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Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) are potent pro-inflammatory mediators that are increased in samples from patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Individuals with IBDs have enhanced susceptibility to colon carcinogenesis. In colorectal cancer, the balance between the pro-mitogenic cysteinyl leukotriene 1 receptor (CysLT1R) and the differentiation-promoting cysteinyl leukotriene 2 receptor (CysLT2R) is lost. Further, our previous data indicate that patients with high CysLT1R and low CysLT2R expression have a poor prognosis. In this study, we examined whether the balance between CysLT1R and CysLT2R could be restored by treatment with the cancer chemopreventive agent all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA).