Rockets cannot fly this low.<br />There are ‘waves’ of atmosphere that travel through this layer.<br />
  44. 44. The Mesosphere<br />The _________ layer of the atmosphere!<br />As altitude increases, temperature _________.<br />__________ burn up in this layer.<br />We actually know ___________about the Mesosphere!<br />Planes cannot fly this high.<br />Rockets cannot fly this low.<br />There are ‘_______’ of atmosphere that travel through this layer.<br />
  45. 45. The Thermosphere<br />The lowest section is called the Ionosphere.<br />Full of electrically charged ions!<br />These ions usually radiate light in the form of our Northern Lights.<br />As altitude increases, temperature increases.<br />Nitrogen and Oxygen atoms absorb solar radiation.<br />The temperature is 2,000C<br />Because the density is so low, the air doesn’t feel hot!<br />
  46. 46. The Thermosphere<br />The lowest section is called the ___________.<br />Full of ___________________ions!<br />These ions usually radiate __________ in the form of our Northern Lights.<br />As altitude increases, ____________________.<br />_______ and ______ atoms absorb solar radiation.<br />The temperature is __________<br />Because the density is so _______, the air doesn’t ____________!<br />
  47. 47. Energy Movement<br />There are 3 ways energy can move:<br />Radiation: transfer of energy across space.<br />Conduction: transfer of energy through direct physical contact.<br />Convection: transfer of energy by air currents. <br />When solar radiation hits the atmosphere, any of the 3 movements can happen.<br />
  48. 48. Energy Movement<br />There are 3 ways energy can move:<br />_________: transfer of energy across ________.<br />_________: transfer of energy through _________________________<br />________: transfer of energy by _____________. <br />When solar radiation hits the atmosphere, any of the 3 movements can happen.<br />
  49. 49. What happens to solar radiation?<br />20% absorbed by ozone, clouds, and atmospheric gasses.<br />5% reflected by Earth’s surface.<br />25% Scattered and reflected by clouds and air.<br />50% absorbed by Earth’s surface.<br />
  50. 50. Weather<br />Air is constantly moving up, down, and sideways.<br />Less dense air gets warmed by the sun and rises.<br />Dense cool air sinks towards the ground.<br />Eventually, they create a circular current called a Convection Current.<br />Clouds form when warm moist air rises and suddenly cools.<br />
  51. 51. Weather<br />Air is constantly moving __________________ _____________.<br />______ dense air gets warmed by the sun and ______.<br />_________air sinks towards the ground.<br />Eventually, they create a circular current called a ____________________.<br />Clouds form when warm moist air __________________________________<br />
  52. 52. The Greenhouse Effect<br />The Ozone layer acts exactly like a glass window.<br />Unlimited energy can come in.<br />No energy can go out!<br />If The Greenhouse effect did not exist, Earth could not support life.<br />If the Greenhouse effect becomes too strong, the Earth won’t be able to keep supporting life!<br />
  53. 53. The Greenhouse Effect<br />The Ozone layer acts exactly like a ________________.<br />___________________can come in.<br />________ energy can go out!<br />If The Greenhouse effect did not exist, Earth could not ____________.<br />If the Greenhouse effect becomes ________, the Earth won’t be able to ____________ ____________________.<br />

×