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TiE Stree Shakti GEM Study 2006
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TiE Stree Shakti GEM Study 2006


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GEM Study conducted that led to the genesis of TiE Stree Shakti

GEM Study conducted that led to the genesis of TiE Stree Shakti

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  • 1. Project GEM An overview November 2006
  • 2. Study objective
    • To help in the advocacy programme for women entrepreneurs, TiE needed the following:
    • To understand the specific systemic challenges faced by women entrepreneurs
      • at various points in their evolution, especially at start up.
    • Support needed to scale up further.
    • Successful policy or systemic advocacy could make a big difference to their business.
  • 3. The spirit of Enterprise Three segments, possibly stages of enterprise 1. Untapped 2. Grassroots 3. Mid-rung
    • Women in middle class households who had thought of setting up an enterprise
    • Taken a few steps forward, faltered, given up
    • Most would be interested in picking up the idea again, if helped
    • Women from similar households who did set up an enterprise
    • Earn up to 5 lakhs a year today from it
    • And gain self respect and self confidence
    • Need help to think of scaling up and then help for scaling up
    • A different profile, SEC A
    • Benefit of education and a comfortable life
    • Combination of drive, interest and opportunity
    • Often glided into business, not struggled
    • Would like to grow but the fire is missing
    Stage 1 can grow to Stage 2 with help, but 2 to 3 might be difficult
  • 4. Segment 1 - Untapped
    • Random sampling of 1202 households in SECs B,C and D revealed that 31% (377 women) had tried to set up an enterprise
      • Thought of (in varying degrees) the field in which they wanted to operate, the finances needed, the method, the market, etc.
      • Each one of them had had to give up the idea for lack of support – financial and/or domestic.
      • Of these 377 women, 297 would still be interested in setting up an enterprise’
    • Thus, 25% of women in the middle class have the interest and the drive to have moved towards setting up an enterprise and still want to.
  • 5. Segment 1 - Untapped
    • In just these 6 cities, there are 3 lakh potential women entrepreneurs waiting for support and opportunity.
    • These women typically have school education up to the 10 th standard, but less than 20% would have been to college.
    • Married almost immediately afterwards, three-fourths of them had children in school or college today.
      • Not a single woman had a school-age child who was not in school
      • They want to ensure that their children have a real chance!
    • Their husbands were
      • Skilled workers (carpenters, electricians, machine operators) (30%)
      • Employed with some firm or the government in a clerical position (20%)
      • Shop owners and traders (30%)
  • 6. Segment 1 - Untapped
    • These women would typically have strong aspirations
      • Having come from homes that afforded them school education, they want better for their children.
      • Having earning husbands, they want to bring in something more that will ensure their children’s future
    • 78% of these women would be interested in taking up the idea of their own enterprise again
      • To help family financially
      • To secure the future of their children
    • Of the help needed
      • 83% of the requests would be for financial support
      • 90% would be for training and guidance
      • 67% would want help and support from the family
        • Or just absence of objection, or even fewer social pressures
      • 54% would need some space from where to operate
  • 7. Segment 1 - Untapped
    • Their aspirations were strongly in the field of garments
      • Tailoring, embroidery, supplying against orders from ready made garment stores.
        • This could be where they see the opportunity, maybe by observation of word of mouth
        • And believe that their skills and confidence would match up.
      • Suggestions about cooking classes or beauty classes did not find much interest
        • Possibly do not believe they know enough to teach
      • Current aspirations are in line with limited exposure and confidence
        • If given information about other opportunities and if given training, their horizons could widen.
  • 8. Segment 2 - Grassroots
    • 60 women entrepreneurs from SECs B, C, D interviewed.
    • A wide range of enterprises covered.
      • Tailoring/ garment boutiques
      • Coaching classes
      • Beauty parlours
      • General stores
      • Embroidery shops
      • Catering or tiffin suppliers
    • Her profile is similar to the ones seen earlier
      • Had been to school, been married early, had children who were in school /college, lived in a nuclear family but felt the pressure of the larger family, and of having to perform her traditional role in that context.
      • She probably lived in a one BHK house, or in a chawl but maintained a clean house and dressed neatly. Her home management would be thrifty but based on good value for money.
  • 9. Segment 2 - Grassroots
    • What made a difference was:
      • Having the drive to do something more
        • Supported by others who expressed faith in their abilities and pushed them along – friends, family
        • Inspired by other women who seemed to be successful
      • Circumstances that forced them to bring in an income
        • Usually an unhappy incident that left them with no choice
        • The need for flexibility to continue domestic responsibilities and absence of qualifications made a job a non-option
      • Self recognition of skills and interest
        • Had inspired those forced by circumstances
        • Had given others confidence to change their circumstances
          • Threw up oppressive jobs to strike out on their own
  • 10. Segment 2 - Grassroots
    • Choice of business was guided by
      • Their own interest based on known skills or training
      • Confidence in their ‘guide’, they adopted the guide’s field of work
    • While most rated their business success and future prospects as ‘very good’ to ‘okay’,
    • There were problems
        • Not able to find committed and dependable people
        • Inexperience
        • Lack of finances
      • All these had made it a rough or at least a bumpy ride
    • Government policies did not impact them as such
      • Business records usually not formally maintained, scribbles, back of envelope calculations
      • Government could mainly help them by providing good infrastructure – electricity, water, absence of bribes, etc.
  • 11. Segment 2 - Grassroots
    • Would want to expand sales, bring in more orders
      • The drive was there, but unrelenting, multiple responsibilities made them wary of taking on too much
    • Yet, if they could get support
      • Financial
      • Managerial – help with systems and processes
      • Formal training in their line of work
      • Better technology and infrastructure
      • And family support and encouragement
    • They would be keen to grow their business and increase their earnings!
  • 12. Segment 3 – Mid-rung
    • 16 women entrepreneurs who had taken bank loans
    • Almost all were from SEC A, almost all had graduate or post graduate degrees, were married and had school going children
    • Their enterprises were:
      • Garment boutiques, export of furnishings, catering, poultry farms, plant nursery, dealers in flowers, manufacturer of labels for industry, etc.
    • Annual turnover in the range of half a crore to 5 crores
    • Most employed 10 to 50 people
    • This would be the woman who would drive her own car, ensure that her children go to the best schools, travel abroad, eat out, have a good life.
  • 13. Segment 3 – Mid-rung
    • What made her set up an enterprise:
      • The major factor was a drive to do something more
        • Supported by others who expressed faith in their abilities and pushed them along – friends, acquaintances, family
      • To a lesser extent, negative circumstances had played a role
        • Husband’s accident or ill health had forced one in eight to take over their husband’s work
        • Other were cheated, forced into a corner, left with no choice
      • But a larger mention was of positive circumstances
        • The right social circle, contacts, word of mouth, serendipity.
        • Hearing of an opportunity, getting the support and backing from friends or family
  • 14. Segment 3 – Mid-rung
    • Most rated their business success and future prospects as ‘excellent’ to ‘very good’.
    • Most sounded extremely pleased that they had their own business to run and that it was doing so well
    • There were problems
      • Not able to find committed and dependable people
      • Not getting time with the family, esp. when work involved travel
    • About one in four worried about financial matters
      • But not getting or losing good people was a bigger worry
    • But on the whole, 60% said that the going had been mostly smooth
      • 76% could not mention any government policy that interfered with their business
  • 15. Segment 3 – Mid-rung
    • Yet, there was no strong desire to grow
      • The hunger seemed to be missing
      • The current level of business was sufficient
        • To bring in good money
        • Keep them busy and give them the thrill of having an enterprise to run
        • Expansion would move them out of their comfort zone
          • And there was no burning need or ambition
          • Spare time to spend at home, on leisure or with children seemed more attractive.