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Why you (scientists) should start blogging
 

Why you (scientists) should start blogging

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Intervention à Genève, au Pôle de recherche national (PRN) en sciences affectives

Intervention à Genève, au Pôle de recherche national (PRN) en sciences affectives

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    Why you (scientists) should start blogging Why you (scientists) should start blogging Presentation Transcript

    • Why you (scientists) should start blogging Enro http://www.cafe-sciences.org Swiss Center for Affective Sciences, 14/11/2008 Geneva, Switzerland 1
    • Curriculum • Engineer in Agricultural Sciences • MSc in Social Studies of Science • Blogger since 2003 as “Enro”, science blogger since 2006 • Co-founder of the science blogs community “C@fé des sciences” • President of the French association “C@fetiers des sciences” 2
    • Find the blog post 3
    • This evening I am nose deep in the middle It has been postulated that people in of the new issue of The New England Western societies are chronically Journal of Medicine. The journal contains a sleep deprived, since the average very interesting synopsis on the sleep duration decreased from 9.0 to presidential candidates' views on 7.5 hours during the 20th century. reproductive freedom. If you completely Therefore, it is important to examine ignore the rest of my post (but, you won't whether we can achieve beneficial because it's going to be totally hot), read effects with prolonged sleep. The the reproductive freedom article. finding that the possibility of But, what has Dr. Isis all a twitter is actually additional sleep seems to be a piece of correspondence from Swedish protective on the first workday after researchers Imre Janszky and Rickard Ljung the autumn shift is intriguing. entitled “Shifts to and from Daylight Saving Monday is the day of the week Time and Incidence of Myocardial associated with the highest risk of Infarction”. Janszky and Ljung present a acute myocardial infarction, with the very intriguing data set. It's just a shame mental stress of starting a new their interesting data are confounded by workweek and the increase in activity their crappy interpretation. suggested as an explanation. Our Clearly Dr. Isis (…) must have been too results raise the possibility that there busy pouring herself a cocktail or staring at is another, sleep-related component her hotness in the mirror to notice their in the excess incidence of acute data showing that sleep deprivation was myocardial infarction on Monday. highest in women and people under 65.
    • Seasonal variations influencing circadian One interesting observation from the behavior can be simulated by applying studies of entrainment by skeleton different experimental photoperiods. A photoperiods is the bistability photoperiod is described by the ratio of phenomenon. A full photoperiod will light to darkness during a 24-hour cycle. entrain the biological clock no matter Under laboratory conditions, summertime how short or long is the photoperiod, light conditions are typically represented i.e., the duration of the light portion by cycles of 18 hours light and 6 hours of the light-dark cycle. Thus LD 1:23, dark or of 14 hours light and 10 hours LD 3:21, LD 6:18, LD 8:16, LD 10:14, dark (LD 18:6 and LD 14:10, respectively), LD 12:12, LD 14:10, LD 16:8, LD 18:6, whereas winter light conditions are LD 21:3 and LD 23:1 are all equally mimicked by an LD 6:18 cycle or an LD likely to entrain a clock. On the other 10:14 cycle. In photoperiod experiments hand, with skeleton photocycles, the external time of the Zeitgeber rhythm photoperiod matters. The biological is specified as ExT (External Time) with clock quot;prefersquot; short photoperiods to ExT12 corresponding to the middle of the long photoperiods. Thus, when light-phase. Most laboratories use a rapid exposed to a skeleton photocycle that transition from light to dark and from attempts to entrain to a cycle dark to light and apply the same mimicking a long photoperiod, the wavelength range and light intensity rhythm will, instead, reverse the during the whole light period. However, quot;nightquot; and quot;dayquot; (often with an abrupt this does not truly reflect natural lighting phase-jump). conditions.
    • From one to many A personal tribune 6
    • From one to many A personal tribune A personal tribune A personal tribune 8
    • From one to many Reader A personal tribune Reader A personal tribune A personal tribune Reader 10
    • From one to many Reader A personal tribune Reader A personal tribune A personal tribune Reader 12
    • From one to many Reader A personal tribune Reader A personal tribune Reader A personal tribune Reader 14
    • What does it mean for research? Certified knowledge, instruments Institutions, peers 17
    • The Plant Cell, Vol. 17, 2856–2858, November 2005, www.plantcell.org ª 2005 American Society of Plant Biologists LETTER TO THE EDITOR A Toxic Mutator and Selection Alternative to the Non-Mendelian RNA Cache Hypothesis for hothead Reversion Lolle and colleagues observed frequent toxic and mutagenic. The HTH gene en- resulting in the enrichment of hth/HTH true reversion of hothead (hth) mutations codes a product whose closest character- zygotes because the reversion rate was of Arabidopsis thaliana, whereby up to 10% ized relative is an MBC oxidoreductase that much higher for pollen than for eggs (Figure of the progeny of self-pollinated homozy- hydrolyzes the aromatic mandelonitrile in 1B). Our selection hypothesis appears in- gous hth/hth mutants carried a grandpa- stone fruits (Zheng and Poulton, 1995) consistent with the reported 3:1 progeny rental HTH allele (Lolle et al., 2005). (Figure 1A). Arabidopsis has complex met- ratio from selfed heterozygotes because Instability was not limited to the HTH abolic pathways for the production of selection in favor of HTH pollen should de- gene: hth mutants displayed conversion glucosinolates (Wittstock and Halkier, crease the fraction of hth/hth progeny, but of genome-wide polymorphisms to the 2002; Brown et al., 2003), some of which HTH could have a paternal effect where an genotype of a recent ancestor. The possi- are aromatic and resemble mandelonitrile hth/HTH heterozygous anther provides its bility that a mutator phenotype caused (Figure 1), and aromatic glucosinolates and hth pollen with sufficient HTH enzyme indiscriminate changes, thereby increasing their derivatives are mutagenic (Musk et al., to avoid a crisis. An hth/hth anther would the reversion rate of hth, was discounted 1995; Kassie et al., 1999; Kassie and provide no enzyme. Selection favoring re- because reverted HTH alleles showed no Knasmuller, 2000; Canistro et al., 2004). vertant cells could also act in the shoot additional nucleotide changes, whereas 50 The sticky surface properties of the HTH apical meristem, in the flower meristem, to 100 changes per sequenced allele would phenotype, which suggest alterations of and in the anther primordia. In meristem be expected from the ;5% hth reversion cuticle, cell wall, and perhaps membranes, tissues, selection could be influenced by rate. These genetic instabilities were inter- might also be an effect of the toxic mutator. the defective cellular surface properties of preted as a memory of a past genotypic If an alternative genetic reservoir exists hth mutants that lead to postgenital organ state. A cache of double-stranded RNA and it restores mutations to the previous fusion (Lolle et al., 1998). Selection could from the previous genotype was proposed, genotype, it should be revised gradually also act on seed, decreasing germination which, at times of stress corrects mutated so that its memory should fade with cell of hth/hth zygotes in favor of HTH/hth sites in a template-directed manner. The divisions. Yet, data that addresses the individuals. existence of an alternate reserve genome reversion rate are available in a previous The precise reversion of hth mutations appears consistent with the data and would article by the same group and are inconsis- without the appearance of secondary mu- necessitate a revision of our theories of tent with the above expectation (Lolle et al., tations is consistent with a template-driven heredity. Two recent commentaries on this 1998). In complementation tests between repair but also with the alternative hypoth- discovery suggested that, instead of an hth alleles, wild-type plants were observed esis of mutagenesis and selection. As ex- RNA cache, the hth-correcting mechanism among the progeny of trans-heterozygotes plained above, any significant mutation depends on ectopic gene conversion and were thought to result from intragenic rate coupled to selection can yield frequent (Chaudhury, 2005) or on an elusive DNA recombination. These were almost certainly revertants, and the probability of finding cache (Ray, 2005). Thus, all explanations revertants and not recombinants. The hth- secondary mutations at HTH revertant offered until now invoke novel genetic 10/hth-8 trans-heterozygote produced 30 alleles is proportional to the mutation rate. phenomena. We offer an alternative expla- wild types among 1858 individuals, whereas In fact, the highest mutation rate compat- nation based on established genetic and hth-10/hth-4 produced only mutant prog- ible with survival is likely to be significantly evolutionary principles. HTH could be a meta- eny (n ¼ 1629) (Lolle et al., 1998; Krolikowski lower than the rates that would generate bolic enzyme whose impairment causes et al., 2003). The same alleles, hth-10 and frequent concurrent mutations on the HTH the accumulation of toxic and mutagenic hth-4, were reported to revert in the 2005 gene. We know from TILLING experiments compounds that act at random DNA sites. article and to do so through multiple gen- the genomic consequences of moderately The observed high reversion rate of hth erations (Lolle et al., 2005). Thus, the rate of intense mutagenesis: in Arabidopsis, it pro-
    • What does it mean for research? Certified knowledge, instruments Institutions, peers Training, incorporated Education skills system 30
    • What does it mean for research? Certified knowledge, instruments Institutions, peers Training, incorporated Education skills system Economic system Competitive advantage, innovation 33
    • What does it mean for research? Certified knowledge, instruments Institutions, peers Training, incorporated Education skills system Public Economic authorities system Collective goods, Competitive power, prestige, advantage, health, innovation 37 environment...
    • What does it mean for research? Certified knowledge, instruments Institutions, peers Training, Expertise, incorporated popularization Media, museums, Education skills public forums system Public Economic authorities system Collective goods, Competitive power, prestige, advantage, health, innovation 41 environment...
    • Percentage of science news in Belgian newspapers 20 15 10 5 0 Vif/L’Express J. du Mardi Le Soir Libre Belgique Tendance L’Echo Dernière heure http://www.belspo.be/belspo/home/publ/pub_ostc/Journ/rappULg_fr.pdf
    • Content of these science news Technology Medicine Science http://www.belspo.be/belspo/home/publ/pub_ostc/Journ/rappULg_fr.pdf
    • Do you prefer that science information is presented to you… Other Scientists Journalists Special Eurobarometer 282, December 2007, p. 40
    • What could keep you from blogging • Internally – time – hot science 48
    • What could keep you from blogging • Internally – time – hot science – debating 50
    • What could keep you from blogging • Internally – time – hot science – debating • Externally – being scooped 52
    • What could keep you from blogging • Internally – time – hot science – debating • Externally – being scooped – lack of recognition – lack of visibility 54
    • ©© alanak
    • ©© Aurélien Tabard
    • ©© Manic Street Preacher
    • The landscape of science blogs • Communities, agregators 58
    • The landscape of science blogs • Communities, agregators • Rankings 64
    • The landscape of science blogs • Communities, agregators • Rankings • Diversity – scientists – medicine doctors – journalists – engineers – students – teachers – amateurs 67
    • Nine commandments before you start • take your time • be yourself • match the form and the content • write for everyone • be transparent • offer some eye candy • be creative • foster comments • have fun! 68