Language Learning:Appropriatinga hybridpedagogy tofosterengagement
Introduction• My background - ESL• UMSL• Hybrid and Online courses– Rapidly expanding field– Pedagogically and financially• Ed Tech– Focus on the use of technology in a hybridclassroom• Language classroom – Spanish
Lenses• Sociocultural theory– Mediated mind – situated learning – how students uselanguage in thinking activities– ZPD – problem solving under guidance• Krashen’s second language acquisition theory– i+1 – comprehensible input• Constructivist learning environment– Learners work together using a variety of tools in thepursuit of learning goals• Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK)– Effective technology integration• The International Society for Technology in Education(ISTE) National Educational Technology Standards (NETS)– Educator-created standards
Research Questions• For students:– How do students perceive their hybridlearning experience?• For teachers:– How do teachers take that informationand make use of it when constructing ahybrid language course?
Guide for questions• Amalgam of various sites andresources• Five factors that are key to successin an hybrid course– Technology – access, use, and support– Buy in – teacher and student– Motivation – attitude and engagement– Time – teacher and student– Efficacy – following best practices?
Significance• March 8, 2013, St Louis Post-Dispatcharticle “Flipped classrooms: homeworkin class, online lectures at home”– The number of schools using the flippedapproach has doubled since 2010– Universities like the idea because thisapproach can ultimately cut costs– Students like it because students are thefocus and they have more chances to askquestions and get feedback
Purpose of the study• The purpose of this study is twofold– To note and review student perceptionsof content delivery, knowledgeexpression activities, and assessmentof hybrid language instruction– To monitor teacher development andunderstanding of best hybrid pedagogy
Methods• Basic qualitative study• Phenomenological case study– Lived experience (Van Manen, 1990)– Primary method of data collection: interviews (Merriam,2009) and observation– Researcher explores own experience (Merrriam, 2009)• Bracketed (unbiased) (Husserl, 1970) and“unbracketed” (biased)– Better overall understanding of another’s experience(Creswell, 2007)– Horizontalization (Moustakas, 1994) – data analysis –clusters of meaning – equal weight– Textural Descriptions – using participant voices(Moustakas, 1994)– Structural descriptions - contextualization (Moustakas,1994)– Composite – combination of textural and structural
Methods• Phenomenological case study– “over time, through detailed, in-depth datacollection involving multiple sources ofinformation” (Creswell, 2007)• Observations, interviews, audiovisuals, writtenmaterials, reports, written work, online work, etc.– Bounded system – a particular hybrid course– Unit of analysis – learners’ experiences in thatparticular hybrid course– Instrumental - “provide insight” “facilitates ourunderstanding” (Stake, 2005)
Methods• Grounded theory– “particularly useful for addressing questionsabout process, that is, how somethingchanges over time” (Merriam, 2009)• Data –interviews, observations, documentarymaterials (Merriam, 2009)• Theoretical sampling - analysis of databeing collected in order to decide what datato collect next (Glaser & Strauss, 1967)• Constant Comparison – data is groupedand analyzed looking for emerging patterns(Corbin and Strauss, 1990)
TimelinePhenomenological case study• Mid-July – pre-program interview with teacher – life history• Pre-program student survey – life history - Qualtricsembed• Classroom observation – 8 total classes (3 hours – T/Th) –observe 4 – first two Tuesdays and last two Thursdays• Mid-program student survey - contemporary experience -Qualtrics• Mid-program teacher interview – present experience• Think alouds – purposeful sampling – maximum variation(Patton, 1989) - students chosen with teacher input torepresent a spectrum• Post-program student survey – reflection on meaning -Qualtrics• Post-program teacher interview – reflection on meaning(Seidman, 2013)
TimelineGrounded theory research• Collect and analyze data in an ongoing process (Strauss &Corbin, 1990) – starting in July• Data is given conceptual labels and categories begin to form(Strauss & Corbin, 1990) which will help inform future questions• “After developing a tentative category, we return to the fieldsetting to gain specific data to illuminate the category”(Charmaz, 2011, p.167) -• A variety of teachers will be interview in the languagedepartment to “identify as much variation in types as possible”to find representatives of concepts (Strauss & Corbin, 1990)• Patterns and variations are collected in theoretical memos(Strauss & Corbin, 1990)• Language teachers will be identified and interviewed at thebeginning of the Fall semester