The ‘use’ is the work to be accomplished. An example of this is waste deposal for children who are not yet potty trained. There is a need for a waste deposal for children who are not yet potty trained. There is also a need for this deposal to be lightweight, absorbent and disposable. These are usability needs. If we only answered the ‘use’ need with our solution, then the solution would not be compelling because there is also the usability need of the deposal being lightweight, absorbent and disposable. Why are these needs? The answer to why is the meaning or story behind the needs. Diapers are viewed by the user as clothing, and in turn, something that portrays a child’s development and who they will become.Use: waste deposal process for children who are not yet potty trainedUsability: lightweight, absorbent, disposableMeaning: diapers as clothing, something that portrays a child’s development & who they will become
WHY use an empathy mapGood design is grounded in a deep understanding of the person for whom you are designing. Designers have manytechniques for developing this sort of empathy. An Empathy Map is one tool to help us synthesize our observationsand draw out unexpected insights.HOW to use an empathy mapGood design is grounded in a deep understanding of the person for whom you are designing. Designers have manytechniques for developing this sort of empathy. An Empathy Map is one tool to help us synthesize our observationsand draw out unexpected insights.UNPACK: Create a four quadrant layout on paper or a whiteboard. Populate the map by taking note of thefollowing four traits of your user as you review your notes, audio, and video from your fieldwork:SAY: What are some quotes and defining words your user said?DO: What actions and behaviors did you notice?THINK: What might your user be thinking? What does this tell you about his or her beliefs?FEEL: What emotions might your subject be feeling?Note that thoughts/beliefs and feelings/emotions cannot be observed directly. They must be inferred by payingcareful attention to various clues. Pay attention to body language, tone, and choice of words.IDENTIFY NEEDS: “Needs” are human emotional or physical necessities and desires. Needs help define yourdesign challenge. Remember: Needs are verbs (activities and desires with which your user could use help), not nouns(solutions). Identify needs directly out of the user traits you noted, or from contradictions between two traits – suchas a disconnect between what she says and what she does. Write down needs on the side of your Empathy Map.IDENTIFY INSIGHTS: An “Insight” is a remarkable realization that you could leverage to better respond to adesign challenge. Insights often grow from contradictions between two user attributes (either within a quadrant orfrom two different quadrants) or from asking yourself “Why?” when you notice strange behavior. Write downpotential insights on the side of your Empathy Map.
Embrace Uncase: Empathy
Empathy em·pa·thy: the intellectual identification with or vicarious experiencing of the feelings, thoughts, or attitudes of another
Why Empathize? To discover people’s explicit and implicit needs so that you can meet them through your designs.
What are Needs? A physical, psychological or cultural requirement of an individual or group that is missing or not met through existing solutions. Verbs and activities (not nouns of solutions) that capture the motivations and emotions of people.
Types of Needs MEANING stories created to make sense of the experience USABILITY quality, accessibility, ease of use USE activities, work, goals to accomplish
What is the Need for Diapers? USE to processbaby waste USEABILITY lightweight, absorbent, & disposable on-the-go MEAN·ING clothing doubling as waste deposal process
What are Insights? Compelling realizations about the nature of your user and design space. Often surprising and usually resonate with a gut response. Leverage insights to tackle your design challenge.
How Can You Engage? Interviewing is a way to engage people. Think of it as engaging with someone, rather than interviewing or surveying. This mindset allows us to seek the deeper insights and ask the harder questions. At the end of your time with a user, you want to have captured what that person said and did, and you want to have an understanding of what that person thinks and feels.
Anatomy of Interview Explore Emotions Evoke Stories Question Statements Thank & Wrap-up Build Rapport Intro Project Intro Yourself
Seek STORIES “Tell me about the last time you_______________________.” “Tell me about an experience you’ve had with _______________________.”
Talk About FEEELINGS “How did you feel when [x] happened?” “What were you feeling at that point?”
H2 Prep for an Interview Question brainstorm Finding themes Question refinement
H2 Prep for an Interview Question brainstorm Finding themes Question refinement Can you tell me about the last timeyousaw your mother? Walk me through your steps—What do you do first? Next? What were you doing while with her? When going to see your mother, how do you feel?
Turn to your partner and interview them about their mother. [3 min each] Remember:
Ob·serve: to watch carefully especially with attention to details or behavior.
How Can You Observe? Watching what people do and how they interact with their environment is a way to observe clues about what they think and feel. It also helps us to learn about what they need. By watching people you can capture physical manifestations of their experiences, what they do and say. This will allow you to interpret intangible meaning of those experiences in order to uncover insights. The best solutions come out of the best insights into human behavior. But learning to recognize those insights is harder than you might think. Why? Because our minds automatically filter out a lot of information without us even realizing it. We need to learn to see things “with a fresh set of eyes,” and practicing observing is what gives us those new eyes.
Look for WHAT Look for what people are doing. Describe with colorfuldetail.
Look for HOW Look for how people do something. Describe it to someone not there.
Look for WHY Why are they doing it this way? Take a guess, start to form a story.
How Can You Immerse? Simulating the experiences of others is one way of immersion. It helps us understand what it feels like to be someone else. Often new insights emerge when you physically try the activities of others in their environment.
Traditional Approach Start with a problem and jump tosolutions.
Design Thinking Approach Start with real people and search for empathy.
Linus Liang, Co-Founder, COO “Once we got to the hotel, we immediately hit the ground. We went to both private and government hospitals to interview doctors. We started noticing, to our surprise, that the hospitals actually had many incubators. But we saw was no babies in them. We asked doctors, ’Why aren't there babies inside these incubators?’ One doctor explained that they were empty because mothers could not travel to the hospitals; they lived only 10-15 miles away but the trip could take four hours.”
Traditional Approach Conduct market research using methods such as surveys and focus groups.
Design Thinking Approach Get to know people by immersing yourself in their context.
Linus Liang, Co-Founder, COO “The conditions in the rural hospitals are actually very vastly different from what we were seeing in the major hospitals… They don't have electricity. They don't necessarily have running water all the time.”