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Psychoneuroimmunology

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PNI is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body.

PNI is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body.


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  • Types of stress Richard Lazarus published in 1974 a model dividing stress into eustress and distress. When stress enhances function (physical or mental, such as through strength training or challenging work) it may be considered eustress. Persistent stress that is not resolved through coping or adaptation (distress) may lead to escape (anxiety) or withdrawal (depression) behavior. The difference between experiences which result in eustress or distress is determined by the disparity between an experience (real or imagined), personal expectations and resources to cope with the stress. A person living in a fashion consistent with personally-accepted expectations may have no stress even if the conditions might be interpreted as adverse from some outside perspective — rural people may live in comparative poverty, and yet be unstressed if their resources are sufficient to meet their needs and expectations. If there is chronic disparity between experience and expectations, stress may be relieved by adjustment of expectations to meet the ongoing experiences or conditions. Alarming experiences, either real or imagined, can trigger a stress response. [Adaptation to stress Stress management Responses to stress include adaptation, psychological coping such as stress management, anxiety, and depression. Over the long term, distress can lead to diminished health or illness; to avoid this, stress must be managed. General Adaptation Syndrome This is a model on stress, researched mainly by Hans Selye[4][5] on rats and other animals. His research involved exposing animals to unpleasant or harmful stimuli such as injections, extreme cold and even vivisection. He found that all animals showed a very similar series of reactions, broken into three stages. He describes this universal response to the stressors as the General Adaption Syndrome or GAS in 1936.
  • Making Nervous System Changes You can make nervous system changes with hypnosis if you work closely with a therapist. Step 1: Changing your reaction to stimuli Your emotions stimulate the autonomic nervous system, which increases "fight or flight" reactions. Stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system slows down the rate of the heart and other "fight or flight" reactions. Step 2: Identify the stimuli Understand what stimuli are causing your panic attacks, depression or other unhelpful reactions. The nervous system changes made by hypnosis can only begin if you're aware what causes them. Focus on events that stimulate your reactions. The therapist may be able to help you with this. Step 3: Learn to center yourself and relax Learn to center yourself and relax, even when mentally or physically confronted with the stimuli. If you originally felt panic and were hurt when you were trapped in a room, small places or locked doors will bring about the same panic. Revisiting the scene in your mind and ultimately having a happier, more relaxed experience, stimulates the development of new receptors and responses. Step 4: Changing your associations Dis-associate all smells, sounds, visions and tactile stimulation that occurred in any traumatic experience. The senses trigger response. Step 5: Know your physiology Know that every time you experience anything new, a new receptor is created, changing your nervous system.
  • If the brain was in charge
  • Neural circuitry involving the amygdala and hippocampus is thought to underlie anxiety. When confronted with unpleasant and potentially harmful stimuli , PET-scans show increased bloodflow in the amygdala.
  • The universe contains a hierarchy of systems. Each more advanced or higher level is made of lower level systems, e.g., atoms, molecules, organelles, cells, organisms, families, societies, etc. James Grier Miller’s general theory of behavior of systems encourages us to find commonality in the performance characteristics of certain systems relevant to stress.
  • One important difference between inanimate and biological system is the capacity to adapt in response to stress
  • Certain performance also increases linearly with stressful stimuli, up to a point of exhaustion. The performance curve may shift under the influence of enhancing and depressing factors. …as it does in psycho-social behavior…
  • Stage one: alarm When the threat or stressor is identified or realized, the body's stress response is a state of alarm. During this stage adrenaline will be produced in order to facilitate the fight-or-flight response Stage two: resistance If the stressor persists, it becomes necessary to mobilize means of coping with the stress. Although the body begins to try to adapt to the strains or demands of the environment, the body cannot keep this up indefinitely, so its resources are gradually depleted. Stage three: exhaustion In the final stage all the resources are eventually depleted and the body is unable to maintain normal function. At this point the initial autonomic nervous system symptoms may reappear (sweating, raised heart rate etc.). If stage three is extended, long term damage may result as the capacity of glands, especially the adrenal gland, and the immune system is exhausted and function is impaired resulting in decompensation. The result can manifest itself in overt illnesses such as ulcers, depression or even cardiovascular problems, along with other mental issues. Neuro-chemistry and physiology The neurochemistry of the GAS is now well understood, although much remains to be discovered about how this system interacts with others in the brain and elsewhere in the body. The body reacts to stress first by releasing the catecholamine hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the glucocorticoid hormones, cortisl and cortisone. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system, involving the interactions of the hypothalamus, thepituitary, and the adrenal glands. The HPA axis is believed to play a primary role in the body's reactions to stress by balancing hormone releases from the adrenaline-producing adrenal medulla, and from the corticosteroid-producing adrenal cortex. Stress can significantly affect many of the body's immune systems.
  • Stage two: resistance If the stressor persists, it becomes necessary to mobilize means of coping with the stress. Although the body begins to try to adapt to the strains or demands of the environment, the body cannot keep this up indefinitely, so its resources are gradually depleted. Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex. It is usually referred to as the "stress hormone" as it is involved in response to stress and anxiety, It increases blood pressure and blood sugar, and reduces immune responses. Effects In normal release, cortisol has widespread actions which help restore homeostasis after stress. (These normal endogenous functions are the basis for the physiological consequences of chronic stress - prolonged cortisol secretion. Insulin Cortisol counteracts insulin by increasing gluconeogenesis and promotes breakdown of lipids, and proteins, and mobilization of extrahepatic amino acids and ketone bodies. This leads to increased circulating blood glucose by increasing gluconeogenesis. There is an increased glycogen breakdown in the liver Prolonged cortisol secretion causes hyperglycemia Gastric secretion Cortisol stimulates gastric acid secretion. Immune system Cortisol can weaken the activity of the immune system by preventing proliferation of T-cells
  • In the final stage all the resources are eventually depleted and the body is unable to maintain normal function. At this point the initial autonomic nervous system symptoms may reappear (sweating, raised heart rate etc.). If stage three is extended, long term damage may result as the capacity of glands, especially the adrenal gland, and the immune system is exhausted and function is impaired resulting in decompensation. The result can manifest itself in overt illnesses such as ulcers, depression or even cardiovascular problems, along with other mental issues. Neuro-chemistry and physiology The neurochemistry of the GAS is now well understood, although much remains to be discovered about how this system interacts with others in the brain and elsewhere in the body. The body reacts to stress first by releasing the catecholamine hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the glucocorticoid hormones, cortisl and cortisone. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system, involving the interactions of the hypothalamus, thepituitary, and the adrenal glands. The HPA axis is believed to play a primary role in the body's reactions to stress by balancing hormone releases from the adrenaline-producing adrenal medulla, and from the corticosteroid-producing adrenal cortex. Stress can significantly affect many of the body's immune systems.
  • Any stressor will produce a reaction, initially non-specific, resulting from some degree of arousal, produced by an adrenergic reaction. If the stress is sustained, other effects will follow, not necessarily adverse.
  • In the final stage all the resources are eventually depleted and the body is unable to maintain normal function. At this point the initial autonomic nervous system symptoms may reappear (sweating, raised heart rate etc.). If stage three is extended, long term damage may result as the capacity of glands, especially the adrenal gland, and the immune system is exhausted and function is impaired resulting in decompensation. The result can manifest itself in overt illnesses such as ulcers, depression or even cardiovascular problems, along with other mental issues. Neuro-chemistry and physiology The neurochemistry of the GAS is now well understood, although much remains to be discovered about how this system interacts with others in the brain and elsewhere in the body. The body reacts to stress first by releasing the catecholamine hormones, epinephrine and norepinephrine, and the glucocorticoid hormones, cortisl and cortisone. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) is a major part of the neuroendocrine system, involving the interactions of the hypothalamus, thepituitary, and the adrenal glands. The HPA axis is believed to play a primary role in the body's reactions to stress by balancing hormone releases from the adrenaline-producing adrenal medulla, and from the corticosteroid-producing adrenal cortex. Stress can significantly affect many of the body's immune systems.
  • Neuroendocrine Adaptation Mechanisms A key factor in the maintenance of resistance to stress is the hypothalamopituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). Stressors excite the hypothalamus to produce adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) which induces the adrenal cortex to secrete glucocorticoids (principally cortisone) and DHEA, and the adrenal medulla to secrete epinephrine and norepinephrine. When cortisone levels rise, they inhibit the hypothalamus and pituitary, which in turn decrease CRH and ACTH production, respectively. When blood cortisone levels decrease, hypothalamic activity increases, releasing CRH. This increases pituitary ACTH output, which stimulates the adrenal cortex to increase blood cortisone levels. In this cyclic manner, equilibrium is maintained in the system. Cortisone concentrations in the blood undergo cyclic, diurnal (circadian) changes (Figure 2). These changes are due to variations in CRH and ACTH output, as well as to changes in hypothalamic and CNS sensitivity to cortisol (these changes in hypothalamic sensitivity are very important). With normal diurnal rhythm, blood ACTH levels rise between 3 and 6 AM, causing increases in blood cortisol. Thus, blood cortisol concentrations are at their highest in the morning. These peak levels gradually decrease, dropping to minimal levels by night. Under normal conditions, basal morning cortisol concentrations are twice those at night. Cortisone has been described by Dr. William Jefferies, author of Safe Uses of Cortisone as "the hormone of life," as without it we would be unable to adapt to the various stressors of life. However, when produced in excess over a prolonged period, it has a number of adverse, damaging effects. These include elevations of blood sugar, sodium retention (resulting in hypertension), suppression of immunity, gastric ulcers, headaches, loss of bone density, and even heart attacks.
  • Cortisol is a corticosteroid hormone produced by the adrenal cortex (in the adrenal gland). It is a vital hormone that is often referred to as the "stress hormone" as it is involved in the response to stress . It increases blood pressure , blood sugar levels and has an immunosuppressive action. In pharmacology , the synthetic form of cortisol is referred to as hydrocortisone , and is used to treat allergies and inflammation as well as cortisol production deficiencies.
  • Brain: The brain normally uses only glucose as fuel, but it can use ketone bodies when necessary (extended fasting). Since the brain stores very little glycogen, brain cells require a steady stream of glucose from the blood, the level of which is maintained by the liver. The brain has a very active respiratory metabolism, using almost 20% of the total O2 consumed by a resting adult. Most of the ATP produced by the brain maintains Na+ and K+ gradients generated by the plasma membrane (Na+-K+)-ATPase to maintain membrane potential required for nerve impulse transmission. Hormonal Control of Fuel Metabolism We studied hormones and their involvement in regulating metabolism when we studied glycogen metabolism and, to a lesser extent, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis and fat mobilization. Hormones are chemical messengers synthesized, stored in and released from endocrine glands. They include steroid hormones, such as those of the adrenal cortex (glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids), which we studied briefly last semester, the catecholamines derived from tyrosine (adrenal medulla) and the polypeptide hormones glucagon and insulin (pancreas). The majority of the pancreas is involved with producing digestive enzymes such as chymotrypsin, trypsin, etc. Approximately 1 - 2 % consists of the islets of Langerhans, which secrete glucagon (" cells) and insulin ($ cells). It is of interest to note that there appear to be no cell surface glucose receptors on $ cells by which serum glucose concentrations could be communicated to these cells. In these cells, pathways that initiate from branch points in glycolysis such as glucose-6-phosphate (glycogen metabolism) and pyruvate (lactate formation) are minimized, thus creating a linear pathway from glucose through oxidative phosphorylation. Insulin production and secretion from $ cells appears to be linked to activity of oxidative phosphorylation. Insulin promotes glucose uptake in muscles and adipose tissue, and also by inhibiting glycogen breakdown, promoting glycogen synthesis and inhibiting gluconeogenesis in the liver. Inhibition of gluconeogenesis is achieved by inhibiting the transcription of genes encoding enzymes involved only in gluconeogenesis (PEP carboxykinase, fructose 1,6 and glucose 6- phosphatase), and stimulates glycolysis in the liver by stimulating the transcription of glycolytic enzymes (glucokinase and pyruvate kinase). Fatty acid biosynthesis in the liver is stimulated by stimulating the expression of lipogenic enzymes. As you know, glucagon and epinephrine counter the effects of insulin. Although muscle cells lack a glucagon receptor, they benefit indirectly from the effects of glucacon because glucagon increases the concentration of serum glucose which is free to enter muscle cells. See Table 21-1 for a summary of the effects of insulin, glucagon and epinephrine. Finally, note that epinephrine binds to liver cells as well as to muscle cells. This hormone binds to either "- or $-adrenergic receptors; the liver possesses both types, whereas muscle cells contain only $-receptors. "-receptors are associated with the secondary messenger Ca++, whereas c-AMP is associated with $-receptors. Ca++ reinforces the liver’s response to c- AMP by increasing the rate of glycogen breakdown. It does so by binding to the *-subunit (calmodulin) of phosphorylase kinase, which then relieves inhibition of the catalytic subunit.
  • Types of stress Richard Lazarus published in 1974 a model dividing stress into eustress and distress. When stress enhances function (physical or mental, such as through strength training or challenging work) it may be considered eustress. Persistent stress that is not resolved through coping or adaptation (distress) may lead to escape (anxiety) or withdrawal (depression) behavior. The difference between experiences which result in eustress or distress is determined by the disparity between an experience (real or imagined), personal expectations and resources to cope with the stress. A person living in a fashion consistent with personally-accepted expectations may have no stress even if the conditions might be interpreted as adverse from some outside perspective — rural people may live in comparative poverty, and yet be unstressed if their resources are sufficient to meet their needs and expectations. If there is chronic disparity between experience and expectations, stress may be relieved by adjustment of expectations to meet the ongoing experiences or conditions. Alarming experiences, either real or imagined, can trigger a stress response.[3] [Adaptation to stress Stress management Responses to stress include adaptation, psychological coping such as stress management, anxiety, and depression. Over the long term, distress can lead to diminished health or illness; to avoid this, stress must be managed. General Adaptation Syndrome This is a model on stress, researched mainly by Hans Selye[4][5] on rats and other animals. His research involved exposing animals to unpleasant or harmful stimuli such as injections, extreme cold and even vivisection. He found that all animals showed a very similar series of reactions, broken into three stages. He describes this universal response to the stressors as the General Adaption Syndrome or GAS in 1936.
  • The term “Risk” varies with context. It has different meaning to a martyr, a visionary, a banker, an investor, a structural engineer, sport enthusiast or to a physician, however, in each instance its gist can be reduced to few, common terms. A reasonable person, including a gambler, would prefer to know the probability of harm that might result from the exposure to a bid, hazard, peril, danger, offense or liability, rather than chancing a surprise outcome. Often, but not always, the objective is to reduce risk. A suicide bomber, for example, has a different goal. He or she, however, would want to maximize the destructive sacrifice by similar estimates using well thought-out models. In its simplest form a mathematical model would estimate risk (R) by determining the hazard (H), which is the inherent danger in a chemical, physical, electromagnetic or other threat, the exposure (E), which is the extent, intensity and duration of the effect of “H,” and the controls in place “C”, which are counter-measures, inherent, divine, imagined, magical or man-made that protect from the effects of “H” and “E.” We determine a Risk Index by first surveying the noise levels of the area in question (workplace, assembly plant, oilfield, political speech, etc.) and then assigning weights to the different hazards encountered. In the problem at hand, the hazard is LFN. Sometimes teams of experts are required to quantify exposure and also to assign a numeric value to controls in place .
  • the “principle” of “Being all possibilities” operates. While we are used to one sperm fertilizing one egg (ovum) in the womb resulting in the birth of a singleton (one baby), there are instances of more than one sperm fertilizing one egg at the same time, or more than one sperm fertilizing more than one egg at the same time, each with different outcomes—filling in the “possibilities.” Some outcomes are not to be recognized by us at all, and some will not adapt to the “human culture,” hence, will not register as human; yet, they are all materialized possibilities, along with the most familiar (“natural”), in keeping with Being all that One can be.
  • One may think of the sympathetic division as the accelerator and the parasympathetic division as the brake . The sympathetic division typically functions in actions requiring quick responses. The parasympathetic division functions with actions that do not require immediate reaction. The main actions of the parasympathetic nervous system are summarized by the phrase "rest and repose" or " rest and digest " (in contrast to the " fight-or-flight " of the sympathetic nervous system). A rarely used (but useful) acronym to summarize the functions of the parasympathetic nervous system is SLUDD (salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion and defecation). What is Meditation?  Meditation is best understood as a  state of ‘mental silence’ in which one is fully alert and aware but free of the unnecessary thoughts or worries that lead to many of life’s day to day stresses. This state occurs spontaneously when one learns how to focus on the experience of the present moment, leading to a state of peace and calm. Through a simple process, known as Self-Realisation (kundalini awakening) this meditation state can be quickly established, maintained and, most importantly, enjoyed! Scientific research.    Research has conclusively shown that Yoga meditation can improve physical and mental health and reduce stress. People who meditate regularly, for around 20minutes a day, find they become healthier, calmer and much more relaxed, with an improved outlook on life. Regular meditation naturally eliminates a lot of the inner stress and tension that we experience on a day to day basis. Clinical Hypnotherapy Where unwanted associations need to be removed, clinical hypnotherapy can help.
  • Origin of Message units
  • Sympathetic neurons are frequently considered part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), although many lie within the central nervous system (CNS). Sympathetic neurons of the spinal cord (part of the CNS) communicate with peripheral sympathetic neurons via a series of sympathetic ganglia. Within the ganglia, spinal cord sympathetic neurons join peripheral sympathetic neurons through chemical synapses. Spinal cord sympathetic neurons are therefore called presynaptic (or preganglionic ) neurons, while peripheral sympathetic neurons are called postsynaptic (or postganglionic ) neurons. At synapses within the sympathetic ganglia, preganglionic sympathetic neurons release acetylcholine, a chemical messenger that binds and activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on postganglionic neurons. In response to this stimulus, postganglionic neurons principally release noradrenaline (norepinephrine). Prolonged activation can elicit the release of adrenaline from the adrenal medulla. Once released, norepinephrine and epinephrine bind adrenergic receptors on peripheral tissues. Binding to adrenergic receptors causes the effects seen during the fight-or-flight response. (pupil dilation, increased heart rate, and increased blood pressure. The sympathetic nervous system involves spinal nerves T1 to L2 or L3. This stimulation, sympathetic or parasympathetic, is to control smooth muscle contraction, regulate cardiac muscle, or stimulate or inhibit glandular secretion. The actions of the parasympathetic nervous system can be summarized as "rest and digest" (as opposed to the "fight-or-flight" effects of the sympathetic nervous system). one may think of the sympathetic division as the accelerator and the parasympathetic division as the brake. The sympathetic division typically functions in actions requiring quick responses. The parasympathetic division functions with actions that do not require immediate reaction. The main actions of the parasympathetic nervous system are summarized by the phrase "rest and repose" or "rest and digest" (in contrast to the "fight-or-flight" of the sympathetic nervous system). A rarely used (but useful) acronym to summarize the functions of the parasympathetic nervous system is SLUDD (salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion and defecation).
  • Sympathetic neurons are frequently considered part of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), although many lie within the central nervous system (CNS). Sympathetic neurons of the spinal cord (part of the CNS) communicate with peripheral sympathetic neurons via a series of sympathetic ganglia. Within the ganglia, spinal cord sympathetic neurons join peripheral sympathetic neurons through chemical synapses. Spinal cord sympathetic neurons are therefore called presynaptic (or preganglionic ) neurons, while peripheral sympathetic neurons are called postsynaptic (or postganglionic ) neurons. At synapses within the sympathetic ganglia, preganglionic sympathetic neurons release acetylcholine, a chemical messenger that binds and activates nicotinic acetylcholine receptors on postganglionic neurons. In response to this stimulus, postganglionic neurons principally release noradrenaline (norepinephrine). Prolonged activation can elicit the release of adrenaline from the adrenal medulla. Once released, norepinephrine and epinephrine bind adrenergic receptors on peripheral tissues. Binding to adrenergic receptors causes the effects seen during the fight-or-flight response. (pupil dilation, increased heart rate, and increased blood pressure. The sympathetic nervous system involves spinal nerves T1 to L2 or L3. This stimulation, sympathetic or parasympathetic, is to control smooth muscle contraction, regulate cardiac muscle, or stimulate or inhibit glandular secretion. The actions of the parasympathetic nervous system can be summarized as "rest and digest" (as opposed to the "fight-or-flight" effects of the sympathetic nervous system). one may think of the sympathetic division as the accelerator and the parasympathetic division as the brake. The sympathetic division typically functions in actions requiring quick responses. The parasympathetic division functions with actions that do not require immediate reaction. The main actions of the parasympathetic nervous system are summarized by the phrase "rest and repose" or "rest and digest" (in contrast to the "fight-or-flight" of the sympathetic nervous system). A rarely used (but useful) acronym to summarize the functions of the parasympathetic nervous system is SLUDD (salivation, lacrimation, urination, digestion and defecation).
  • Making Nervous System Changes You can make nervous system changes with hypnosis if you work closely with a therapist. Step 1: Changing your reaction to stimuli Your emotions stimulate the autonomic nervous system, which increases "fight or flight" reactions. Stimulating the parasympathetic nervous system slows down the rate of the heart and other "fight or flight" reactions. Step 2: Identify the stimuli Understand what stimuli are causing your panic attacks, depression or other unhelpful reactions. The nervous system changes made by hypnosis can only begin if you're aware what causes them. Focus on events that stimulate your reactions. The therapist may be able to help you with this. Step 3: Learn to center yourself and relax Learn to center yourself and relax, even when mentally or physically confronted with the stimuli. If you originally felt panic and were hurt when you were trapped in a room, small places or locked doors will bring about the same panic. Revisiting the scene in your mind and ultimately having a happier, more relaxed experience, stimulates the development of new receptors and responses. Step 4: Changing your associations Dis-associate all smells, sounds, visions and tactile stimulation that occurred in any traumatic experience. The senses trigger response. Step 5: Know your physiology Know that every time you experience anything new, a new receptor is created, changing your nervous system.
  • Transcript

    • 1. PNI is the study of the interaction between psychological processes and the nervous and immune systems of the human body. Psychoneuroimmunology PNI
    • 2. Immune system modification by psycho-social stressors or positive interventions can lead to health changes. This has been known for centuries and disregarded in favor of new treatment trends. Psychoneuroimmunology PNI
    • 3. Stress and Disease
      • The Nervous System
        • Performance
        • Stages of Stress
        • Relationship to the Immune System
      • Brain Cell Fuel
      • Risk Management
      • R & R
        • Emotion
      • Q & A
      PNI
    • 4. Basic Concept Changing your Nervous System
      • Know your Neurophysiology
        • Understand ligands and receptors
      • Change your reaction to stimuli
        • Identify the stimuli
      • Learn to relax
        • Switch from fight-or-flight to R & R
      • Replace negative associations
    • 5. States of Consciousness How (Who) Am I Just Now?
      • Guilty?
      • Fearful?
      • Angry?
      • Depressed?
      • Proud?
      • Logical?
      • Inspired?
      • Loving?
      • Fulfilled?
      Aggression Emotion Reasoning Neo Cortex Limbic system Primitive Mind
    • 6. Anxiety Limbic System Amygdala The neural circuitry linking the amygdala and the hippocampus is implicated in anxiety
    • 7.
      • The universe consists of a hierarchy of systems; the more advanced, made of lower level ones
        • Particles, atoms, cells… society
        • All obey certain universal principles
        • All seem subject to stress-strain relationships
      Basic Concepts Performance Curves ( Stress ) ( Strain )
    • 8. Basic Concepts Biological Adaptation to Stress and Strain Preload/ Afterload Hooke’s Law Starling’s Law F-F R-R
    • 9.
      • Various types of performance increase with stressful stimuli, up to point of fatigue.
      • The curve may shift under the influence of enhancing and depressing factors
      • … as it does in psycho-social behavior…
      Basic Concepts Performance Curves Stress Performance
    • 10. Three Stages of Stress
      • 1. Alarm
            • Fight-or-flight (FF) response
            • Activated with release of catecholamines and Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) secreted by the anterior pituitary
    • 11.
      • 1. Alarm
            • Fight-or-flight response
            • Activated with release of catecholamines and ACTH
      • 2. Resistance (adaptation)
            • The secretion of Cortisol is increased
      Three Stages of Stress
    • 12. Three Stages of Stress
      • 1. Alarm
            • Fight or flight response
      • 2. Resistance (adaptation)
            • Cortisol is increased
      • 3. Exhaustion
            • prolonged exposure leads to exhaustion & death
    • 13. Any Stressor
      • Non-specific Stress Reaction
        • Autonomic Nervous System
        • Endocrine
        • Immune System effect
      • Stress-specific effect on t arget organs
      Adrenergic Reaction
    • 14. Basic Concepts Immune System
      • Biological processes that protect
      • against disease by identifying and
      • killing pathogens and tumor cells.
      • Inflammation is an early response to infection.
      • Phagocytosis follows
        • The leukocytes ( white blood cells ) act like independent, single-celled organisms and are the second arm of the innate immune system.
      • An important role of the immune system is to identify and eliminate tumor cells .
    • 15. Endocrine and Immune Response Stress and health
      • Immune system
        • Connected to endocrine and autonomic nervous system
          • Endocrine system
            • hormones inhibit or stimulate leukocytes and the inflammatory response
    • 16.
      • Professor of physiology at Harvard University, looked at the need for mental and physical balance throughout the organism in his book
        • The Wisdom of the Body,1932
      Walter Cannon, M.D .
    • 17.
      • Cannon observed that any emotional state in an animal, such as anxiety, distress, or rage , was accompanied by total cessation of movements of the stomach.
      • These studies initiated the recognition of the freeze, fight or flight response .
          • Dr. Cannon’s Bodily Changes in Pain, Hunger, Fear and Rage was published in 1915.
      Walter Cannon, M.D .
    • 18.
      • Hans Selye also experimented with animals putting them under adverse physical and mental conditions and noted that the body consistently adapted to heal and recover, to a point
        • General Adaptation Syndrome
      Walter Cannon, M.D .
    • 19. General Adaptation Syndrome (G.A.S.) Three Adaptation Stages
      • 1. Alarm
            • Fight or flight response
      • 2. Resistance (adaptation)
            • Cortisol is increased
      • 3. Exhaustion
            • prolonged exposure leads to exhaustion & death
    • 20. Maladaptation (Faulty or inadequate adaptation)
    • 21. Fixing the Cortisol Excess
      • No effective drug therapy exists
      • Good Nutrition and Regular Exercise are beneficial as are:
        • Yoga
        • Listening to Music
        • Breathing Exercises
        • Meditation
        • Guided Imagery/ Hypnosis
    • 22. Basic Concepts Brain Cell Fuel
      • Relationship to
        • Depression
        • Fears
        • Phobias
      PNI
    • 23. Glucose Brain Metabolism
      • The brain’s very active respiratory metabolism uses about 20% of the total O 2 consumed by a resting adult
      • The brain uses glucose as fuel
      • Brain cells require a steady stream of glucose from the blood, otherwise …
    • 24. Basic Concepts Risk Management Risk Index Control
      • The Brain
      • Brain Cell Fuel
      • Risk Management
    • 25. Risk Index =
      • H = Hazard
        • inherent danger in a chemical, physical, electromagnetic, or other threat
      • E = Exposure
        • extent, intensity, and duration of “H”
      • C = Controls in place
        • counter-measures to abate or protect from “H” and “E.”
      H*E C
    • 26. Controls
      • Withdrawal (escape)
        • Drugs
        • Alcohol
      • Barriers
        • Psychological (e.g. denial)
      • Countermeasures
        • Physical
        • Psychological
        • Spiritual
    • 27. Basic Concept Emotion
      • It’s not all in the brain
      4 Schematic drawing of cell membrane
    • 28. Emotion
      • Stimuli (Message Units)
        • From internal and external environment
          • From our body
          • From our thoughts
          • From external stimuli
      • Generate neuropeptides in our body
      • Receptor-ligand paradigm
        • Binding produces chemical reaction (emotion)
      Stimuli
    • 29. Adrenergic receptors Adrenaline (epinephrine) binds its receptor, that associates with a G protein. The G protein associates with adenyl cyclase that converts ATP to cAMP, spreading the signal for Fight-or-Flight
    • 30.
      • Sympathetic
        • “ fight or flight”
      Autonomic Nervous System Aggression Emotion
    • 31.
      • Parasympathetic
        • "rest and digest“
        • Endorphin and opiate receptors (Pert)
          • neuropeptide of bliss
      Autonomic Nervous System
    • 32. Summary and Recap Changing your Nervous System
      • Change your reaction to stimuli
        • Identify the stimuli
      • Learn to center yourself and relax
      • Change negative associations
      • Know your physiology
        • Understand ligands and receptors
          • A new experience creates a new receptor