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Managing Exadata in the Real          World         Arup Nanda
What is this About? •   How Exadata is different? •   Who manages it? •   Who does what? •   What you need to know about m...
What is Exadata • Looks like an appliance • But is not an appliance. Why?   – It contains additional software to make it a...
iDB          CPU          iDB        Memory        Network      I/O Controller          Disk                             4
Storage Cell Server             iDB            •   Cells are Sun Blades                            •   Run Oracle Enterpri...
Storage Indexes Storage Indexes store in memory of the Cell Server the areas on the disk and the MIN/MAX value of the colu...
Put Together: One Full Rack                    RAC Cluster       Database                     Database        Node 1      ...
Disk Layout      •   Disks (hard and flash) are                     connected to the cells.                 •   The disks ...
Disk Presentation                    Node                           filesystem             filesystem  Cell               ...
Disk Failures                    Datafile                    block1           Cell 1              Cell 2         block1   ...
One Cluster?                      One Cluster QA1   QA2   QA3     Prod1    Prod2   Prod3   Dev1   Int1 QA1   QA2   Prod4  ...
Many Clusters?       QA Cluster                 Prod Cluster                                                         Dev  ...
Playing Nice • Database Resource Manager • I/O Resource Manager • Cell Fencing                                      Comput...
Component Management                  Linux Commands – vmstat, mpstat, fdisk, etc.    Compute     Nodes                  A...
Server Management • Sun Blades and Oracle Enterprise Linux • Normal Sysadmin Work   – Shutdown, fdisk, etc. • ILOM – Integ...
Database, Cluster Management • Cluster   – crsctl, srvctl • ASM   – asmcmd, SQL*Plus • Database   – srvctl, SQL*Plus      ...
Storage Management • Two ways to manage the   storage   – Traditional Storage     Administrators not quite           iDB  ...
Network Management• Two types of network  – Ethernet  – Infiniband• Tools  – ibstatus  – iblinkinfo  – verify-topology    ...
Oracle Provided Tools • All tools are found at    /opt/oracle.SupportTools • CheckHWnFWProfile    – to check the HW profil...
Skills for Administration Skill                    Needed System Administrator        10% Storage Administrator        0% ...
Divide and Conquer  Database            DBA   Machine    System Admin   Network   Network Admin   Storage              ?? ...
Combined Skills  Database                Database                          Machine                        Administrator   ...
Resources • My Papers    – 5-part Linux Commands article series      http://bit.ly/k4mKQS    – 4-part Exadata Command Refe...
Pros and Cons of DMA • Pros   – Natural progression from DBA skills   – Very little non-DBA activities   – Patching become...
Backup and DR • No SAN connectivity • Only NAS                                      Exadata    – Infiniband    – Tape , Di...
ETL and Reporting                      OLTP                  Exadata                                      Golden          ...
Summary• Exadata is an Oracle Database on RAC with a  specialized storage• A single role helps in administration: Database...
Thank You!             28
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Transcript of "Managing Exadata in the Real World"

  1. 1. Managing Exadata in the Real World Arup Nanda
  2. 2. What is this About? • How Exadata is different? • Who manages it? • Who does what? • What you need to know about managing it • What must you learn about potential issues 2
  3. 3. What is Exadata • Looks like an appliance • But is not an appliance. Why? – It contains additional software to make it a better database machine – The components are individually administered • That’s why Oracle calls it a Database Machine (DBM) • DMA – Database Machine Administrator 3
  4. 4. iDB CPU iDB Memory Network I/O Controller Disk 4
  5. 5. Storage Cell Server iDB • Cells are Sun Blades • Run Oracle Enterprise Linux • Software called Exadata Storage Server (ESS) which understands iDB Disk1 Disk2 Disk3 5
  6. 6. Storage Indexes Storage Indexes store in memory of the Cell Server the areas on the disk and the MIN/MAX value of the column and whether NULL Disk1 Disk2 Disk3 exists. They eliminate disk I/O.SELECT … MIN = 3 MIN = 4 MIN = 1 MIN = 3FROM TABLE MAX = 5 MAX = 5 MAX = 2 MAX = 5WHERE COL1 = 1 Storage Index Disk4 6
  7. 7. Put Together: One Full Rack RAC Cluster Database Database Node 1 Node 8 Database Node 7 Clients InfiniBand Network Switch connect to the Switch database nodes. Cell 1 Cell 14 Cell 1 Cell 1 Cell 1 7
  8. 8. Disk Layout • Disks (hard and flash) are connected to the cells. • The disks are partitioned at the Compute Nodes cell • Some partitions are presented as filesystems Storage • The rest are used for ASM Cell diskgroups • All these disks/partitions are presented to the compute nodes 8
  9. 9. Disk Presentation Node filesystem filesystem Cell 9
  10. 10. Disk Failures Datafile block1 Cell 1 Cell 2 block1 block1 10
  11. 11. One Cluster? One Cluster QA1 QA2 QA3 Prod1 Prod2 Prod3 Dev1 Int1 QA1 QA2 Prod4 Prod1 Prod2 Prod3 Dev1 Int1 QA1 QA2 QA3 Prod1 Prod2 Prod3 Dev1 Int1 Dev2 11
  12. 12. Many Clusters? QA Cluster Prod Cluster Dev Int QA1 QA2 QA3 Prod1 Prod2 Prod3 Dev1 Int1 QA Cluster Prod Cluster Dev Int 12
  13. 13. Playing Nice • Database Resource Manager • I/O Resource Manager • Cell Fencing Compute QA Prod Nodes Storage Cells 13
  14. 14. Component Management Linux Commands – vmstat, mpstat, fdisk, etc. Compute Nodes ASM Commands – SQL*Plus, ASMCMD, ASMCA Database Commands – startup, alter database, etc. Clusterware Commands – CRSCTL, SRVCTL, etc. Storage Cell Linux Commands – vmstat, mpstat, fdisk, etc. CellCLI – command line tool to manage the Cell 5-part Linux Commands article series http://bit.ly/k4mKQS 4-part Exadata Command Reference article series http://bit.ly/lljFl0 14
  15. 15. Server Management • Sun Blades and Oracle Enterprise Linux • Normal Sysadmin Work – Shutdown, fdisk, etc. • ILOM – Integrated Lights Out Management • KVM allows physical access – But you can use ILOM for virtual console • Needs Pure Linux Skills 15
  16. 16. Database, Cluster Management • Cluster – crsctl, srvctl • ASM – asmcmd, SQL*Plus • Database – srvctl, SQL*Plus 16
  17. 17. Storage Management • Two ways to manage the storage – Traditional Storage Administrators not quite iDB helpful here – Enterprise Manager – CellCLI Disk1 Disk2 Disk3 17
  18. 18. Network Management• Two types of network – Ethernet – Infiniband• Tools – ibstatus – iblinkinfo – verify-topology 18
  19. 19. Oracle Provided Tools • All tools are found at /opt/oracle.SupportTools • CheckHWnFWProfile – to check the HW profile • Directory ibdiagtools /opt/MegaRAID/MegaCli/MegaCli64 # ipmitool -H prolcel01-ilom -U root chassis power on # imageinfo # imagehistory 19
  20. 20. Skills for Administration Skill Needed System Administrator 10% Storage Administrator 0% Network Administrator 5% Database Administrator 60% Cell Administration 25% DBA Sys Admin Network Admin Cell Admin 20
  21. 21. Divide and Conquer Database DBA Machine System Admin Network Network Admin Storage ?? DBA Sys Admin Network Admin Cell Admin 21
  22. 22. Combined Skills Database Database Machine Administrator Machine (DMA) New Role Network Storage DBA Sys Admin Network Admin Cell Admin 22
  23. 23. Resources • My Papers – 5-part Linux Commands article series http://bit.ly/k4mKQS – 4-part Exadata Command Reference article series http://bit.ly/lljFl0 • OTN Page on Exadata – http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/exadata/in dex.html • Tutorials – http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/tutorials/index.html 23
  24. 24. Pros and Cons of DMA • Pros – Natural progression from DBA skills – Very little non-DBA activities – Patching becomes simpler – Performance diagnosis becomes easier • Cons – Skills – Security? • Appliance model comes in here 24
  25. 25. Backup and DR • No SAN connectivity • Only NAS Exadata – Infiniband – Tape , Disk Pool • DR Infiniband – No Storage Level Replication – Only Data Guard Backup – Supplemental Logging Device – Force Logging – http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/features/availa bility/maa-wp-dr-dbm-130065.pdf • Golden Gate 25
  26. 26. ETL and Reporting OLTP Exadata Golden Gate Infiniband Informatica MicroStrategy Exalytics 26
  27. 27. Summary• Exadata is an Oracle Database on RAC with a specialized storage• A single role helps in administration: Database Machine Administrator (DMA)• DBA -> DMA is the natural progression• Use many clusters in the same Exadata frame• Use IB for ETL, Reporting and Backups• Data Guard only physical DR solution 27
  28. 28. Thank You! 28

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